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(Camp. p. xiii.,) 
Approximate Equivalents. 


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With 28 Maps and 21 Plans. 



All rights reserved. 

'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or heai, 
Where thou art wrong, after 'their -help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 



The chief object of the Handbook for the Rhine is to 
supply the traveller with such information as will render 
him as nearly as possible independent of hotel-keepers, 
commissionnaires, and guides, and thus enable him the 
more thoroughly to enjoy aud appreciate the objects of 
interest he meets with on his tour. 

The Handbook is based almost entirely upon the per- 
sonal observation of the Editor, and the country de- 
scribed has been repeatedly explored by him with a 
view to procure the latest possible information ; but , as 
changes are constantly taking place, he will highly appre- 
ciate any communications with which travellers may 
kindly favour him, if the result of their own experience. 
Those already received from numerous correspondents, 
which he gratefully acknowledges , have in many cases 
proved most serviceable. 

The present edition, which corresponds with the 21st 
in German and the 1 2th in French, has been thoroughly 
revised and materially augmented. For the article on 
Rhenish Art the Editor is indebted to Professor A. Springer 
of Leipsic. 

The Maps and Plans, on which special care has 
been bestowed , will often render material service to the 
traveller, and enable him at a glance to ascertain his 
bearings and select the best routes. Their number has 
been considerably increased in the present edition. 

Time Tables. Information regarding trains, steam- 
boats, and diligences is most trustworthy when obtained 
from local sources. The best German publications of the 
kind are 'Hendschel's Telegraph! (2 marks) , published 


at Frankfort on the Main, and issued monthly during 
the summer season, and the 'Kursbuch' (2 m.), published 
at Berlin, issued eight times a year. 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 
0,3048 metre = 0,938 Parisian ft. == 0,971 Prussian 
ft.), Distances in English miles (except in the case of 
mountain excursions, where the time they occupy is given 
as more convenient), and the Populations in accor- 
dance with the most recent census. 

Hotels. The Editor has endeavoured to enumerate, 
not only the first-class hotels , but others also of more 
modest pretensions, which may be safely selected by the 
'voyageur en garcon' , with little sacrifice of comfort 
and great saving of expenditure. Although changes fre- 
quently take place, and prices generally have an upward 
tendency, the average charges stated in the Handbook 
will enable the traveller to form a fair estimate of his pro- 
bable expenditure. The value of the asterisks, which are 
used as marks of commendation , is relative only ; those 
prefixed to town hotels and village inns signifying re- 
spectively that the houses are good of their kind. 

The Editor regrets that he is unable to answer all 
communications. To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and 
others he begs to intimate that a character for fair deal- 
ing and courtesy towards travellers forms the sole pass- 
port to his commendation , and that advertisements of 
every kind are strictly excluded from his Handbooks. 


I. Language ............ s x ffi 

II. Money. Travelling Expenses ....... xiii 

III. Passports. Custom House ........ xiv 

IV. Railways. Diligences xiv 

V. Steamboats. Fall, Breadth, Length, and Depth of 

the Rhine . ., .. xv 

VI. Walking Excursions ......... xvii 

VII. Hotels . .. . . ..... ... . H xvii 

VIH. Geology of the Rhine ., , xv iii 

IX. Climate. Grape Cure .:....,,, xx 

X. Wines of the Rhine and Moselle ....... xx 

XI. Rhenish Art xxiv 


1. From Brussels to Cologne 1 

1. Environs of Aix-la-Chapelle ........ 10 

2. From Stolberg to Jiilicb, Eheydt, and Gladbach . . . . ,11 

3. From Stolberg to Morsbach ........... ll 

4. The Valley of the Boer. Nideggen. Heimbach .... 12 

5. SVom Diiren to TSSeam . . . . . . 12 

6. From Daren to Julich 12 

2. From Rotterdam to Cologne . 13 

1. Environs of Dusseldorf .............. 21 

2, From Hiilheim to Gladbach and Benaberg 21 

3. Cologne • 22 

4. From Cologne to Neuss (Dusseldorf), Crefeld, and Cleve I 44 

1. From Neuas to Obereaasel ............ 45 

2. From Goch to Wesel ...... „ , . . ..„, , ,, . . 46 

3. From Cleve to Elten and Zevenaar . . . . .... . .47 

4. From Cleve to Caloar 47 

5. From Aix-la-Chapelle by Gladbach to Dusseldorf. ... 47 

1. Scblose Dyck 48 

2. From Gladbach to Antwerp. . 48 

6. From Gladbach to Crefeld, Ruhrott, and Essen 49 

1. From Viersen to Venlo 49 

2. From Buhrort to Oberhausen and Sterkrade . . . . . 49 

7. From Cologne to Elberfeld and Hagen ......... 50 

1. From Elberfeld to Dusseldorf . . . .,.',,... . . .51 

2. From Hagen to Siegen 51 

3. From Letmathe to Iserlohn. Dechenhohle . , . . . . . 52 

8. From Cologne, to Frankfort by. Giessen: , . . .... . . 62 

9. The Rhine from Cologne to Coblenz .......... 54 

1. Basalt Quarries of Dattenberg and. the Hinderberg ... 59 

2. From Neuwied to MonrepoaHKnd Aitwiedi v . . .-. . . 63 
10. From Coblenz to Cologne. Railway Journey -.'-. . ... 65 
11; From Deotz (Cologne) tft Obercassel (Bonn) and Ehren- 

breitstein (CobUn%) ...... ,„., ..... 68 


Route. Page. 

1. Schloss Sayn. Friedrichsberg. Abbey of Rommersdorf . 70 

2. Schbnstatt. Hohr 71 

12. Bonn 71 

13. The Seve'n Mountains 76 

1. From Honnef to the Lowenburg 80 

2. From Rhbndorf to the Lowenburg . .... . . . 80 

14. Valley of the Ahr 81 

15. From Andernach to Mayen. Brohlthal. Laacher See . . 86 

16. Coblenz and Ehrenbreitstein 90 

17. The Rhine from Coblenz to Mayence 97 

1. The Dachskopf 101 

2. From Braubach to Ems 101 

3. From Braubach to Welmich ,,.,,, 101 

4. Alte Burg near Boppard. Fleckertshohe 103 

5. From Boppard to Brodenbach on the Moselle 103 

6. Excursions from St. Goarshausen. Schweizerthal. Reichen- 

berg 106 

7. The Steeger-Thal. From Bacharach by Stromberg to 

Kreuznach HI 

8. The Wisperthal. From Lorch to Schlangenbad and 

Schwalbach. The Sauerburg 112 

9. Walk in the Rheingau , . 118 

10. Eberbach and the Steinberg 120 

11. Kiedrich. Grafenberg. Scharfenstein 121 

18. The Niederwald 122 

19. From Coblenz to Mayence. Railway Journey , . . . . 124 

The Elisenhtihe. The Salzkopf 125 

20. From Coblenz to Wiesbaden. Schlangenbad and Schwal- 

bach 126 

1. From Eltville td Schlangenbad and Schwalhach . - 128 

2. From Schlangenbad to Wiesbaden 129 

3. From Schwalbach to Wiesbaden 130 

21. Wiesbaden 130 

22. Mayence 136 

23. From Bingerbriick to Kreuznach, Saarbriicken, and Metz 146 

1. From Kreuznach to the Gans, Rheingrafenstein, and Mini- 

ster am Stein 149 

2. From Munster am Stein to the Altenbaumburg. Schloss 

Montfort 149 

3. From Munster am Stein to Kaiserslautern 150 

4. Sponheim. Meisenheim. Offenbach 151 

5. Dhaun. Simmern. Soonwald. Stein-Kallenfels. Warten- 

stein, etc 162 

6. Idar 153 

7. Tholey. The Schaumberg. The Brennende Berg. Heights 

of Spicheren 154 

8. The Battle Fields near Metz 157 

9. From Metz to Nancy 159 

10. From Metz to Luxembourg by Thionville 160 

24. From Saarbriicken to Treves and Luxembourg 160 

1. The Clef. Castell 161 

'1. From Wasserbillig to Diekirch 167 

3. From Luxembourg lo Trois Vierges 169 

4. From Treves to Thionville 169 

25. The Moselle from Coblenz to Treves 170 

1. Munster -Maifeld 172 

2. Schloss Eltz ,,,.,., 172 



3. Kautenbachthal . . . . . . . '. ; .. . . f78 

4. Tieienbaehtbal ................ 179 

5. Throa. Xertersdorf. Griinhaus • .... . ■■-. . 180 

26. From Cologne to Treves. The Volcanic Eifel ..... 181 

1. From iNireE to Euskirchen 181 

2. Fro® Euskirchen to HfiaatMreilfel . ..' .. 181 

3. Fiom.EiMfciMltea to Bonn . . .. *. ....... 181 

4. Olefthal. 8cbleiden .....' 181 

5. From Hillesheim to Adenau . 182 

6. From Hillesheim to Daun. Erensberg . ... . . . 182 

7. From Gerolstein to Prtim 183 

8. Bitburg . . . . 184 

27. FromCoblenztoWetzlar. Ems and the Valley of the Lahn 101 

1. Excursions from Ems ............. 194 

2. Seheid. Geilnau 196 

3. From Diet* to Zollnaus (and Behwalbach) ...... 187 

4. From Limburg to Hadamar 196 

28. Frankfort. . 200 

1. From Frankfort to Mayence 213 

2. From Frankfort to Mannheim by the Biedbahn . . 213 

29. TheTaunus. . 214 

a. Taunus Railway from Frankfort to Castel (Mayence) 

and Wiesbaden 214 

b. From Frankfort to Hoffiburg and Cronberg ..... 215 
The Baalbnrg. ,216 

c. From Frankfort to Soden. Konigstein. Falkenstein. 
Great Feldberg . . . v 217 

d. From Frankfort to Eppstein and Limburg' ..... 219 
The Bossert. Fischbachthal ■ . 220 

30. From Frankfort to Heidelberg and Mannheim . . . . . 220 

1. From Darmstadt to Worms ... ......... 224 

2. From Darmstadt to Mayence ........... 334 

3. The Melibocus . .... . . . . . . . . . . . , 226 

4. Environs of Auerbach 226 

5. From Bensheim to Worms. Lorsch . .... . ,. . . 226 

6. The Bergstrasse 227 

31. TheOdenwald. . 227 

a. Western Portion. The Felsberg. Reichenbach. Lin- 

denfels .... . . 227 

The Dromm. Waldmichelbach. Scbonau . . . . . . , . 229 

b. Eastern Portion. Odenwald Railway . ■ • • . ■ • • 230 

1. From Beinheim to Lindenfels . • . 230 

2. From Michelstadt to Beichelsheim 231 

3. From Michelstadt to Amorbach and Hiltenberg ... . 231 

4. From Hiltenberg to Aschaffenbnrg . . .... . . 231 

32. Heidelberg 232 

1. From Heidelberg to Neckarelz. Valley of the Meckar . 239 

,:">;. 2. From Heidelberg to Schweninger and Speyer .... 240 

33. Mannheim and Ludwigshafen . .... . . . . 240 

From Mannheim to Carlsruhe . . . . . ' . . . 243 

34. From Mayence to Ludwigshafen (Mannheim), Worms . 243 

35. From Bingen or Mayence to Alzey and Neustadt . . . . 247 

1. From Absey to Langmeil ............ 348 

2. From Kirchheimbolhnden to the Donnersberg . . 248 

3. From Honshetm to Langnuil . > . . . . . 248 


Route. Page. 

4. From Griinstadt to Eisenberg . . - 219 

5. Abbey of Limburg. The Hartenburg. The Heidenmauer 249, 250 

36. From Ludwigshafen to Weissenburg and Strassburg . . 250 

1. The Haardt. From Neustadt to the Maxburg .... 251 

2. Gleisweiler 252 

3. Geisberg. Scherhohl. Worth 253 

37. From Mannheim (Ludwigshafen) to Neunkirchen (Saar- 

brucken) 254 

1. From Kaiserslautern to Otterberg 255 

2. From Landstuhl to Kusel 256 

3. From Homburg to Zweibriicken and Saargemiind . . . 256 
SS.^From Mannheim to Speyer, and to Strassburg, via. Ger- 

mersheim and Lauterburg 257 

From Germersheim to Landau 261 

39. From Landau to Zweibriicken. The Vosges of the Palatinate 261 

40. Strassburg 264 

41. From Strassburg to Saarbrucken 273 

42. From Strassburg to Saarburg (Metz and Nancy). The N. 

Vosges Mts 274 

1. From Steinburg to Buchsweiler 274 

2. Excursions from Zabern. Greiffenstein. Hoh-Barr. 

Dagsburg, etc. . . 275 

3. From Zabern to Pfalzburg. St. Johann 276 

4. From Saarburg to Saargemiind . . ... . . ... . . . . 277 

5. From Saarburg to Metz ........,,., . 277 

6. From Saarburg to Nancy 277 

43. From Strassburg to Bale 277 

1. From Bollweiler to Ensisheim ' 281 

2. From Miilhausen to Miillheim 282 

3. From Miilhausen to Belfort 282 

4. From St. Ludwig to Leopoldshohe. Hiiningen .... 282 

44. The Central and Upper Vosges Mts 283 

I. The Central Vosges Mts 283 

a. Railway from Strassburg to Rothau by Molsheim. 

Nideck 284 

1. From Schirmeck to the Donon 285 

2. From Rothau to Urbach 285 

b. From Zabern to Schlettstadt by Molsheim. Wangen- 

burg. Girbaden. Odilienberg. Hohwald .... 286 

1. Grendelbruch 289 

2. Environs of Hohwald. The Hochfeld 291, 292 

II. The Upper, or High Vosges Mts 292 

a. From Schlettstadt to Markirch. Hohenkonigsburg. 

Rappoltsweiler 292 

1. From Markirch to Rappoltsweiler 293 

2. Ascent of the Bressoir from Markirch 293 

3. From Rappoltsweiler to Reichenweier and Kaysersberg 295, 296 

b. The "Weissthal. The Weisse See and Schwarze See. 

Reisberg 296 

c. From Colmar to Minister. The Schlucht. Metzeral 299 

1. From Tiirkheim to the Drei Mhren. Galz. Hohenlandsberg 299 

2. From the Schlucht to the Hoheneck and Gerardmer . . 301 

3. From Luttenbach to the Kahle Wasen 302 

4. From Metzeral to Wildenstein. The Rheinkopf ... 302 


Route. , -- Page. 

d. From Bollweiler to Gebweiler 302 

Murbach Abbey ................. 303 

e. From Mulhausen to Wesserling 303 

1. The Gebweiler Belchen 304 

2. From Sennheim to Senthehn. Walsche Belchen . . . 906 

45. From Heidelberg to Baden 306 

1. From Bruchsal to Germersheim 308 

2. From Durlach to Pforzheim and Wildbad 306 

3. From Carlsruhe to Landau 313 

4. From Rastatt to Gernsbaeh . §14 

46. Baden and Environs . . . . . . . . 314 

47. From Baden to Wildbad . . . .-.-„: . . 323 

Excursions from Wildbad ....•• 326 

48. From Baden to Freiburg and Bale . 325 

1. Sasbach. Brigittenscjhloss . . . . . . 326 

2. From Appenweier to Kehl and Strassburg 326 

3. Excursions from Freiburg. Schau-ins-Land,Kaiserstuhl, etc. 333 

4. From Freiburg to Colmar 333 

49. The Black Forest (Duchy of Baden) 336 

a. From Baden to Gernsbaoh and Allerheiligen. Murg- 

thal. Homisgrinde. Mummelsee 337 

1. From Baden to Forbach direct. Herrenwies ..... 338 

2. Freudenstadt 338 

b. Allerheiligen and Buttenstein Waterfalls ..... 341 

3. From Ottenhofen to Allerheiligen by the Edelfrauengrab 

and the Bldchereck 341 

4. From Allerheiligen to Rippoldsau direct 342 

6. From Allerheiligen to Oppenau and to Sulzbach . . . 342 

c. Renchthal Railway. Kniebis Baths ........ 342 

6. The Schapbachthal. Antogast .......... 344 

7. From Griesbach to Rippoldsau 344 

d. From Offenburg to Constance. Kinzigthal. Rippoldsau 344 

8. From Biberach to Lahr. Hohengeroldseck 346 

9. From Wolfach to Schiltach and Alpirsbach ..... 346 

10. From Hornberg to Elzach and Schramberg . >. . . . 347 

11. From Triberg to Elzach by Schonach ....... 348 

e. From Triberg to Waldkireh via Furtwangen. Valleys 

of Simonswald and EIb 350 

12. From Schonwald to Simonswald 351 

f. From Freiburg to St. Blasien. Hollenthal. Feldberg . 352 

13. From Zarten to Todtnau 362 

14. St. Hargen. Waldau . 363 

g. Wiesenihal, Wehrathal, Albthal . 357 

15. From Todtmoos to St. Blasien 359 

16. From Gschwand in the Wiesenthal to St. Blasien . . . 360 

17. From 8chluchsee to Thiengen. Schluchtthal 361 

h. Badenweiler and Environs. Burgeln , Blauen , Bel- 
chen, Miinsterthal. 362 

50. From Bale by Schaffhausen to Constance ....... 366 

1. Rheinfelden 366 

2. From Oberlauchringen to Weizen . 867 

3. The Falls of ,. the Rhine . . . < . . .... .... 367 

4. Hohentwiel . . . 368 

5. The Island of Reichenau 368 

Index . . , 369 



1. The Lower Rhine: RR. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9; between pp. 44, 45. 

2. The Rhine from Bonn to Coblenz: RR. 9, 10, 11, 14, 15: between 

pp. 56, 57. 

3. The Seven Mountains: R. 13; between pp. 76, 77. 

4. The Environs of Boppard : R. 17 ; p. 102. 

5. The Rhine from Coblenz to Bingen : RR. 16, 17, 19, 20, 23, 27; 

between pp. 102, 103. 

6. The Environs of St. Goar: R. 17; p. 103. 

7. The Niederwald: R. 18; p. 124. 

8. The W. Taunus and Rheingau : RR. 17, 19, 20; between pp. 124, 125. 

9. The Environs of Kkeoznach: R. 23; p. 148. 

10. The Nahethal: R. 23; p. 149. 

11. The Environs of Metz: R. 23; p. 157. 

12. The Moselle: RR. 24, 25; between pp. 170, 171. 

13. The Volcanic Eifel: R. 26; between pp. 184, 185. 

14. The Environs of Ems: R. 27; p. 193. 

15. The E. Tacnus: R. 29; between pp. 214, 215. 

16. The Bergstrasse and Odenwald: R. 31; between pp. 226, 227. 

17. The E. Odenwald : R. 31b ; p. 227. 

18. Map of Rhenish Hessen : RR. 34, 35 ; p. 244. 

19. The Rhenish Palatinate: RR. 35, 36, 37, 39, 41 ; between pp. 256, 257. 

20. The Northern Vosges Mts. : RR. 42, 44 I. ; between pp. 276, 277. 

21. The Central Vosges Mts.: RR. 441., 4411.; between pp. 284, 285. 

22. The Southern Vosges Mts.: R. 44 II.; between pp. 292, 293. 

23. The Environs of Baden: R. 46; p. 315. 

24. The Black Forest Sheet I. (Murgthal): RR. 46, 47, 48, 49 a, 49 b; be- 

tween pp. 314, 315. 

25. The Black Forest, Sheet II. (Rinzigthal): RR. 48, 49 c, 49 d; between 

pp. 344, 345. 

26. The Black Forest , Sheet III. (Freiburg, Triberg Donaueschingen) : 

RR. 48, 49d, 49e, 49f ; between pp. 352, 353. 

27. The Black Forest, Sheet IV. (Southern Valleys) : RR. 49f, 49g, 49h ; 

between pp. 356, 357. 

28. Railway Map of the Rhine, after the Index. 

Flans of Towns. 

Aix-la-Chapelle, p. 4; Baden, p. 314; Bonn, p. 76; Carlsruhe, p. 307; 
Coblenz, with Environs, p. 90; Colmar, p. 277; Cologne, p. 22; Darm- 
stadt , p. 226 ; Dusseldorf, with Environs, p. 16 ; Frankfort, with En- 
virons, p. 200; Freiburg, p. 328; Heidelberg, with Environs, p. 232; 
Luxembourg, p. 167; Mannheim, p. 240; Mayence, p. 136; Metz, p. 156; 
Speyer, p. 257 ; Strassburg, with Environs, p. 264 ; Treves, p. 166 ; Wies- 
baden, p. 132; Worms, p. 245. 

R. = room; L. = light; B. = breakfast; D. = dinner; S. = supper; 
A. = attendance. — N. = north, northern, etc.; S. = south, etc.; E. = 
east, etc.; W. = west, etc. — r. = right; 1. = left. — M. = English 
mile; ft. = Engl. foot. — M, m. = mark; pf. = pfennig. 

The number of feet given after the name of a place indicates its height 
above the sea-level. The number of miles placed before the principal 
places on railway-routes and high-roads generally indicates their distance 
from the starting-point of the route. 

Asterisks are used as marks of commendation. 


I. Language. 

A slight acquaintance with German is indispensable for those 
who desire to explore the more remote parts of the Rhenish 
Provinces. Tourists who do not deviate from the beaten track will 
generally find English or French spoken at the principal hotels and 
the usual resorts of strangers ; but if they are entirely ignorant of 
the language they must be prepared occasionally to submit to the 
extortions practised by porters, cab-drivers, and others of a like 
class, which even the data furnished by the handbook will not 
always enable them to avoid. 

II. Money. Travelling Expenses. 

Monet. The German mark («#, m.), which is nearly equivalent 
to the English shilling, is divided into 100 pfennigs. Banknotes 
of 5, 20, and 50 m. ate famed by 'the -German Imperial Bank 
( 'Deutsche Reiohgbank'), and others of 100, 500, and 1000 m. by the 
Imperial Bank and by twelve other banks which possess the pri- 
vilege. The current gold ooins are pieces of 10 ('Krone') and of 
20 marks ('Doppelkrone'), the intrinsic value of which is somewhat 
lower than that of the English half-sovereign and sovereign (U. 
being worth about 20 m. 43 pf.). The paper currency is of the same 
value as the precious metals. The silver coins are pieces of 5, 3 
(the old dollar), 2, 1, »/ 2 (, and Vs mark (20 pf/), la nickel 
there are coins of 10 and 5 -pfennigs (formerly groschen and half- 
groschen), and in copper there are pieces of 2 and 1 pfennig. 

English sovereigns and banknotes may be exchanged at all the 
•principal towns in Germany, and Napoleons are also favourably 
received (20 fir. = 16s. = 16 m., and often a few pfennigs more). 
Those who travel with large sums should carry them in the form of 
circular notes of 51. or 102., rather than in banknotes or gold, as 
the value of circular notes, if lost or stolen, is recoverable. 

Tbavelling Expbnsbs. The expense of a tour in the Rhenish 
Provinces depends of course on a great variety, of circumstances. Of 
late years many complaints have justly been made «f the exorbitant 
charges at some of the Rhenish hotels ; but it may be stated generally 
that travelling in Germany, and .even :on the Rhine, is less -ex- 
pensive, and in .some respects more comfortable, than in moat 
other countries in Europe. The pedestrian of moderate require- 


ments, who has attained tolerable proficiency in the language and 
avoids the beaten track as much as possible, will have no difficulty 
in limiting his expenditure to 8-10 m. per day • but those who prefer 
driving to walking, frequent the most expensive hotels, and require 
the services of guides and commissionnaires, must be prepared to 
expend at least 25-30m. daily. 

III. Passports. Custom House. 

Passports are now unnecessary in Germany, as well as in 
Austria, France, Switzerland, Belgium, and Holland; but as they 
are occasionally required to prove the identity of the traveller, 
to procure admission to collections , and to obtain delivery of 
registered letters, persons who contemplate a prolonged tour had 
better provide themselves with these easily-obtained credentials. 
The following are the principal passport-agents in London : Lee and 
Carter, 440 West Strand; Dorrell and Son, 15 Charing Cross; E. 
Stanford, 55 Charing Cross; W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet Street. 

Custom-House formalities are now almost everywhere lenient. 
As a rule, however, articles purchased during the journey, which 
are not destined for personal use, should be declared at the frontier. 

IV. Railways. Diligences. 

Railways. Railway- travelling is cheaper in Germany than in 
other parts of Europe, Belgium excepted, and the carriages are 
generally clean and comfortable. Those of the second class, with 
spring-seats, are often better than the first in England. The first-class 
carriages, lined with velvet, and comparatively little used, are recom- 
mended to the lover of fresh air, as he will be more likely to secure a 
seat next the window. The third-class travelling community are 
generally quiet and respectable, and the carriages tolerably clean. On 
a few railways there is even a fourth class , without seats. Smoking 
is permitted in all the carriages, except those 'Fiir Nicht-Raucher' 
and the coupe's for ladies. The average fares for the different classes 
are about i 3 /id., l l /td. and 4 / 5 d. per Engl. M. respectively. The- 
speed seldom exceeds 25 M. per hour, and the enormous traffic 
carried on in some parts of England, where hundreds of trains tra- 
verse the same line daily, is entirely unknown. These circumstances, 
coupled with the fact that the German railways are generally well 
organised and under the immediate supervision of government, 
render accidents of very rare occurrence. On some of the lines 
20-50 lbs. of luggage are free, in addition to smaller articles 
carried in the hand , over- weight being charged for at moderate 
rates ; but on many of the lines all luggage in the van must be paid 
for. In all cases the heavier luggage must be booked, and a ticket 
procured for it ; this being done, the traveller need not enquire after 


his 'impedimenta' until he arrives and presents his ticket at his final 
destination (where they will be kept in safe custody, several days 
usually gratia). Where, however, a frontier has to be crossed, the tra- 
veller should see his luggage cleared at the custom-house in person. 
— Circular Tickets for prolonged touis axe issued at considerably 
reduced rates (see the time-tables), but are unfortunately not avail- 
able for the Rhine steamers. Ordinary retain- tickets are available 
for one to three days. 

Pimgbncbs. The diligence-communication in most parts of 
Germany is well organised. The average speed is 5 Engl. M. per 
hour; the fare l 1 /^- per M. 'Extra-post' generally obtainable on 
application at the post-offices : 6d. per M. for 1-2, 1*. per M. for 
3-4 persons. Carriages to be had almost everywhere, at the rate of 
10-15 m. with one horse, and 12-25 m. with a pair of horses, per day. 

V. Steamboats on the Rhine. 

The [Rhine is navigated by upwards of 100 steamboats, from 
the local vessels of fifteen or twenty horse power to the powerful 
tug-steamers of upwards of four hundred. During the last few 
years the average number of steamboat-passengers has exceeded 
one million annually. The following four vessels of the united Co- 
logne and Diisseldorf Companies are the best: 'Deutecher Kaiser', 
'Wilhelm Kaiser und Konig', 'Humboldt', and 'Friede', all saloon- 
steamers. The first two of these accomplish the journey from 
Mayence to Cologne in 7y 2 hrs., and that from Cologne to Mayence 
in 12 hrs., touching, in descending, atBiebrich, Coblenz, and Bonn 
only ; in ascending , at Bingen also. On Sundays and holidays 
KSnigswinter and Eltville are also called at. The 'Humboldt' and 
the 'Friede' make the journey down stream in S 1 /^, up stream in 
14 hrs., calling, in addition to the above-named stations, at Rfi- 
ftesheim, Oberwesel, St. Goar, Boppard, Lahnstein, Neuwied, An- 
dernach, Linz, Remagen, and Rolandseok. The ordinary steamers 
lake 91/4 and 15 hrs., stopping at numerous small places where 
passengers are landed in boats. The vessels of the Netherlands Co. 
are too uncertain to be depended upon for short distances, but are 
sometimes preferred by travellers to or from Rotterdam, no change 
of boat being necessary. Some of them are fitted up with sleeping 

The fares are very moderate, those for voyages up stream being 
one-sixth less than for those in the reverse direction. The express 
fares are somewhat higher than the ordinary. The express steamers 
carry saloon-passengers only. Each passenger is allowed lOOlbs. of 
luggage free. Additional advantages are offered by the issue of re- 
turn-tickets, one class of which is valid for a week, another within 
the current year. These tickets must be stamped at the office or by 
the conductor at the beginning of the return-journey. 



Passengers failing to take tickets before embarking should obtain them 
from the conductor immediately on going on board, as otherwise they may 
be compelled to pay the fare from the steamer's first point of departure. 

The charge for landing or embarking by small boat is 10 pf. each per- 
son. Extortion is very frequently practised by the steamboat-porters. 

The holder of a ticket "worth 2 m. and upwards is at liberty to break 
his journey, provided he signify his intention to the conductor before the 
tickets are collected. If the journey be resumed at a station nearer the 
passenger's destination than that at which he disembarked, the ticket 
ceases to be valid for the intervening stations. 

In autumn the steamers are often unpunctual in consequence of the 
fogs which then prevail. Should the steamer be more than two hours 
behind time, the traveller is entitled to quit the vessel and demand re- 
payment of the fare for the portion of the voyage still untraversed. 

Refreshments are provided on board the steamers. As the tariff of 
charges is not always exhibited, the following items are given : coffee 
with bread and butter 1 in., table d'hote at 1 o'clock 3 m., '/s bottle of 
table-wine 60 pf., cup of coffee 45 pf., ices 50 pf. Dinners 'a la carte' are 
not recommended. 

Travellers starting at an early hour will find breakfast on board 
pleasanter than a hurried meal before leaving their hotel. The waiters 
occasionally offer worthless books , maps, and panoramas for sale at ex- 
orbitant prices. 

Fall of the Rhine. 
Height above the level of the sea of — 

The Toma-See, source of the 

Vorder-Bhein 7689 

The Rheinwald Glacier, cra- 
dle of the Hinter-Rhein . 7268 

The Lake of Constance . . 1305 

The Rhine at Bale .... 803 

The Rhine at Mannheim 
„ „ „ Mayence . 

„ „ „ Coblenz . 
„ „ „ Cologne . 

„ „ „ Diisseldorf 

„ „ „ Emmerich 



At Bale 189 

„ Mannheim 429 

„ Mayence ....... 492 

„ Coblenz. . ..... 399 

Breadth of the Rhine, 



At Bonn 532 

„ Cologne 433 

„ Diisseldorf 409 

„ Schenkenschanz (Dutch front.) 909 

Length of the Rhine. Engl Miles 

From Bale to Strassburg 851/2 

„ Strassburg to Mannheim 86>/2 

„ Mannheim to Mayence 45Va 

„ Mayence to Bingen 18 

„ Bingen to Coblenz 39Va 

„ Coblenz to Cologne 59'/2 

„ Cologne to Diisseldorf 34'/2 

„ Diisseldorf to Emmerich 67'/i> 

„ Emmerich to Briel (German Ocean) 101 

„ Bale to the German Ocean 537'/2 

Average Depth of the Rhine. 

Between Bale and Strassburg 

„ Strassburg and Mayence 

„ Mayence and Bonn 

At the Lurlei 


.... 3-12 

.... 5-25 

.... 9-76 

.... 76 

Between Bonn and Cologne 10-30 

„ Cologne and Diisseldorf . . . . ,,....».. 12-66 

VI. Walking Excursions. 

The pedestrian is unquestionably tibe most independent of 
ptntjlfif*, <»rid to 14m alone the beautiful scenery of_some of the 
more remote districts is accessible. For a -short tour a couple of 
flannel shirts, a pair of worsted stockings, slippers, the articles 
of the toilet, a light, waterproof, and a stout .umbrella will generally 
be found a sufficient equipment. Strong .and well-tried boots are 
essential to comfort. Heavy and complicated knapsacks should be 
avoided; a light pouch or, jame-bag. is far less irksome, and its 
position may be shifted at pleasure. A more extensive reserve of 
clothing should not exceed the limits of a small portmanteau, which 
can be easily wielded, and may be forwarded from town to town 
by post. 

The banks of the Rhine abound in charming scenery , which it 
will amply, reward, the pedestrian to explore;. many districts replete 
with both historical *nd. natural interest are described in the. fol- 
lowing pages. The following are especially recommended to the 
notice of travellers: The Seven Mts. (R, 13)., tte Eifel (R. 26), 
Jthe banks of the Moselle (R. 25), ]the Black Forest, (R- 49), th? 
Vosges (RR, 42, 44), &e environs, of Schaffhausen and Falls of the 
Rhine , and the neighbourhood of Constance. By. consulting the 
Handbook the traveller will .discover many attractive spots , both in 
these and other districts, 

VII. Hotels. 

The flrst-elass hotels in the principal towns and watering-places 
throughout Germany are generally good and somewbrit expensive*, 
"hut it 'frequently happens that in old-fashioned hotels of unassum- 
ing exterior, particularly in places off the beaten track , the travel- 
ler finds more real Comfort and much lower charges. 

The" average^ charges in the first-class hotels are as 'follows: 
bed fiomf/jm.,' plain breakfast 1 m. , dinner 3 m. , table Wine 1 m.\ 
tea With meat 2m., attendance 1 m., light 1 m.; boots extra. 

When the traveller remains for a week or more at a hotel, it is 
advisable to pay, or at least call for his account every two or three 
days, in order that erroneous insertions may be detected. Verbal 
reckonings are Objectionable , except in some of the more remote 
arid primitive districts where bills' are never Written. A. waiter's 
mental arithmetic is faulty, and the faults' are seldom in favour 
of the traveller. A favourite practice ir to present the bill at the 
last moment, when mistakes or wilful imposition cannot easily 
be detected or rectified. Those* who purpose 'starting early in the 
morning will do'well to 'ask for their bills on the previous 'evening. 
' English travellers often impose considerable trouble by ordering 
things almost Unknown in German usage; arid "if ignorance- of 1 the 
language be added to want of conformity to the customs ,' mis- 

Bakdekek's Rhine. 8th Edit. v 

xvili GEOLOGY. 

understandings and disputes are apt to ensue. The reader is there- 
fore recommended to acquire if possible such a moderate proficiency 
in the language as to render him intelligible to -the servants, and to 
endeavour to adapt his requirements to the habits of the country. 
For this purpose Baedeker's Manual of Conversation will be found 

Valets-de-place generally charge 2-3 m. for half-a-day , and 
3 l /2~0 m. for a whole day. 

VIII. Geology of the Rhine. 

For geologists Von Dec/ten's map of the Rhenish Province and West- 
phalia (Berlin , pub. by Schropp) is of great value. Scale 1 : 80,000. The 
map is divided into 34 sections, price 3 m. each. 

From Bale to Bingen the valley of the Rhine is lake-like and 
filled with comparatively recent deposits, but at the latter place it 
suddenly changes its character, and becomes so narrow that room is 
barely left for the high-roads and railways which traverse it. The 
river flows swiftly between almost perpendicular rocks of consider- 
able height, intersected here and there by ravines. Towards Ooblenz 
the valley gradually expands, th« hills become less abrupt, and the 
rocks disappear. From Coblenz to Andernach a broad basin extends 
on both sides of the stream, which at the latter again enters a rocky 
defile. Near Bonn the river gradually widens, and the 'Seven 
Mountains' appear, forming the grand closing scene of the picturesque 
portion of the Rhine. This chain of mountains, in diminished pro- 
portions, accompanies the Rhine on its right bank as far as Cologne, 
Diisseldorf, and nearly to Duisburg. Below the mouth of the Ruhr 
the country is uniformly flat. 

Between Bingen and Bonn the Rhine Valley thus intersects 
an extensive range of high land, consisting of upheaved and 
contorted strata of slatey-grauwacke and quartzose-rock, one of the 
oldest formations in which fossils are found. Since the fossili- 
ferous strata have been more accurately classified, the Rhenish 
slate mountains are believed to hold the second place according 
to age among these formations , belonging to what is termed by 
Sir Roderick Murchison the Devonian System, while the oldest for- 
mation of this class is known as the Silurian. 

From Bingen to the confluence of the Sieg below Bonn, all the 
strata intersected by the Rhine belong to the same epoch, as they 
contain the same organic remains. These strata consist of many 
different kinds of clay-slate, the purest of which is the roofing-slate. 
The latter is yielded in great abundance by various quarries on the 
banks of the Rhine, e.g. those of Caub (p. 109), whence it is sent 
in all directions, even as far as Switzerland. The clay-slate forms 
transitions to the species of sandstone termed grauwacke. It is 
generally fine-grained, and in combination with a quartzose ce- 
menting matter passes into quartzose-rock, which owing to its inde- 


struotibflity often assumes grotesque shapes, and between Bingen 
and St. Goar greatly enhances the beauty of the valley. 

Between the period when the Rhine first began to force 
its passage through the above-mentioned mountainous district, 
and that during which the strata forming these highlands were 
deposited at the bottom of what was then an ocean, a vast in- 
terval must have elapsed. The formation of the valley from Bingen 
to the sea is more recent than the deposits of the middle section 
of the Tertiary system, the Meioeene of Sir Charles Lyell, in 
which the clays of Vallendar and the brown coals of the Wester- 
wald, the Seven Mountains, and the neighbourhood of Bruhl are 
found. Of equal age with these tertiary formations are the basalts 
of 'the Rhine (p. 59), which occur in the most fantastic shapes 
near Linz, Kaisersberg, and Oekenfels, on the Erpeler Lei, on the 
Birgeler Kopf (p. 57), at Rolandseok (where the • railway has laid 
bare some curiously situated columns), on the Oelberg, Petersberg, 
Nonnenstromberg, and other peaks of the Seven Mts. 

The Rhine Valley is then, geologically considered, of very 
recent formation;- and the extinct volcanoes, of which numerous 
cones may be seen from Neuwied, such as the Camillenberg and 
the peaks of the Hummerich at Plaidt and Kraft, are still more 
recent. From the peak at Fornich a stream of lava , whose large 
perpendicular columns may be seen from the river (p. 61), descends 
into the valley. The latter had nearly attained its present 
depth when the eruption which produced this stream of lava 
took place. This is proved by the fact, that all the other rava- 
streams near the Laacher See and in the Eifel have been poured 
into valleys already formed. The pumice-storte , which extends 
over the whole basin of Neuwied (comp. pp. 64, 89) , the only 
place in Germany where this volcanic product is found, must have 
been discharged at a still more recent date than most of the lava- 

In the flat parts of the valley of the Rhine, are found beds 
of loam and rubble, at first narrow, and then gradually widen- 
ing, which have been deposited by, the stream,. Similar masses are 
also met with on the terraces parallel with the river, at a height 
of 400-800 ft. above the water. The strata could only have been 
deposited by the agency of flowing water, and must have been 
deposited long before the valley attained its present depths These 
terraces are distinguishable by their- long horizontal ridges from 
the peaks formed by the uncovered slate; they prove that' the 
Rhine Valley has been gradually hollowed out by the action of 
water, though its rugged aspect might give rise to the conjecture 
that it had been the result of some mighty convulsion trf nature. 



IX. Climate. Grape Cure. 

The climate of the valley of the Lower Rhine is influenced by 
the proximity of the North Sea, which renders the temperature 
remarkably equable. To the same influence are due the mild 
autumns enjoyed by the districts on the central Rhine, where the 
mean temperature is 3-6° Fahr. higher than that of the correspond- 
ing portions of E. Germany. A tour in the Rhenish provinces is 
therefore still enjoyable at a season when the Alps and the moun- 
tainous districts of Central Germany are beginning to feel the 
frosts of the coming winter. This geniality of climate is also very 
favourable to the ripening of the grapes ; and hence it is that 
the i Grape Cure 1 , a very popular continental institution, long 
established in the Southern Tyrol- and on the banks of the Lake 
of Geneva, has been introduced into the Rhenish Provinces also. 

Grapes when eaten in moderate quantity (1-2 lbs. daily) have 
a soothing effect on the mucous membrane, and in conjunction 
with a generous diet contribute materially to restore the strength 
of convalescents. When eaten in greater quantities (3-8 lbs. daily), 
the vegetable acid and salts produce an effect similar to that of 
mineral waters containing Glauber's or common salt. The grapes 
of the Rhenish Palatinate ('Gutedel' or 'Junker', and 'Oester- 
reicher' or 'Sylvaner') are large, thin-skinned, and well-flavoured, 
and hence this district is the centre of the 'Cure'. Gleisweiler 
(p. 252) is especially frequented on account of its favourable 
situation and the proximity of the vineyards , in which visitors 
may gather the grapes for themselves. The grapes of Diirkheim 
(p. 249), Annweiler (p. 262), Edenkoben (p. 252), and Neustadt 
(p. 250) are also in great request. Good desert- grapes may, 
however, be procured almost everywhere on the Rhine, and the 
grape-cure may be undergone at Honnef, the Laubbaeh, Boppard, 
St. Goarshausen, Riidesheim, Wiesbaden, Badenweiler. and numer- 
ous other summer-resorts. 

X. Wines of the Rhine and Moselle. 

Wine is a subject to which those who visit the land of the grape 
will naturally expect some allusion, and although it must necessa- 
rily be noticed but briefly in a work like the present, the following 
remarks may prove acceptable. 

No error has been more prevalent than that the Rhenish and 
Moselle wines possess an injurious acidity. Liebig on the contrary 
affirms, not only that the exquisite bouquet of the Rhine wines 
is owing to the free acid which they contain, but that some of 
their most salutary properties arise from the tartar present in them. 
To this he attributes the immunity enjoyed by those who use 
the German wines from the uric acid diathesis. Dr. Prout, among 

WINE. xxi 

many others who have investigated the subject, may be mentioned 
as entertaining the same: opinion. Another advantage possessed by 
Rhenish wines is the total absence of brandy, an ingredient with 
which the wines of Spain, Portugal, and Sicily are almost invariably 
fortified, to the utter destruction of their flavour, and the injury 
of the health of the consumer. The diseases which attack spirit* 
drinkers, chiefly disorders of the liver, are commonly met with 
amongst consumers of fortified wines , though such maladies rarely 
fellow even the intemperate use of pure wine. That the addition 
of alcohol to wine is unnecessary for its preservation is proved by 
the fact that Rhine wines often retain their excellence for half-a- 
eentury, although they seldom contain more than eight or nine per 
cent of alcohol. The very property of keeping is indeed mainly 
attributable to the fact that the fermentation is more perfect in 
Rhenish wines than in those of Spain and Portugal, where fermen- 
tation is checked by the addition of brandy. With the white wines 
of France the same object is effected by sulphuration. By these 
processes the richness and sweetness of new wine are artificially and 
nnwholesomely retained. 

While the palm must be yielded to France for her red wines, 
no 'country in the world can compete with the Rhenish Provinces in 
the vast variety and excellence of the white wines which they 
produce. On the banks of the Rhine from Mayence to Bonn, a dis- 
tance of 90 M. , the cultivation of the vine may be seen in the 
greatest possible perfection. - 

The traveller who finds the table-wine of the hotels unpala- 
table , and whose eye wanders in bewilderment over the 'Wein- 
karte', is recommended to select a bottle of still Hock or Moselle 
at 3-4 marks per bottle, at which price the taste ought to be grati- 
fied. The hotel prices of the high-class still wines , as well as of 
the sparkling wines, are often exorbitant. 

The Bheiagau, a district about 15 M. in length, pTwtawJ the 
finest wines of the Rhine. Here is situated Sehlost Johmmitberff, 
a most favoured spot, yielding a wine almost without rival. As the 
celebrated vineyards do not exceed 40 acres in area, little of this 
rare product falls to the share of the ordinary public. Moreover the 
first quality is only obtained in the finest seasons; the grapes 
are selected with the utmost care from the ripest bunches, not 
a drop of the precious juice being allowed ^o. escape ; the yield, 
under the most favourable circumstances, is therefore very limited. 
The various qualities of this wine are sold in the cask at Sehloss 
Johannisberg by public auction. It is remarkable for raeiaess, de- 
licacy of flavour, and bouquet, rather than for strength. The other 
wines trf the vicinity, distinguished by the name of Johamuaberg- 
Klaw, and those yielded by the vineyards' of Count Sehortborn, are 
also highly esteemed:. There is also 'Johannisberger' produced from 
the vineyards of the village of that name, but this is inferior to 

xxii WINE. 

many of the other products of the Rheingau. In this neighbour- 
hood are Riidesheim and Oeisenheim, both producing first-class wines. 
Bingen is a favourable district for strong wines ; the hill hehind it 
yields Scharlachberger. Below Bingen , on the opposite bank , is 
Assmannshausen, the red wine of which holds a high rank and in 
good vintages vies with Burgundy of the best class, being made from 
the same species of grape ; but unfortunately, like the latter, it is 
often impaired by travelling. The Marcobrunn vineyard, between 
Hattenheim and Erbach, produces a white wine of exquisite flavour 
and bouquet. The wines, however, which compete most successfully 
with Johannisberger and trench closely upon its celebrity are the 
Steinberyer, produced from the carefully cultivated vineyards on the 
hill at the back of Hattenheim, and the Rauenthaler Berg (p. 128), 
the best vintages of which are unsurpassed in flavour and quality. 
Hochheim, situated on the Main, yields a wine of very superior 
quality, and has given the name of 'Hook' to the produce of the 
country generally. 

The Valley of the Rhine below Bingen produces many pleasant 
and wholesome wines, but inferior to the above. Those of Enge- 
hbll, Steeg, Oberwesel, and Boppard may be mentioned among the 
white. The Rheinbleicherte (i.e. 'bleich rothe', or pale red) of 
Steeg, Oberwesel, and Bacharach, and the light-red wines of Salzig, 
Camp, Horchheim, the Kreuzberg (near Ehrenbreitstein), and Vrbar 
are also esteemed. Most of the wines grown below Coblenz are light- 
red. Linz produces excellent Rheinbleicherte. 

Rhenish Bavaria yields a vast quantity of white wine, gener- 
ally known as wine of the Haardt, or Palatinate. The best 
qualities are those of Ruppertsberg , Deidesheim, and Forst, after 
which rank those of Ungstein, Diirkheim, Wachenheim, and Kbnigs- 
bach. Good red wines are grown at Gimmeldingen and Callstadt. The 
inferior wines of this district usually have a coarse, earthy flavour. 

Rhenish Hessen produces the excellent Scharlachberger above 
mentioned, next to which rank Niersteiner (Olbcke), Oppenheimer, 
Laubenheimer, and Bodenheimer, all pleasant wines, but less delicate 
than those of the Rheingau. Liebfrauenmilch ('Lait de Notre Dame) 
is a good sound wine which owes much of its reputation to the su- 
perior wines sold under that name, and to the quaintness of the 
name itself. The vineyards where it is grown (p. 247) are incapable 
of producing a tenth part of the wine usually so called. The flat 
vineyards of Ingelheim between Mayence and Bingen yield a good 
light-red wine. 

The Nahe wines, like those of the Palatinate, possess considerable 
body, but little flavour. That of the Scharlachberg near Bingen is 
sometimes classed as a Nahe wine, and is the best of this group. 

The Valley of the Ahr is the most northern point at which the 
grape is successfully cultivated. Its light and wholesome Mftr- 
bleicherte' are chiefly consumed in the neighbourhood of their growth. 

WINE. xXiit 

They are strengthening and astringent in their properties, and 
resemble Burgundy of an inferior class. The best are those of 
Watportltehn, Ahriveiler, and Bodendorf. ■ 

The Moselle wines are chiefly grown amidst rugged and sterile- 
looking slate rocks, and owing to the narrowness of the valley aiid 
want of sun do not so frequently arrive at perfection as those of other 
districts. They are distinguished -by their delicate, aromatic flavour, 
and are considered remarkably wholesome, being frequently recom- 
mended to persons of sedentary habits. The best are Brauneberyer 
and .ObM&tberger, which possess a delicious 'bouquet', next to which 
may be placed the wines of ZeUingen, Qtaach, Pisport t and Oriinhaug. 

The Saar wines possess less body than those of the Moselle, but 
surpass them in aroma, and contain a larger proportion of carbonic 
acid gas. Sdmmhofberger is a most excellent wine of this district. 

Haikgrifler, the wine of the Duchy of Baden (Affmthal red, 
K'ingtnberff white), the wines of Alsace, the Neckar wines, and 
those of the Bergstrasse (pp. 224, 227) are almost entirely con- 
sumed in their respective districts. - The Franconian wines which 
grow-on the Main near Wiirzburg are abundant, but generally coarse 
and earthy in flavour. Leisten- Wein and Stein- Wan are, however, 
really good varieties. 

The wines of the first half of the present century are now either 
entirely consumed, or at most linger in stray bottles in the cellars 
of a few connoisseurs. The vintage of 1846 was celebrated, that of 
1848 tolerable. The crops of the following nine years were very 
poor, but in 1857, 1858, and 1859 the vineyard -proprietors were 
rewarded with three vintages of a very high class, which were at 
first thought to be the best of the present century , but did not 
afterwards realise the expectations to which they had given rise. 
The yield of 1862 was very good , particularly in the Rheingau, 
but limited, that of 1865 copious and of high quality , except in 
the Rheingau, and that of 1868 also very fine and plentiful. The 
years 1869 and 1870 yielded good average wines, which gradu- 
ally came into notice as those of earlier vintages became scarce. 
The erop of 1871 was a failure , that of 1872 was of good average 
Value, and that of 1873 poor. The wines of 1874 were generally of 
fair quality, but those of the Rheingau were not quite satisfactory. 
The vintage of 1875, though excellent at places (snob, as Deidesheim 
and Forst in the Haardt), was on the whole inferior to that of 1874. 
The vintages of 1876-1880 were mediocre both in quality and 

Sparkling Wines. The effervescing German wines were first 
manufactured at Eislingen (in 1826), Wiirzburg, and Treves, and 
afterwards at Mayence, Hochhtim, Riidetheim, Coblenz, and various 
other places. , These wines, generally known in England as Sparkling 
Hook and Moselle, are distinguished from the French wines. by the 
predominance of the, flavour of the grape , and when obtained in 


unexceptionable quarters , are a light , pleasant , and wholesome 

The process is precisely the same as that employed in the pre- 
paration of Champagne. The wine (which at the outset is an ordinary 
still wine, worth Is. or Is. 6d. per bottle) is bottled after the first 
fermentation is over; and, by the addition of a small quantity of 
sugar and exposure to a moderately warm temperature, a second 
fermentation and the generation of carbonic acid are produced. 
The bottles are then placed on racks with their corks downwards, 
where they remain a month or more, and are opened several times 
to allow the escape of the sediment. At this stage of the process as 
many as 20-25 per cent of the bottles usually burst, while the 
contents of the survivors are much diminished. When the wine 
has thus been thoroughly clarified, the bottles are filled up, a small 
quantity of syrup (cognac and sugar) is added to give 4he requisite 
sweetness and body, and the final corking then takes place. The 
sparkling wine thus laboriously prepared for the market is worth 
more than double the original still wine from which it is manu- 
factured. The inferior qualities are generally the most effervescent. 

The traveller is cautioned against dealing with any but the most 
respectable wine-merchants , and should remember that excellence 
of quality is quite incompatible with lowness of price. As a pleasant 
and wholesome summer beverage the Rhenish wines of the second 
and third class may be imported at a moderate price , the duty 
and carriage amounting to 4-5s. per dozen ; but the higher class of 
Rhine-wine, of which Marcobrunner may be taken as a sample, 
cannot be drunk in England under six or seven shillings a bottle. 

XI. Rhenish Art. 

In the valley of the Rhine we find that several different strata 
of civilisation , if we may use the expression , had deposited them- 
selves ere the rest of Germany had abandoned its primitive forest 
life. The lowest of these strata, were a section of them exhibited 
in geological fashion, would show an ante-Roman period, when the 
natives carried on a busy trade with the Mediterranean seaports and 
with Etruria. After Caesar's campaigns a new stratum was gradually 
formed by the occupation of the country by Roman military colo- 
nists. This stratum was afterwards sadly contorted and broken by 
the storms of the barbarian migrations , and was at length almost 
entirely covered by that of the Franconian-Christian period, which 
began in the 7th century. 

On Rhenish soil antiquarians will find frequent opportunities 
of tracing back the history of human culture to its earliest begin- 
nings, while the Roman relics are so numerous and important as to 
arrest the eye of even the superficial observer. The Peutinger 
Tablet , the mediaeval copy of a Roman map , now preserved at 


Vienna, shows the' 1 principal towns on the Rhine and also on the 
tributaries of its left Bide, together with the roads connecting them, 
and even the baths and other pUbHe-buildings with which they 
were embellished. The Roman colonies on the Rhine, being chiefly 
the headquarters of the different legion* , always presented a mili- 
tary character. Most ,of the existing 'monuments are accordingly 
votive stones and tombstones of soldiers. The artistic forms are, 
as a rule , somewhat primitive , while the subjects are frequently 
borrowed from the- Oriental worship of Mithras. "We also find that 
in some cases Oallie deities have been Romanised. The principal 
eoHections of Roman antiquities are at the university of Bonn and 
at Cologne, Mayenee, and Treves. At Treves, moreover, we obtain 
an admirable idea of the character of a very important Roman pro* 
vincial town. *' v ' 

Trivet, the capital of Germania Inferior , and for a considerable 
time an imperial residence , did not merely possess buildings of 
practical utility like most of the other colonies, but was also embel- 
lished with some of the noblest decorative Roman structures ever 
erected north of the Alps. On the banks of the Moselle also, outside 
the town, rose along series of villas, many of which were richly de- 
corated with mosaics. Before the decline of the Roman supremacy 
Christianity established itself on the banks of the Rhine, but 
no churches of the earliest' Christian epoch are now extant. The 
only relics of that period are the nucleus of the cathedral of Treves, 
a number of tombstones at Treves, and several monumental' in- 
scriptions, such as that in the porch of St. Oereon at Cologne.' 

' In consequence of the barbarian migrations, the Roman-Christian 
culture was afterwards almost completely buried beneath a new 
stratum of German paganism, and the vast valley of the Rhine 
relapsed into its primitive rudeness, although at Cologne and Treves 
the arts were not entirely extinct. The Austrasian princes, however, 
were munificent patrons of the church, and the Bishops of Treves 
and Cologne [Meethu and Charenttnus, about the middle of the 6th 
cent.) distinguished themselves by their zeal for church-building. 
The artistic efforts of the Merovingian period, of which the 
Cathedral at Treves and the church of Bt. ' Oereon at Cologne are 
almost the only authentic specimens, appear to have been very 
insignificant compared with those of Charlemagne's reign (768- 
814). In the prosecution of his numerous undertakings the great 
emperor was not merely stimulated by his steal for the promotion of 
art , but by his ardent desire to revive the ancient glOTy of the 
Roman empire and to invest his capital with all die splendour of 
the ancient imperial residences , and particularly that of Ravenna. 
The Carlovingiah art was entirely -eentred around the court of the 
emperor;- and he was personally attended by a circle of scholars 
called his ■- academy. Among- the members of the academy was 
Einhard , who in consequence of his surname Berzaleel harbeem 


supposed to have been familiar with art , but of whose labours in 
that sphere nothing certain is known. To him is attributed the 
building of the Palace Chapel at Aix-la-Chapelle (now the Cathe- 
dral), which is still in comparatively good preservation. It is 
obviously a copy of the court-chapel at Ravenna (S. Vitale), but 
has been more judiciously and articulately designed, and has in its 
turn served as a model for later edifices, for which either its ground- 
plan (as at Ottmarsheim in Alsace), or its double row of columns in 
the interior of the rotunda (as in the case of St. Maria im Capitol 
at Cologne and the Munster at Essen), has been borrowed. 

The magnificence of the palaces which the great emperor pos- 
sessed on the banks of the Rhine was a favourite theme with the 
poets and prose-writers of the day. According to their accounts the 
Palace at Ingelheim was not inferior in splendour to that of Aix-la- 
Chapelle itself, but of that edifice there is now no trace beyond a 
few fragments of walls and of columns which have been transferred 
to other buildings. — During the later Carlovingian period the 
Rhineland again suffered severely from an irruption of barbarians. 
At this period the Normans took possession of the banks of the 
river and penetrated into its side-valleys ; but civilisation was now 
too far advanced to be seriously retarded by this catastrophe. 

Endowed with a rich art -heritage handed down by antiquity, 
the Rhenish-Franconian tribes gradually overspread the country 
after the middle of the 10th cent. , from which period down to the 
Reformation the development of Rhenish art is traceable without 

In the Early Middle Ages (10th-12tb cent. J Rhenish art 
differed materially from that of most other parts of Germany in 
being the product of an already cultivated soil, where ancient 
models were abundant , while in these other districts it was the 
growth of a soil previously untitled . On the banks of the Rhine 
were preserved fragments of Roman and early Christian edifices ; 
there the eye was familiar with architectural forms and mouldings ; 
in the Rhenish towns were always to be found artificers possessed 
of considerable manual skill; and owing to the constant com- 
munication kept up with foreign places skilled labour could always 
be readily imported when necessary. Rhenish art was thus matured 
considerably earlier than that of Lower Saxony and Swabia. At 
the same time the features common to the whole of early mediaeval 
art in the west recur in that of the Rhine also. The forms of 
worship having been well defined in the early Christian period, 
the churches all present a certain uniformity of appearance. Like 
the early Christian basilicas, the Rhenish churches of the 10th- 
12th cent, are of an elongated form ; they possess aisles which are 
lower and narrower than the nave ; the altar is placed at the round- 
ed extremity of the nave ; and on the whole the basilica type is 
preserved throughout. 


The Rhenish edifices < Also possess the characteristics of 'the 
Romanesque Style, which are common to the great majority Of 
works of the 10th-12th centuries. In this style the pillars and 
columns are connected by means of round arches , the' doors and 
windows also terminate in round arches , and the naves and aisles 
are either covered with flat roofs or with groined vaulting of round- 
ed form. The Cubical Capital , which was probably invented by 
mediaeval architects for the purpose of forming a harmonious con- 
necting link between the column and the arch above , is also used' 
in the Rhineland , and the copings and mouldings of the Rhenish 
buildings are the same as those employed in the contemporaneous 
edifices of Western Europe. The Rhenish architecture, however, oc- 
cupies an -independent position of its own within the Romanesque 
group. The character of the building-material (red sandstone or 
tufa) , local traditions , and the prevalent taste of the period all 
combine to impart to the Rhenish buildings a distinctive character 
which seldom or never recurs in other countries. At an early period 
the use of alternate courses of different colours came into vogue. 
Thus we find arches faced with stone alternating with light-coloured 
brick , the latter material having been taken from Roman ruins ; 
and when the architects had exhausted .their supply of bricks T the 
art of making which was unknown in Germany in the early middle 
ages , they produced the same effect by the use of dark and light 
coloured stones. The copings on pillars and walls were generally 
copied from Roman models , and the ancient Corinthian Capitals, 
formed of a wreath of leaves, were copied with varying success. 
The most curious instance of this is afforded by the Justintu-Kircke 
at Hochst, the columns of which, though executed in the 11th 
cent., look as if they had been borrowed from some ancient edifice. 
The long-established practice of art, and the wealth which the 
Rhenish towns succeeded in amassing at an early period, enabled 
them gradually to extend the dimensions of their churches , to 
develop the construction of vaulting earlier than elsewhere , and 
to impart to their buildings a , picturesque richness of effect. — 
The same conditions' were likewise favourable to the development 
of the Goldsmith's Akt, and that of Enambl Painting. The 
Rhinelanders also attained considerable proficiency in Mural 
Painting at an early period , but for k the plastic art they displayed 
less aptitude. 

As early as the 11th cent, the practice of art and of artistic 
handicrafts seems to have become naturalised in the Rhenish towns 
and in those of Lorraine. In all the larger towns extensive building 
operations were undertaken , and at the same time a number Of 
handsome abbey-churches sprang up. At Strassburg a cathedral was 
erected by Bishop Werner; at Cologne the archbishops Herihertani 
Anno exhibited much zeal for church-building ;■ and at Treves the 
cathedral was extended by Poppe. The grandest' monuments of 

xxviii RHENISH ART. 

German mediaeval art, however, are the three Central Rhenish 
Cathedrals of Spires, Mayence , and Worms , examples of the 
golden prime of a style which began and also ended eariier here 
than in other northern districts. It was not till the Gothic period 
that France and England fully realised their architectural ideals, 
while the independent exertions of German masters had already 
culminated in their Romanesque cathedrals. It has frequently 
been asserted that these cathedrals originally possessed flat roofs 
only , and were not covered with vaulting till the 12th cent. ; but 
it is at least probable in the case of the cathedral of Spires that it 
was completely vaulted in during the 11th cent., to which period 
its huge crypt and massive articulation undoubtedly belong. The 
charming Abbey Church ofLaach proves that vaulted churches were 
easily and skilfully constructed in the first half of the 12th cent., 
notwithstanding the novelty of the style. While the pillars of this 
chuTch are of uniform pattern and are placed at considerable inter- 
vals, those of the Central Rhenish cathedrals are placed much 
closer together, and those which bear the vaulting are differently 
shaped from those supporting the arcades. 

Towards the end of the 12th cent., and for a considerable part 
of the 13th, Cologne was the chief cradle of Rhenish art. The sa- 
credness of the city as the custodian of the highly revered relics of 
the Magi, combined with the wealth and the political power of its 
enterprising citizens, not only led to the rebuilding of all the prin- 
cipal churches at this period, but were conducive to the general pro- 
gress of architecture, and contributed to impart a rich and pictur- 
esque decorative character to the city itself. The architects do not 
seem to have aimed at grandeur of dimensions. The naves of the 
churches are usually small and insignificant , but the builders ex- 
pended their utmost skill on the embellishment of the choirs. The 
apse, in combination with the rounded transepts , was regarded as 
the nucleus of the church , the other distinctive features of which 
consisted of the gable of the choir, the dome, and the towers. As an 
example of the picturesque effect of this arrangement we may men- 
tion the Church of the Apostles at Cologne when viewed from the 
Neumarkt. At the same time variety of ornament , richness of ar- 
ticulation, and pleasing effects of colour were also studied. Immed- 
iately under the roof runs a gallery , which is of some structural 
importance inasmuch as it lessens the dead weight of the wall, but 
is also effective in a decorative point of view as the small columns 
stand out in strong contrast to the dark background. Generally, 
indeed, the Rhenish masters appear to have devoted much attention 
to such effects of light and shade. Under the gallery runs a frieze 
consisting of dark slabs framed with light-coloured stone ; the col- 
umns and half-columns are of a different material from the walls ; 
and even the wall-pillars are composed of differently coloured stones. 
In keeping with this picturesque character is the richness of the 


ornamentation. The architects were not satisfied with straight and 
simple lines. Their windows are either round or fan-shaped , and 
they are disposed in groups or enclosed within a pointed arch. The 
portals consist of archways resting on several columns ; the -space 
above the doors is filled with sculpture; and the facade is enlivened 
with narrow pillars and entwined arches. Buildings- of this char- 
acter, whioh are typical of the Rhineland, and occur in almost every 
town of any importance, are usually described as belonging to the 
Tbanbitional "Sttlb, as if the forms recurring in them were iden- 
tical with those which pave the way for the Gothic. The- term, 
however, is entirely misapplied, as it is impossible in the rich and 
handsome Rhenish churches of the 12th and beginning of the 13th 
cent, to discover the slightest germ of the Gothic style. The style 
may, however, be appropriately characterised as the final and most 
ornate manifestation of Romanesque architecture, a definition which 
is borne out by the general tendencies of Rhenish-art. As an auxil- 
iary of this style we may now mention the art of Mubal Painting, 
which was developed at an unusually early period. Most of these 
paintings were unfortunately covered with whitewash at a later pe- 
riod, but those stfll- e%Utiiig(&t' SchwmhRheindorf, opposite Bonn, 
the paintings of which resemble. a symbolic- poem-, at Brauweiler 
near Cologne,' in.^ 8t. Maria im Capitol at Cologne, etc) exhibit a 
rich and thoughtful style of composition, and show that the painters 
were skilled in drawing and even in the delineation of complicated 
action. We cannot with any certainty judge of the colouring , but 
we at least possess sufficient materials to warrant the inference that 
the art of wall-painting was industriously practised on the banks of 
the Rhine as early as the second half of the 12th century. 

This prevalent branch of the Romanesque style, 'with its highly 
developed ornamentation, was not hastily abandoned by the Rhenish 
masters, and it was not till about the year 1250 that the Gothic 
Style, introduced from France, was completely nationalised in this 
part of Germany. The precise manner in which the Gothic archi- 
tecture, with its spirited flying buttresses, lofty vaulting, and other 
members relieving the monotony of the walls , was introduced into 
the valley of the Rhine is unknown ; but it was probably adopted 
simultaneously at several different points. At Cologne we observe 
in the church of 8t. Oereon an attempt to apply the new precepts to 
the old forms, and in the church of the Minorite*- we have a some- 
what plain example of Gothic dating from the middle of the 13th 
century. In the Liebfrauenkirehe at Trivet the Gothic forms were 
successfully adapted at an early period to an unusual ground-plan. 
The Cistercian Chweh at Marienstatt in. Nassau is a fine example 'of 
the early Gothic style, destitute as yet of all ornamentation, and to 
the same style belong the church of Rufach in Alsace and the west- 
ern parts of St j Thomas - at 8lra$»bw§ , • In the second half «f the 
13th cent, began the construction of the great Gothic Cathedrals, 


Those of Cologne and Metz were designed entirely in the Gothic 
style, while at Strassburg and Freiburg the earlier Romanesque be- 
ginnings were adapted to the new Gothic work. Goethe has con- 
tributed much to immortalise the name of Erwin of Steinbach, who 
is usually described as the originator of the cathedral of Strassburg, 
but that master's actual share of the work seems to have been limit- 
ed to the facade and the raising of the nave and aisles , including 
the disposition of the windows. The masters of the Strassburg as 
well as of the Cologne cathedral must have been thoroughly con- 
versant with the details of French Gothic , but they were very far 
from being mere mechanical copyists. The facade at Cologne and 
the tower at Strassburg are entirely emanations of German imagi- 
nation. In order, however, to convince himself of the independence 
of the German masters of the Gothic style the traveller must not 
confine his attention to the great cathedrals. Among the Smaller 
Gothic Churches he will discover frequent proofs of originality 
and not a few gems of architecture. Among these smaller churches 
we may mention the grave and dignified Abbey Church of Altenberg , 
near Cologne, and the Collegiate Church of Xanten , erected under 
the influence of Cologne masters ; the superb Church of St. Cathe- 
rine at Oppenheim and the ponderous Cathedral of Frankfort on the 
Central Rhine; and lastly, in Alsace, the Church of St. George at 
Schlettstadt, the Church of SS. Peter and Paul at Weissenburg, the 
church of Nieder-Haslach , and that of Thann, with its graceful 
tower. The numerous churches of the Mendicant and Dominican 
orders, some of which have nave and aisles of equal height, are gen- 
erally too plain and monotonous to arouse much general interest. 

The highest efforts of the Gothic architects in this part of Ger- 
many were devoted to the building of churches, but the Rhenish 
districts also contain Secular Edifices, including castles, town- 
halls , guild-houses , and private mansions , which present Gothic 
forms or at least Gothic characteristics. 

The eye, however, is less frequently struck by buildings of this 
class than by the churches, partly because well-preserved examples 
are now comparatively rare, and partly because in secular archi- 
tecture generally there is usually less room for marked changes of 
style. Throughout the whole of the middle ages the dwelling-houses, 
for example, were constructed of timber, and the character of their 
ornamentation was rather determined by the nature of the material 
than by the fashion of the day. Even in the case of the stone 
houses the projecting upper stories frequently recall the style of 
their wooden predecessors. The architectural character of the 
palaces, chateaux, and castles, on the other hand , was necessarily 
determined by military considerations. As the requirements of both 
defensive and offensive operations were almost equally important 
during the 11th cent, and again during the 13th, the chateaux and 
castles retained the same forms for several centuries. Of Barba- 


rossa's residence at Oelnhausen, an imperial palace of the Roman- 
esque period, there still exist considerable ruins. The palace of the 
same emperor at Hagenau (1157) was entirely destroyed during 
the Thirty Years' War. Among the mediaeval Castles those of 
Alsace are very numerous and important. The most considerable 
are the three Castles of Rappoltsweiler, that of Hoh-Barr near Sa- 
verne (1170), the Hohen-Kbnigsburg, the Wasenburg, near Nieder- 
bronn, and the Lichtenberg near Neuweiler, the last three belonging 
to the Gothic period. Most of the hills on the hanks of the Rhine 
and its tributaries are also crowned with the ruins of mediaeval 
castles. In most cases the pinnacled Bergfried, or Donjon , which 
was used both for purposes of attack and defence, is still standing; 
remains of the Palace, or dwelling-house, are also frequently pre- 
served ; and in many cases the outworks, gateways, and towers by 
which the approach to the castle was protected are still traceable. 
These ruins, however, which impart so picturesque a charm to the 
scenery of the Rhine, rarely possess much artistic value. The most 
interesting of the Rhenish castles is that of Reichenberg, near St. 
Goarshausen, with its three stories borne by columns. 

The Gothic architecture is also notable for the richness of its 
Plastic Ornamentation. The portals and the various niches 
and canopies are generally filled with statues, and the gables and 
other parts of the building adorned with reliefs. The finest speci- 
mens of Gothic statuary are to be seen on the Portals of the Lieb- 
frauenkirche at Treves and the ( 'nthedntls of Strassburg and Frei- 
burg. The Statues of the Apostles in the choir of the Cologne Cathe- 
dral also afford evidence that the Gothic sculpture was sometimes 
richly coloured. The same cathedral also contains the Monument 
of Archbishop Conrad v. Hochstaden, the finest specimen of bronze 
statuary of the Gothic period. The numerous tombstones of that 
period must also be examined by the student of the progress of 
Gothic sculpture, such as those of Archbishop Siegfried, Peter Aspelt, 
and Johann von Nassau, in the Cathedral of Mayence, and those of 
Oilnther von Schwanburg and Holzhausen and his Wife in the Ca- 
thedral of Frankfort. The best examples of late-Gothic sculpture, 
which afterwards degenerated into a mere handicraft, are to be found 
in the altars of carved wood. 

Throughout the middle ages, however, Rhenish artists evinc- 
ed more aptitude for the art of Painting than for that of sculpture. 
The stained glass at Strassburg, Cologne, and Oppenheim, and the 
remains of 14th cent, mural paintings at Cologne are not less val- 
uable than the easel-pictures of the 15th cent, which are still pre- 
served. At this period, as in the 12th cent., Cologne continued to 
be the cradle of Rhenish art. The Cologne School of Painting 
was the first of those which attained to any celebrity on German 
soil. The earliest master of the school known to us by name is 
Meister Wilhelm, who flourished at the end of the 14th cent., and 


from whose brush we possess one authentic work in the faded mural 
paintings of the Hansa-Saal in the Rathhaus of Cologne (now pre- 
served in the Museum). A number of easel-pieces, such as the 
altar-piece of St. Clara in the cathedral , are attributed to him with 
little or no foundation. There is, however, better authority for 
attributing to Meister Stephan Lochner the execution of the Dom- 
bild, the finest German painting of the 15th century. This master, 
who was a native of the district of Constance, and died in 1451, 
has been successful in substituting figures of considerable spirit 
and life for the traditional types of his predecessors , with their 
emaciated limbs, their undeveloped busts , and their childish ex- 
pression of countenance, but he has failed to take the next step to- 
wards fidelity to nature in omitting to individualise his characters. 
His female figures are all exactly alike, and his male figures, though 
divided into young and old, are also destitute of distinctive charac- 
ter. In his treatment of the drapery, weapons, gold trinkets, 
and all other external accessories, however, Meister Stephan cannot 
be reproached with the fault of monotony ; in executing these de- 
tails he is scrupulously faithful to nature, and his task was doubt- 
less facilitated by his occasional use of the newly invented art of 
oil-painting. The Dombild and the somewhat earlier Seminary 
Madonna (preserved in the Archi episcopal Museum) are the most 
important works of this school, the career of which somewhat re- 
sembled that of the early Flemish school under the leadership of 
Hubert van Eyck. The Rhenish masters, however, were soon sur- 
passed by their Flemish contemporaries, and ere long entirely lost 
their independence. About the end of the 15th cent, the art of 
painting in the Rhineland was at length thoroughly pervaded with 
Flemish influence. The new style, however, was least successfully 
imitated on the Lower Rhine, and particularly at Cologne. A 
number of pictures of the end of the 15th and beginning of the 
16th cent, , collected by the brothers Boisser^e and Hr. Wallraf, 
which were formerly ascribed to Netherlands masters, have recently 
been pronounced to be the works of painters of Cologne, not only 
from the fact that they were found in churches of Cologne , but 
owing to their marked Lower Rhenish characteristics. They pre- 
sent at the same time strong traces of Flemish influence, but the 
Flemish models are eitheT exaggerated or but rudely imitated. The 
drawing is stiff , the colouring gaudy , and the expression harsh. 
These works are generally classed in accordance with their subjects ; 
and we thus frequently hear of the 'Master of the Lyversberg Pas- 
sion', the 'Master of the St. Bartholomew', and other equally vague 
designations. The historian of art will find abundant opportunity 
of studying this school in the Museum of Cologne , but the subject 
is not one that will interest ordinary travellers. One of the best 
masters of the Lower Rhine was Jan Joest of Calcar , who painted 
the high altar-piece in the principal church there about 1505. 


Portrait-pointing was also practised with some suceess at this period 
by Barthel tk, Brugn, Johann von Mehlem, and others. 

The UrvBK Rhenish and Aiskakmiah Sesooit or Painting 
had a more prosperous caieei than the Lewer Rhenish. The masters 
of this school also succumbed to Flemish influence, bat they suc- 
ceeded in making a better use of what they had teamed in the 
Netherlands. At the head of the school was Martin Sehongauer of 
Colmar (d. 1488), a pupil of Roger van der Weyden, and more 
famous as an engraver than as a painter. The engraver's art, in- 
deed, fostered by the advance of scientific pursuits, was more 
rapidly and successfully developed than that of painting. The 
Younger Holbein, Mathim Gtumwald, and Ham Baldung Qrien 
were also members of this school, but as their training was not 
strictly Rhenish they are only mentioned here in passing. 

When, at a somewhat later period, the tide of the Benaiaaaaca 
overflowed theRhineland, it met with little or no resistance. After 
a brief conflict with the Gothic architecture, which gave rise to the 
erection of a number of curious buildings in a mixed style, the 
Renaissance, introduced from Fiance and Flanders, and possessing 
little in common with the genuine Italian Renaissance, became 
naturalised on the banks of the Rhine about the middle of the 16th 
century. This new style of art, however, never throve satisfactorily 
on Rhenish soil, partly because the Rhineland had ceased to be a 
great centre of civilisation as it had been in the middle ages, part- 
ly because the sway of ecclesiastical princes is less favourable to the 
steady progress of art than that of hereditary sovereigns, and also 
because this unfortunate region was the theatre of numerous wars 
which of course paralysed all artistic effort. Although Renaissance 
art never took the form of a permanent and organic system, it has 
bequeathed to the Rhineland several works of great importance. 
Foremost among these is the Castle of Heidelberg, the most sumptu- 
ous example of German Renaissance, next to which we may men- 
tion the Porcft of the Bathhaus of Cologne, the fragment of the 
Bathhaus of JuUeh, and the Schlosa ofAschaffenburg. On the Upper 
Rhine, in the Palatinate, and in Baden we encounter a number of 
handsome chateaux and pleasing houses in the Renaissance style of 
the 16th cent., but as a rule all other styles were completely over- 
shadowed and obscured by that of the Jesuits. 

The history of the Plastic Art of the Renaissance period is 
traceable in the numerous tombstones of the 16th and 17th cen- 
turies which are to be found not only in the large churches of the 
principal towns, but also in smaller and more remote places, such 
as Simmern, Boppard, and St. Armtal near Saarbrucken. A strik- 
ingly beautiful work of a late period is the tomb of the saint in the 
Church of 8t. Ursula at Cologne, which was executed in 1619. 

The dependence of the Rhineland on the Netherlands, which is 
often noticeable in the province of architecture, is still more ob- 

BaedeKbb's Rhine. 8th UAH. o 


vious in the Painting of this period. Numerous Netherlands 
masters migrated to the German courts, and the Germans them- 
selves imitated these foreign masters, even when they drew their 
inspirations from the Italians. In the second half of the 16th 
cent, the German masters fell under the influence of the Dutch 
school, and when French taste came to be in vogue they again 
yielded their homage to the fashion of the day. Many of these 
painters, even down to the 18th cent., such as Junker, SeekaU, 
and Roos of Frankfort, possessed considerable natural ability and 
manual skill, but at the present day their works are well-nigh 
consigned to oblivion. 

The most imposing of the Rhenish edifices of last century are 
the palaces in the Rococo or Baroque Style, erected by the vari- 
ous petty Rhenish princes, temporal and spiritual, in imitation of 
the palace of Versailles, such as those of Carlsruhe, Mannheim, 
Bruchsal, Bruhl, and Bonn. 

At the close of the century the Rhenish principalities were 
swept away by the French Revolution, and with them were extin- 
guished the last signs of the vitality of art. After the restoration 
)f peace, however, a revival began to take place. BoissereVs col- 
ection was the means of bringing early Rhenish art into very 
favourable notice and of inspiring the public with confidence in the 
;apabilities of Rhenish artists. The 'Romanticists' were desirous 
;hat Cologne should be made the new centre of art and science, but 
in 1818 the university was founded at Bonn, and in 1819 the 
icademy atDussELDOBF. The painter Cornelius, who was appoint- 
sd director of the academy, and who usually spent the winter 
>nly at Diisseldorf (and the summer at Munich), exercised no great 
nfluence on the progress of Rhenish art. He was succeeded by 
Wilhelm Schadow (1827), under whose able guidance the Diissel- 
lorf School was brought into the right track and secured the favour 
)f the public. The chief subjects of the painters of this. period are 
scenes from private life, melancholy, sentimental, and humorous, or 
poetical themes readily intelligible to the middle classes of society, 
ind their style is generally pleasing. Some of the masters of this 
ichool, and particularly Leasing, have also chosen themes of the 
leepest national interest. Forty years have elapsed since the Dussel- 
lorf School first attained celebrity, and the public taste has under- 
gone material changes since that period, but the industrious colony 
)f painters on the banks of the Dtissel still deservedly enjoys a high 
reputation. Lastly we may mention Veit's studio at Mayence, the 
school of art connected with the Stadel Gallery at Feankfort, and 
he academy of Cabxsbuhe, forming a kind of offshoot of the Diis- 
seldorf School, at all of which modern German painting is taught 
ind practised with considerable success. 

J. from Brussels to Cologne. 

138>/z' *." BrJSxPBlies in 6V2 hrs; (fares 26 fr. 25, 19 ! fti25 c). Small 
article* rrf laggagei -retained in the carriage are examined at Herbesthal, 
rejgUered lineage, on arrival at Cologne. Finest views between Lou vain 
and Liege to! the right. District between Liege and Aix-la.-Chapelle replete 
Wm itaferest. >- ' ' 

The Bebqisch-Mabkish Railway for DUueM*rf diverges from the line 
deferred below, MVmviers p?f;3)j. and,, nuns yi&. Bleybtrg (custom-house) 
and Aix-la-CAapetle (Templerbend Station). From Aix-la-Chapelle. to Diis- 
seldorf, see R. 5. Through-carriages at' Brussels for Dffsrfeldbrf (BerHnj'etc). 

BntSS&Is.f. — Hotels in the Place Boyale, in the upper part of the 
town: BSlleVCB, De Viixiatt',' De i/Europe, Meb*eM.b, all expensive. In 
the lower part of ths town: Gband HdtEL • i>E Bnt>XBia.E8, Boulevard 
Central; HBiki de 6uSdb, Rue de. njvigiie: Db Saxe and De l'Umivebs 
in the Rue iTeuve, leading' from the station into the town. De la Poste, 
Rue Fo3se"-aux-LoupV; Dii'VfEinra, Bue'de la' Fourctie, less pretending. 

• Engtish Ohurch 'Service at the Churfch of 'the: Resurrection, in the Rue 
Stassart, completed in 1874; at the chapel near the Forte de Namur; and 
at the French Protestant Church, Rite Belliard- 

- Brussels, the capital of Belgium aiid residence of ticking, con- 
tains, including the sttbtii-bs, about 400,000 inhab., 2 / 3 Tds of whom 
speak Flemish, and ifori Frerich. Like Paris it possesses its parks, 
boulfcvards, caf«Y J ehant&nts, tod other attractions; but this Paris 
iri'MniWlire should be seen before the great French metropolis by 
those wh6 would avoid disappointment. 

The passing visitor is recommended to take the following walk, 
which will occupy half-a-day:' Adjacent to the Rue Nenve, which 
leads from the station into the city, rises the ^Martyrs' Monument, 
designed by Geefs, and erected in 1888 to the memory of those who 
fell in the war withHoliand in 1830. • . ' 

Then past the Thf&lre Royal to the *B6tel de Vitte. The 
E. half' of the magnificent facade of the latter was begun in 1402, 
the W. in 1403 ; statues of Dukes of Brabant; ereeted in 1853, 
replace those mutilated by the sansculottes in 1792. On the W. 
side of the Place de l'HStel des Ville are various * Guild-houses, 
erected at the beginning of last century. At the back of the Hotel 
deVille, 1 at the corner of the Riie du Chene and the Rue de l'Etuve, 
is the curious ftfanneken fountain, much revered by the populace. 
The! *&alerie St. Hubert, an arcade near the Hotel de Ville, is a 
handsome structure, 1 ' 702 ft; long, 59 ft! high , arid 78 ft. broad, 
containing some of the most tempting shops in the City. The Place 

*i — ' ; , . ' , ■ *■ ..,•■ 

f For a : fuller description of Belgian towns, see Baedeker's Belgium 
and Holland. • *"* 

BAEPBKBK'a Rhine. R»h ViAtt J 

2 Route 1. LOUVAIN. From Brussels 

Royale is adorned with the equestrian *Statue of Godfrey de Bouil- 
lon, in bronze, executed by Simonis in 1848. The adjoining *Park 
is the favourite promenade of the citizens. On the S. side rises the 
Royal Palace, on the N. side the Palais de la Nation. 

Not far from the latter, beyond the Rue Royale, is the *Cathedral 
(Ste. Oudule et St. Michel), the finest church in Brussels, with two 
truncated Gothic towers. It was erected in the 13th- 14th cent., 
but the choir and the unfinished W. towers are of the 15th, the 
large (N.) chapel of the Sacrament of the 16th, the (S.) chapel of 
Notre Dame de Delivrance of the 17th cent., and the whole was 
restored in 1848-56. The chapel of Notre Dame contains a *Mon- 
utnent in marble to Count F. de Merode, who fell in a skirmish with 
the Dutch in 1830, executed by Geefs. 

AtSchaerbeek, the first railway-station, the Malines line diverges 
to the left. Then several small stations. 

18 M. Louvain, Flem. Leuven or Loven (Hotel de Suede; *Du 
Nord; Du Nouveau Monde), pop. 35,000. The traveller who stops 
here should not fail to visit the **H6tel de Ville, a magnificent edi- 
fice in the later Gothic style , erected 1448-63 , and the Gothic 
*Church of St. Peter, dating from the 15th cent., remarkable for 
symmetry of proportion. The choir-stalls in the Church of St. Ger- 
trude also merit inspection . 

29 M. Tirlemont, or Thienen (Nouveau Monde ; Hotel de Flandre ; 
Cerf; Rail. Restaurant), occupies an extensive area, nearly 6 M. in 
circumference, but is thinly peopled (13,700 inhab.). The Church 
of St. Germain probably dates from the 12th century. 

The train next traverses a lofty embankment , affording an ex- 
tensive view. In clear weather the Lion and the Prussian monu- 
ment at Waterloo may be distinguished in the distance to the right. 

Between Esemael and Landen the line intersects the plain of 
Neerwinden, the scene of two great battles. In the first the allies 
under William III. of England were defeated in the Spanish War 
of Succession by the French under Marshal Luxembourg, 29th July, 
1693; in the second the French under Dumouriez and Louis Phi- 
lippe ('Egalite') were defeated by the Austrians under the Duke of 
Coburg, 18th March, 1793. 

38 M. Landen was the birthplace of Pepin of Landen, ancestor of 
Pepin the Little and Charlemagne, and 'major-domo' of Clothaire II. 
He died here in 640, and was interred on the hill which bears his 
name. With him began the ascendancy of the Carlovingian line. 

Beyond (46 M.) Waremme, the line intersects the well-preserved 
Roman Road, or 'Road of Brunhilde' , from Bavay (Bavacum Ner- 
viorum) near Mons, to Tongres, 9 M. to the N.E. of Waremme. The 
Hesbaye, a district of which Waremme was formerly the capital, 
was noted for the strength and bravery of its inhabitants, as the 
old proverb testifies: 'Qui passe dans le Hesbain est combattu 

to Cologne. LlfiGE. 1. Route. 3 

The undulating, agricultural district of Brabant, with its phleg- 
matic Germanic inhabitants, is quitted near (58 M.) Ans (490 ft. 
higher than Liege) for a mining tract with a Walloon population of 
Celtic origin, remarkable for activity and vivacity of disposition. 

As the train descends the rapid (1 : 30) incline to Liege , a line 
view of the city and the valley of the Meuse is obtained. 

61 M. Liege, Flem. Luik, Ger. Luttich (*H6telde Suede; *H6tel 
d'Angleterre, etc.), is a town containing 122,000 inhabitants. A 
short stay here should be devoted to the Palais de Justice, the 
Church of St. Jacques , the Cathedral (St. Paul), and, for the sake 
of the view, the Citadel. 

Beyond Liege the Meuse is crossed by the handsome Pont du 
Vol Benott. Numerous lofty chimneys afford indication of the pros- 
perity of the district. The extensive zinc - foundry of the Vieille- 
Montagne company is next passed, and the Ourthe crossed. Chinee, 
the first station beyond Liege, is another manufacturing town. 

66 M. Chaudfontaine (*Orand Hdtel des Bains) is a small, but 
picturesquely situated watering-place, with a thermal spring (104° 
Fahr.), rising on an island in the Vesdre. 

Before the next tunnel is entered , the picturesque castle of 
La Bochette is seen on an eminence to the left. Near Le Trooz the 
ancient castle of that name is perched on the rooks to the right of 
the line. For upwards of a century a manufactory of gun-barrels 
has been established in the building. Farther on, to the right, is 
the castle of Fraipont. 

Between (70'/2 M.) Nessonvaux and (731/2 M.) Pepinster, to the 
right of the line, stands the Chateau de Masure (masure = ruined 
house), erected by a wealthy manufacturer of Verviers, and said to 
occupy the site of a hunting-seat of King Pepin. At Pepinster 
('Pepin's terre') a branch -line diverges to Spa, the well-known 
watering-place, 7 ] /2 M. distant. The next stat. Ensival, to the 
left of the line, is almost contiguous to Verviers. 

76^2 M. Verviers (H6tels du Chemin de Fer and d'AUemagne, 
both at the station; Rail. Restaurant, dear), with 40,300 inhab., 
the junction for Bleyberg (see p. 1), is a busy commercial town of 
recent origin. Here and in the environs about 400,000 pieces of 
cloth, worth 3,400,000t., are manufactured annually. 

On an eminence (*View) near stat. Bolhain, a modern town, 
picturesquely situated in the valley of the VesdTe, stands the an- 
oient fortress of Limburg , almost the sole remnant of the once 
flourishing capital of the duchy of that name, destroyed by Louis XIV. 
in 1675. The castle was the family seat of the powerful ducal fa- 
mily of Limburg, to which the emperors Henry VII. , Charles IV., 
Wenceslaus , and Sigismund of Germany belonged. Pedestrians 
will be repaid by a walk (about 25 M.) from Dolhain by Verviers 
to Liege. 

85 Vj M. Herbesthal, the first Prussian village, is the frontier 


4 Route 1. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. From Brussels 

station. The custom-house formalities cause a detention of about 
10 min. here. Beyond stat. Astenet , Lontzen and the castle of 
Welkenhausen lie to the left. The train crosses the valley of the 
Gohl by a handsome -viaduct, 128 ft. in height. To the left lies 
Hergenrad, and in the distance beyond, the Eineburg or Emma- 
burg, situated on the slope of wooded mountains (p. 10). 

The train next passes through two turmels (191 yds. and 833 yds. 
respectively), and finally descends to the Rhenish Station at — 

95 M. Aix-la-Chapelle. — Railway Stations. 1. Rhenish Station (PI. 
C, 5), for Cologne, Verviers, and Liege. 2. Templerbend Station (PI. A, 3), 
the main station of the Bergisch-Markisch Railway for Gladbach, Neuss, 
Diisseldorf, Bleyberg, Verviers, Liege, etc. 3. Marschierthor Station (PI. 
B, 5, 6), a second station of the Bergisch-Markisch Railway. These three 
are all used by the trains of the Belgian Grand-Central line (for Mastricht, 
Antwerp, etc.). 4. Station of the l Aachener Industriebahn" , at the Koln- 
thor (PI. D, 3). 

Hotels. 'Grand Monarque (PI. a; C, 3), Biichel 49-51; Hotel Nuel- 
lens (PI. b; C, 4), Friedrich-Wilhelms-Platz 5, 6, opposite the Elisenbrun- 
nen ; both belonging to the same landlord, and of the highest class. "Hotel 
Bellevue (PI. c; C, 3, 4), Holzgraben 3; ''Hotel de l'Empereur (PI. 1; 
B, C, 4), Edel-Str. 6; "Hotel Henrion (PI. f; C, 3), Comphausbad-Str. 13, 
adjoining the Curhaus; "Hotel Hoyee, or Imperial Grown (PI. e; C, 3), 
Alexander-Str. 34-36; Dragon d'Or (PI. d; C, 3), Comphausbad-Str. 9; 
Hotel zum Elephanten (PI. k; B, C, 4), Ursuliner-Str. 11; Konig von 
Spanien (PI. h; B, 4), Kleinmarschier-Str. 52, commercial; Rheinisoher 
Hop, Adalbert-Str. 22 ; Karlshaus, Capuzinergraben. All these in the in- 
terior of the town. — Near the Rhenish Station : Hoyer's Union Hotel, 
Bahnhofs-Platz 1; ''Hotel du Noro, Rbmer-Str. ; Kaisekhof, at the corner 
of the Hof'-Str. and the Wall-Str., with a large restaurant and concert- 
room; Hotel Stadt Duren, Bahnhofs-Platz 4; Brooking, Wall-Str. 1; 
the last two unpretending. — Near the Templerbend Station: Kloubert, 
Templergraben 66, with restaurant. 

Bath Establishments (also hotels, and open throughout the whole 
year; no table d'hote). "Kaiserbad (PI. 26; C, 3,4), Biichel 26-30; Neubad 
(PI. 27; C, 3, 4), Biichel 34; Quirinusbad (PI. 29; B, 4), Hof7; Konigin von 
Ungarn (PI. 28; C, 4), corner of the Biichel and the Edel-Str., a hand- 
some new building, finished in 1879. These four are the bath-houses of 
the 'Upper Springs' (p. 8). The following are supplied by the 'Lower 
Springs': Rosenbad (PI. 30; C, 3), Comphausbad-Str. 20; Corneliusbad (PI. 
31; C, 3), Comphausbad-Str. 18; Karlsbad (PI. 32; C, 3), Comphausbad-Str, 
16, all three opposite the Curhaus. — Cold and Warm Baths at the Swim- 
ming Baths in the Kaiser Platz, the water for which is supplied by the 
new aqueduct, finished in 1880, and at the Hangeweiher, outside the Ja- 

Restaurants. Wine. "Giesen (PI. in; 'tin Klupper), Holzgraben 1 and 
Ursuliner-Str. 21; Elisenbrunnen (in the pavilions and hall); Scheufen, 
Hartmann-Str. 7 ; Fischenich, Kapuzinergraben 19; Wiener Hofburg, Adal- 
bert-Str. 35 ; Bernarts, see below ; Erholung, Fried. Wilhelms-Platz, a fa- 
vourite place of amusement, with richly decorated rooms. — Oysters 
Lennertz, Kloster-Str. 23. — Beer: "Fausten, Wirigsbongard 43 (PI. C, 4) 
Bavaria, Friedrich-Wilhelms-Platz ; "Kiippers, Harscamp-Str. 57 (PI. C, 4) 
Fasshauer, Kapuzinergraben, opposite the theatre; Fkkartz, Vandeneschen, 
Hochstrasse ; Kaisersaal, Wall-Str., with a handsome concert-room; Mon- 
jau, at the theatre. Several 'Bierkeller' at the foot of the Lousberg (PI. 
A, B, 1), at the Frankenburg (p. 10), etc. 

Cafes: at the Curhaus (see p. 8); at the Elisenbrunnen (p. 8); at the 
Lousberg (see p. 10). • — Confectioners: WaM, Theater-Platz 7; Geulen, 
Theater-Platz 9; (tellers, Damengraben 7. 

Cabs. From 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. (at night double fares): — 

(1) Per drive: Within Aix-la-Chapelle and Burtscheid, 1 pers. 60, each 


I s>- 


a Motel Grand 'Jttmarqiu , t3\& Alt -Sayri-n . . C4 
n b XuvlLerui C.wRJiwu'gvwi Spajiieju , R4 

c . Fnudt . . ClWi MutSoyvU . C& 

d diLMragondor Cat . ScMeriimvr Jt.C.4 

e . %r . C.3 1 - tUl'Empereur. J.C4 

f . JhUiql- l\3knK<-st tiirsen innS&fjpetfc* 

libra •Minuter' 

4* S'.li'onJuird . 

5 Skater 

6 Marten 

7 S.PauZu* 
U Jxrvuz ■ 
9 Tkeresuuver 

lit mi sab a Ih 

12 S. Jacob 

18 Ei'tLiifjeliseAc 

1 J; ElisenbrunjieiV 


UiJiiirhuu.* - 

17 PobrU>ciiJiikum> AB.3. 

lftSrtr^/i««* . B.3. 

l: 21.800 2— 


to-^Gotofam**'* AfiMiA-CHAPELLE. 1. Route. 5 

additional pers. 20 pf. ; luggage under lOlbs. free, trunk 30 pf. — To the 
Belvedere Inn on ihe Loutberg; i-2 pers. 1 m. 80 pf.; 84 pers. 2 m.; to 
the top of the hill 2 m., and 2 m. 50 pf. 

<£) By time: Bach «/* hr. 1-2 pers. 1 m. 30 pf., 34 per*, lm: 50 pf. 

Tramways 'traverse Aix-la-Chapelle and Btwtscheid, in various direc- 
tions ; comp. the Plan. 

__ Post and telegraph Office (PI. 22-, B, 4), Jacob-Str. 23. Also at the 
Bhemsh Station, in the Wall-Str., etc. 

,■ 3*****"- Stadl-Theater (PI. 20), operas, dramas', Comedies, etc; Tha- 
tta-Theater, Fratra-8tr. 47, operettas, comedies, vaudevilles; Berharti ' Bai- 
twt-Theater,' with a large concert-room, garden, and restaurant. 
■*•' Music. During the season (1st May to 1st Oct.), 7-8 and 12-1, in the 
garden by the Elisenbrunnen, and 3 to 4.30 p.m. at theCurhaus; on Sun- 
days, 12-1, by the theatre. 

•■- Picture Gallery of M. Jacobi, Theater-Plate 17. 

**" English Chnroh in the Anna-Strasse -, services at 11.16 a.m. and 7 p.m. 
Chaplain, Rev. Charles de CoUlogon, Hochstrasse 69. 
'"'Aix-la-ChapeUe, German Aachen, a very aricient town with 
85,432 inhah., the Aquisgranum of the Romans, lies in a fertile 
basin surrounded by gently sloping hills. It was a favourite resi- 
dence of Charlemagne, who died here in 814. That monarch elevated 
thfr town to the rank of the second city in his empire, and the capital 
of his dominions N. of the Alps. From his death down to the 
accession of Ferdinand I. (1531) Aix witnessed the coronation 
of all the German emperors (37), and was called pqr excellence the 
free city of the Holy Roman Empire and seat of royalty f'uros 
Aquensis, urbs regalia, regni aedes prtaeipatia, prima regum curia!). 
The insignia of empire were preserved here till 1793, when they 
were transferred to the Imperial treasury at Yienna. Aix-la-ChapeUe 
has frequently been the scene of Imperial diets, ecclesiastical con- 
vocations, and congresses. In 1668 the peace, between Louis XIV. 
and Spain was concluded here, by which the French king abandoned 
his .pretensions to the Netherlands; the second Peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelte, of 1748, terminated the Austrian War pf Succession ; and 
by ..the treaty of 1818 the German armies were recalled from France. 

Externally this venerable imperial oityhas retained few remi- 
niscences of her ancient history. The cathedral, corn - exchange, 
Rat-bhang,, and a few- gates are now the only old buildings. Aix has 
become an entirely modern town , with broad, handsome streets, 
considerable manufactories (of cloth, needles, and maohinery), and 
attractive shops. 

,The Maxkjbt, adorned with. a Fountain and. a poor statue of 
Charlemagne erected in 1620, forms the centre of the city. Here, is 
situated the *Rathhaus (PL 18 *,B, 3), ; a plain Gothic edifice, begun 
in 1358 by the burgomaster Hitter Gerhard Chorus, the builder of 
the cathedral choir, on. the site, and partly with the fragments of the 
ancient. Carlovingiam palace, and completed in 13^6. The building 
has recently been, carefully and thoroughly restored. The facade is 
flanked by two towers ;.;the,!W., orr ! GrwvMurm', partly belongs 
to the ancient palaoe;; the other is of the 13thcentury. - . T; 

A fligWiof step<(, erected, in, 1878* leads from £he mariiet^place :tq,the 
Vestibule on the first floor, from which we ascend the Gothic staircase, 

6 Route 1. ALX-LA-CHAPELLE. From Brussels 

added in 1848 (view of the cathedral from the balcony), to the Kaisersaal 
(custodian 50-75 pf. ; more for a party). 

The s "Kaisersaal, a hall 55 yds. long and 20 yds. wide, with vaulting 
borne by four massive buttresses, occupies the whole length of the upper 
floor. The walls are decorated with eight "Frescoes, which rank among 
the finest modern examples of historical painting; the first four are by 
Alfred Rethel (born at Aix 1816, d. 1859); the others, designed by him, were 
executed, with more vigorous colouring, by Kehren: — 

1. The Emp. Otho III. opening the burial-vault of Charlemagne; 
2. Fall of the 'Irmensaule' ; 3. Battle with the Saracens at Cordova ; 
4. Conquest of Pavia in 774 (these by Bethel) ; 5. Baptism of Wittekind and 
Alboin ; 6. Coronation of Charlemagne in St. Peter's at Rome ; 7. Building 
of the Cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle ; 8. Abdication of Charlemagne and 
Coronation of his son Louis the Pious. Polychromic ornamentation of 
buttresses and vaulting by Kleinertz. The thirty-seven consoles on the 
walls are destined for small statues of the German emperors who were 
crowned at Aix. 

The Council-Hall contains portraits of Napoleon, Josephine, the Em- 
press Maria Theresa, the oldest and most celebrated portrait of Charlemagne, 
by an unknown master, and others. The stained-glass window, with a 
portrait of the Emp. William, is by M. H. Schmitz, 

The "Cathedral, or Miinster (PI. 1), consists of two distinct parts 
in different styles of architecture. That portion erected hy Charle- 
magne in 796-804, and consecrated by Leo III. , a noble example 
of the Byzantine style, is an octagon copied from S. Vitale at 
Ravenna, and partly built by Italian workmen, 48 ft. in diameter, 
surrounded by a sixteen-sided passage, and terminating in a cupola, 
104 ft. high. The eight gables of the central structure are of the 
beginning of the 13th cent., the lofty, fantastic roof is of the 17th. 
The octagon is surrounded by several chapels, built in the 14th and 
15th cent., and afterwards partly altered. Adjoining the octagon 
on the E. is the lofty and elegant Gothic Choir, begun by Bitter 
Gerhard Chorus in 1353, and completed in 1413. A thorough re- 
storation of the whole edifice has now been some years in progress. 

On the right and left of the principal entrance, borne by modern 
pillars, are a brazen Wolf, probably of Roman origin, and a Pine-Cone, 
dating from the 10th cent., both having doubtless once belonged to a 
fountain, the water of which flowed from apertures among the hair 
of the wolf, and from holes in the pine-cone. According to the 
mediaeval legend connected with the wolf, the funds for the erection 
of the church having run short, the devil offered to supply the de- 
ficiency on condition that the first living being that entered the 
building should be sacrificed to him. The magistrates entered into 
the compact, but defrauded the devil of his expected reward by 
admitting a wolf into the sacred edifice on its completion. The 
Bronze Doors were cast about 804. 

The *Intebiob op the Octagon is borne by eight massive 
pillars, which separate the central space from the surrounding two- 
storied passage. The lofty, round-arched openings of the upper 
story, or 'Hochmunster', are enlivened with a double row of col- 
umns, of unequal length, some of them in marble, others in granite, 
brought from Rome, Treves, and Ravenna. The most valuable were 

to Cologne. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. 7. Route. 7 

taken to Paris by the French in 1794, but restored in 1815; some of 
them were replaced by new ones in 1845. The capitals are all new, 
and unfortunately differ materially in ornament from the Byzantine 
originals. The large Mosaic in the dome, on a gold ground, repre- 
senting Christ surrounded by the 24 Elders of the Apocalypse, was 
executed by Salviati fy Co. from a design by J. Bethune, in the 
style of an old mosaic with which the dome was originally adorned. 
The gilded Candelabrum was presented by Frederick Barbarossa in 
1165. The inscription 'Carolo Magno' on the pavement beneath it 
dates from the beginning of the present centuTy. The tomb of the 
illustrious emperor was probably in a chapel adjoining the church. 
The so-called Ungarische Cdpelle, adjoining the octagon on the S. 
(to the right of the "W. entrance), recently restored in the Gothic 
style, contains the treasury (see below). The Kreuz-Capelle, or 
Chapel of St. Nicholas, on the N.W. side, retains its Gothic archi- 
tecture of the beginning of the 15th century. (The egress leads to 
the late-Gothic Cloisters, with the small 'Drachenloch', a relic of 
an interesting late-Romanesque edifice.) 

The *Choir is remarkable for its light and elegant proportions. 
The large windows are filled with richly coloured *Stained Olass, 
representing scenes from the life of the Virgin (Assumption and 
Coronation designed by Cornelius), executed partly at Berlin, and 
partly at Cologne and Aix. On the pillars between the windows 
are statues of Charlemagne , the Virgin Mary , and the Twelve 
Apostles, of 1430, recently coloured. The *Reading Desk, consisting 
of an eagle on a rich stand of open-work, cast in copper in the 15th 
cent., is also worthy of notice. Behind it is the stone which marks 
the Tomb of Otho III. (d. 1002). The Pulpit, richly adorned with 
gold, precious stones, and carved ivory, was presented by Henry II. 
(d. 1024). The sacristan shows the pulpit, the imperial throne, 
and sarcophagus (l-l^m.). 

The Hochmunstbb, or gallery of the octagon, contains the Im- 
perial Throne, composed of marble slabs, on which the remains of 
Charlemagne (d. 814) reposed for upwards of 350 years, having 
been found by Emp. Otho III. who opened the tomb in the year 
1000. Frederick Barbarossa opened the tomb a second time in 
1165, and transferred the remains to an antique Sarcophagus, while 
the throne was afterwards used for the coronation of the emperors. 
The sarcophagus, in Parian marble, with the Rape of Proserpine in 
relief, is also preserved here ; but the remains of the emperor, who 
had been canonised in 1164, were placed by Frederick II. in a reli- 
quary composed of gold and silver (see below) about 1215. The 
*Balustrade between the columns was cast about the year 804, and 
is perhaps of Italian workmanship. — The Carls- Capelle, which 
adjoins the Hochmunster on the N., dating from the beginning of the 
14th cent., has been recently restored, and handsomely decorated 
with polychrome ornamentation and coats-of-arms by Kleinertz. 

8 Route 1 . AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. From Brussels 

The rich -Cathedral Treasury (shown daily, except Sundays and festi- 
vals, from 10 to 12 and from 1 to 6 o'clock; ticket for 1-3 persons 3 m.., 
for each additional person 1 m. ; a single traveller will frequently find 
opportunities of joining a party) is contained in the above-mentioned 
Ungarisehe Capelle (Keeper, Herr Lennartz, Domhof 1). The chief objects 
of interest are the sumptuous late-Romanesque Shrine of the Four Great 
Relies, executed in the year 1220 (containing the 'robe of the Virgin, 
the swaddling-clothes of the infant Christ, the bloody cloth in which the 
body of John the Baptist was wrapped, and the linen cloth with which 
the Saviour was girded on the Cross', which are shown to the public 
gratis once only every seven years); Reliquary of Charlemagne, likewise 
a magnificent late-Romanesque work; the Bust of Charlemagne, in gold 
and enamel, 14th cent.; the Cross of Lothaire, presented by that monarch 
(d. 1137); several admirably executed Gothic Reliquaries; sixteen Reliefs 
in gold, with scenes from the Passion, etc., in the Romanesque style; 
the Hunting-horn of Charlemagne, of oriental ivory-work; numerous 
mediseval vessels, in gold and silver, candelabra, and other curiosities. 
These objects are preserved in large glass cabinets, closed by winged 
doors, on the insides of which are paintings of the early Flemish school, 
attributed to Hugo van der Goes, a pupil of the Van Eycks (15th cent.). 

In the Fischmarkt, a little to the W. of the cathedral, is the 
dilapidated Kornhaus (PL 15 ; B, 4), or Orashaus, perhaps the old 
Town Hall, completed in 1267, and embellished with statues of the 
seven Electors (?). 

The celebrated warm Sulphur Sprixgs of Aix, which were 
known to the Romans, rise in Aix itself and the neighbouring town 
of Burtscheid from the limestone-rock, and there are also several 
chalybeate springs which have their source in the clay-slate. Of 
the former the chief is the Kaiserquelle (131° Fahr.), which rises 
on the 'Biichel', on the slope of the market-hill (PI. B, 3), and 
supplies the Kaiserbad, Neubad, 'Queen of Hungary', and Elisen- 
brunnen. The Quirinusquelle (125°) rises in the bath-house of that 
name in the neighbouring 'Hof. These two springs are called 
the 'Obere Quellen'. The 'Untere Quellen', as the Rosenquelle 
(TIG ) and Corneliusquelle (113°) are called, rise in the Comp- 
hausbad-Strasse, a little to the N.E. of the others. The remains of 
extensive Roman baths have lately been discovered under the Kai- 
serbad and Neubad ; part of them is visible in the cellar of the 
latter. The baths of Aix-la-Chapelle are annually visited by about 
8000 patients, besides passing travellers. 

The Elisenbrunnen (PI. 14 ; C, 4), as the drinking spring is 
named after the consort of Fred. "William IV., is in the Friedrich- 
Wilhelms-Platz. The Doric colonnade connected with it, 90 yds. 
long, was designed by Schinkel and erected in 1822-24. Two flights 
of steps descend to the 'Trinkhalle', above which is placed a bust 
of the queen by Tieck. At the back of the colonnade is the Elisen- 
yarten, where a new Trinkhalle was erected in 1873, and where 
a band plays from 7 to 8 a.m. during the season. 

From the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Platz several streets flanked with 
handsome shops lead to the N.E. to the Comphausbad-Strasse, 
in which, opposite to the bath-houses, is situated the Curhaus 
(PI. 16; C, 3), built in L78'2, which forms the chief centre of at- 

to Cologne. AIX,-LA-CHAPELkE. 1. jRottte. >9 

traction to visitors, and, contains .-a large ball and concert-room, 
beautifully -fitted up in the Renaissance style, a restaurant, and a 
readingrioom • (open < till/ 10p.m. ; i adSli'Mion, for non-subscribers 
60 p£. ; closed at, the end of the season)^ The i Art- Industrial CqIt 
tertiary of >the Museum- Verein .is alsoia the Curhaus, Adjoining 
the Curhaus, ibnt facing the ;Guxgarten, is the C«rsaal, in the 
Moorish style, completed. in 1 863, fromWiekop'^ design. Music in 
the Cwgarten 5-4.30 daily.* 

On the S.E. side of the Friedrioh-Wilhelms-Platz lies the 
Theater-Platay in which rises the Theatre (PI. 20), erected from a 
plan by Cremerin 1822t24. Opposite are the Government Build- 
ings (PI. 19). 

Jn the 'vicinity is the handsome Oothio Jlfari«»J»f»cfte, (PI. 6; 
C* 5), in brick, ereated by State, an architect of Cologne, in 1859. 
The tower is surmounted by a. gilded figure, <rf. the Vingin. 

The open space in front of the Rhenish Station (PI. C, 5) is 
-embelHsihedwfeththe *Warriori' Monument, exected-by subscription 
in 1872 to the memory of natives of Ajx and the. neighbourhood 
who feU,in, the campaigns of 1866 and 1870-r7Jt. The dying warrion, 
to whom an angel presents the palm of victory,, executed in bronze, 
was designed by Drake* 

->! At the opposite end .of the town, in the spacious Platz at the 
Jempjerbepd, near the Aashen and Mastricht .Station,, is situated 
the BhenishrWestphalian *Polytechnie School (PI. 17; A„B, 3), 
erected by .Cremer. in ,1865-70^, and now attended by 400 students. 
The handsome, staircase and hall should -be inspected* — Adjacent 
is the Chemical, laboratory, a fines Renaissance edifice built by 
Ewerbeck and,;MWT79, yith- accommpdatipn foj about 120 
Students. -,,,. r .«^.„«j . , ,. i *'.,,; ??> , 1 

The other «h arches »f Aix-la- Ghapeller contain little to detain 
the traveller. The AugustihiahChiireh(Vl:Q,; B, 3) contains a paint- 1 
ing by Diepenbeck , a pupil of Rubens,. th6 Pariah Church of St. 
MiehaetQfl. 3; B, 4) a Descent from t&e Cross by Bonthorst, and 
the Chtorbh of St: Ltonhard (PI. 4; B, C, 5) a Nativity by De 
Crayer! — In the Prome,nad^n^Str., is tb,e Hew Synagogue (PI. 21 ; 
D, 3), in the Moorish style , designed by Wickop. A new ohurehj 
designed by Wrdfflase, has been built in the Jacob-Str. 
' , The medical forti flcations of the town have beett almost en- 
tirely converted into promenades, but the Martehiah- Thor (PI. Oj 5) 
aihd the Powt-Tftor (PI! A, 2) of the 14th cent. , and a few dther 
relics of them are still extant. — Between the Cologneand Sandkaul 
(tetas rises the imposwg.Mariahibf Hospitab(Pl. D 2), built in 1850, 
with pleasant grounds, always open to thfe ptffHc. In the Kaiser- 1 
Platz, by tfie Adalberts-Thor (PI. D, 4), rises the tfaiserbrunne n t 
a tasteful fountain purchased- at tihe Paris Exhibition of 1878 and 
erected Here in commemoration ofthe-'CMden Wedding' of the te 
peror of Germaiijf in 1879, — The adjacent, Steffens-Platz ,is afsp 

10 Route 1. BURTSCHEID. From Brussels 

embellished with a pretty fountain. — Outside the Adalberts-Thor, 
to the right, is a kind of marble temple, erected in 1844 to com- 
memorate the Congress of Aix in 1818. Adjoining it is the turret- 
ed Gothic Prison, by Cremer. — Opposite lies the Roman Catholic 
Cemetery, containing a monument to the memory of the French 
and German soldiers who died at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1870-71 . 

The *Lousberg (859 ft.), a wooded eminence to the N. of the 
town (PI. A, B, 1 ; cab , see p. 4), and rising 200 ft. above it, 
ascended in 40 min. from the Marschier-Thor, or in J /4 hr. from 
the Pont-Thor, is laid out in grounds and shady walks. The sum- 
mit , on which rises an Obelisk (a large cafe near it) , commands a 
fine survey of the busy town and the wooded, undulating environs ; 
to the E. lies the rich, grassy Soersthal, with numerous country- 
residences and coal-mines. The white Wallfahrtskirche, or pilgrims' 
church , on the adjacent Salvatorberg, is a conspicuous object. 

Adjacent to Aix on the S.E. side , and connected with it by 
promenades and new buildings , lies the town of Burtscheid , or 
Borcette (Carlsbad; Rosenbad; Schwertbad ; Johannisbad) , with 
10,000 inhab., which also contains important baths and manufac- 
tories. On an eminence in the centre of the town rises the church 
of St. John the Baptist, which formerly belonged to a Benedictine 
Abbey founded by Emp. Henry II. in 1018, but has been remod- 
elled in the degraded taste of last century. The principal springs 
are the Victoriabrunnen (140° Fahr.), the Kochbrunnen (158°), and 
a drinking spring (162°), which together yield such abundance of 
hot water as to form a Warm Brook, adjoining which and separated 
from it by a footpath, is the Cold Brook. — To the N.E. of Burt- 
scheid is the long viaduct of the Rhenish Railway (see below). 

The Frankenburg, 1 M. E. of the Rhenish Station, was once a hunt- 
ing-seat of Charlemagne. There are now no remains of the original build- 
ing, the principal part, lately restored, dating from 1642. The pond 
surrounding the castle was once a large lake, in which, according to tra- 
dition, was sunk the magic ring of Fastrada (p. 141), the third wife of Char- 
lemagne. Attracted to this spot by its influence , the monarch is said 
to have sat here for days, gazing on the lake, and mourning for his lost 
consort. The ground round the castle has been laid out as a park. — 
(As far as the Gillesbach , near the Frankenburg , ordinary cab-fare is 

About 3/4 M. farther in the same direction is Trimborn, a grove where 
a Roman legion-stone and a gigantic sarcophagus were discovered. The 
artificial ruin at the entrance is constructed of the fragments of a chapel 
of the time of Charlemagne. Carriage 2'/2-3 m. 

The promenades of the CarlshBhe, V/2 M. to the S.W. of Aix, »/« M. 
from Ronheide (station on the line to Verviers and Liege), afford the finest 
view of the town. Carriage 3-4 m. 

About 6 M. to the S.W. of Aix-la-Chapelle, on the hill-side, stands 
the ancient Emmaburg, a castle from which Eginhard, the private 
secretary of Charlemagne , is said to have abducted the princess Emma. 
It may be reached either from Astenet, the second railway-station towards 
Liege (p. 4), not far from the great Gbhl Viaduct, or from Bleyberg (see 
p. 1). The neighbouring cadmium-mines and zinc-foundries of the Vieille 
Monlagne Company are in the parish of Moresnet, which is neutral ground 
belonging to Prussia and Belgium in common. 

to Cologne. ESCHWEILER. 1. Route. 11 

Gornelhnunater , with the handsome late-Gothic buildings of the sup- 
pressed Abbey (now a Roman Catholic teachers 1 seminary), situated 6 M. 
to the S.E. of Aix-la-Chapelle in the picturesque valley of the Inde , at 
the foot of the Hohe-Venn, on the Treves road, is a favourite point for 

Railway to Cologne (44 M., in iy 2 -2 hrs. ; fares 6, i l / 2 , 
3 m. ; express tiain, 7^2 m-)- Few lines exhibit such varied forms 
of railway engineering as that between the Belgian frontier and Co- 
logne. On leaving the station of Aix-la-Chapelle the train crosses 
a Viaduct 308 yds. in length , and passes the Frankenburg (to the 
left, see above) ; it then passes through the Nirmer Tunnel (!/ 2 M.), 
traverses the Reichsbuach wood, and stops at the station for (101 M.) 
Stolberg (Hissel ; Welter), a prosperous town with 10,000 inhab., 
situated iy 2 M. from the main line (diligence 12 times a day). 
Stolberg is the centre of one of the most important manufacturing 
districts in Germany, the numerous products of which are sent to 
every part of the world. For the foundation of its prosperity it 
was indebted to French Protestant refugees, who established 
brass-foundries here in the 17th cent., and drove a thriving trade. 
The old chateau is supposed to have once been a hunting seat of 

The principal products of the district are zinc, lead, and silver ; there 
are also manufactories of pins, needles, mirrors, glass, chemicals, etc., 
the fuel consumed by which is yielded in abundance by the coal-mines 
of the Eschweiler Pumpe (near the railway) and others in the neighbour- 
hood. There is probably no other locality in Germany where so many 
branches of industry are so successfully prosecuted within so small a space. 

Branch-line from Stolberg to (8 M.) Alsdorf in 1 hr. lOmin. — Another 
branch-line runs from Stolberg by Eschweiler Au and Eschweiler (see 
below) to Julich (see p. 12), whence, united with the Duren-Julich rail- 
way, it goes on to Amelen, Hoch-Neukirch, Odenkirchen, Rheydt (see p. 48), 
and Gladbach (see p. 48). — A third line, the 'Aachener Industrie-Bahn% 
runs by Weiden, Wiirselen (whence there is a connecting line to Aix-la- 
Chapelle), and Qrevenberg to (5 M.) Morsbach. 

The train now traverses a most picturesque district, with nu- 
merous coal-mines and foundries. Near Eschweiler it crosses the 
Inde, and passes through a tunnel. 

104 M. Eschweiler (*Driefer), a busy and rapidly growing town 
of about 15,000 inhab., picturesquely situated in a valley, with a 
castellated hospital. — The forges, foundries, puddling-works, and 
factories in the immediate neighbourhood of Eschweiler employ 
3000 workmen. 

Farther on, to the left, near Nothberg, rises the Rottger Sehloss, 
an ancient castle with four towers, now the property of Herr von 
Burtscheid. Among the hills to the right are several villages, in- 
cluding Werth, the supposed birthplace of the celebrated Imperial 
general John of Werth (d. 1651), and Oressenich, the ancient royal 
residence of Orassiniacum, near which are extensive mines of cad- 
mium, iron, and lead-ore, once worked by the Romans, as proved 
by Roman coins found in them. 

12 Route 1, BUREN. 

109 M. Langerwehe (Sehiitzenhof), a village with 2000 inhab., 
near which is a large needle-manufactory. 

The route from Langerwehe to the Roerthal is pleasanter than that 
from Diiren (see below). Passing the needle-factory and the grounds of 
Herr Schleicher we reach (2 M.) Schonthal (Schbnthaler Hof), which is 
much irequented in summer, and ( 3 /i M.) Wenau (Huppertz), with an old 
abbey-church. The way then leads through beautiful woods to (6 St.) 
Hiirtgen and (4'/2 M.) Bergstein (see below). 

The spurs of the Eifel are seen on the right. At the base of 
the wooded heights of the Hochwald on the right lies the village of 
Merode, l'/o M. from Langerwehe, and 3 M. from Diiren, with a 
handsome old turreted chateau, dating from the 13th cent., the 
seat of a wealthy Belgian family. The train crosses the Roer. 

114^2 M. Diiren (Hotel Mommer ; Windhduser, moderate; Rhein- 
ischer Hof), the Marcodururn of Tacitus , a busy town of 17,000 
inhab., with manufactories of cloth, paper, iron, etc., is situated 
on the Roer (pron. Roof) in a fertile plain. The most conspicuous 
object in the town is the lofty tower of the church of St. Anna. To 
the right of the station are the buildings of the Lunatic and Blind 
Asylums for the district, erected by subscription in 1842. The 
Rathhaus contains a good Collection of Antiquities. 

The Valley of the Roer presents some very picturesque points above 
Kreuzau, a village 3 M. to the S. of Diiren, on the road to Nideggen (9'/2 M. ; 
diligence daily). Pedestrians diverge here to the right from the road and 
ascend the valley, which gradually contracts and is bounded by lofty sand- 
stone rocks, to (V* hr.) Winden, O/2 hr.) Unter-Maubach, O/4 hr.) Ober-Mati- 
bach. We then descend to the left by the chapel, pass the first side-valley, 
and ascend, opposite the Mausaul rocks, to the village of Bergstein, which 
has long been visible ("Jansen, unpretending). Before reaching the wooded 
summit of the Burgberg we have a fine survey of the Roerthal, and from 
the top we obtain a superb view of the ruins of Nideggen. We then 
descend the Roerthal to Zerkall, and again ascend to (D/4 hr.) Nideggen 
("Ifeiliger; "Miiller, moderate), situated on a rock rising precipitously 
from the Roer, and crowned with the conspicuous ruins of a castle dat- 
ing from 1180, which was once a favourite residence of the Counts of 
Julich (adm. 25 pf.). Following the valley beyond Nideggen, the traveller 
next reaches O/2 hr.) Abenden, (20 min.) Blens, (20 min.) Hansen, and the 
strikingly picturesque village of Heimbach (Post; Scheid) with the in- 
significant ruin of Hengebach. The church contains a carved altar of the 
13th century. From Heimbach, Ziilpich (p. 181) may be reached by dili- 
gence in 2 3 /4 hrs. — The finest point in the valley of the Roer is Montjoie 
(Hembaeh), I8V2 31. above Nideggen, magnificently situated in a rocky 
ravine, and enhanced by two ruined castles. 

Fkom Duren to Neuss, 30'/2 M. , railway in H/4 hr. ; stations Elsdorf, 
Bedburg, Harff, Orevenbroich, Capellen-Wevelinghoven. jYeuss, see p. 45. 

Fkom Dukes to Joliuh (91/2 M.) in 25-30 min. (1 m. 20, 90, 70 pf.). 
Julich or Juliers, the capital of the ancient duchy of that name, has be- 
longed to Prussia since 1814. The fortifications were dismantled in 1860. 
From Julich to Gladbach, see p. 11. 

From Diiren to Euskirchen and Treves, see R. 26. 

120 M. Buir. 127 M. Horrent lies in the luxuriant vale of the 
Erft, which abounds with seats of the Rhenish noblesse. To the left 
the chateaux of Frenz and Hemmersbach, or Horremer Burg. The 
valley of the Erft is soon quitted by the Konigsdorf tunnel, 1 M. in 
length. Then — 

ROTTERDAM. 2. Route. 18 

130Va M. Xmig$darf,. to the tight beyond which, in the distance, 
is the village of Brauweilet , ■with an ancient Beaedictine Abbey, 
now a reformatory. TheoldA66«y Chureht ereoted in the 13th cent., 
in the late-Romanesque style ,' contains an interesting engraved 
tomb-stone of,14§3^ and some ancient frescoes on the vaulting of 
the chapter-house, both valuable in the history of art. 

As Cologne is approached the line traverses a fertile plain* 
studded with detached houses and factories. The hills to the right 
are spurs of the Vorgebirge, a low range which begins on the 
left bank of the Rhine between Cologne and Bonn. 

138VaM. Cologne, gee R. 3. 

2, From Rotterdam to Cologne. 

Comp. Map, p. 44. 

Railway 0.) by lTtie6ht : , Zevenaar," Emmerich , Oberhausen '," and 
jDiiseeldprf; (2) bjr Utrecht. Zevienaar, Cleveland Cufeld. Eupms by 
both lfres in 6 hrs. (fores 12 florins 70 cents, 10 fl. , 6 fl. 40 c.)„ Exami- 
nation ofluggage at the Prussian ciistam-loilse at Elten. (The Dutch florin, 
or guilder, worth 1«. 8d. ( is divided; into MO cents.) ,••>••>•> 

.Sibamboatb daily., (those of the Dfisseldorf Co. „cer(esp<md three 
times weekly with steamers of the General Steam Nav. Co. from London; 
those of the Netherlands Co. with the 'BatsWier* once w'eekly)' in 30 hrs. ; 
fares 4 fl. 42 c, or 3 fl. ; 100 lbs. of luggage free. Prussian customhouse 
at Emmerich. 

. Rotterdam "{;. —Hotels. 'Bath .H<itel, near the steamboat -piers; 
*Tn^oEiA, Willemsplein; -Fats Bas, in the IJorte Hoogstraat, similar 
charges. Si. Lucas and de Hollande, are good second-class notels in the 
Hoogstraat. • 

Cab per drive without luggage, i-2 pers. 60 c, 9-4 pers. 70 p.; per 
hi 1 . 1 fl. 20 c. ; : to or from any of the railway-stations , with luggage f fl, 
— The Rhenish Railway Station is not' far' from the London steimboat 
piers, and is opposite that of the Harwich boat.' Omnibus to -or from the 
hotels 2Bc, .-,■,. ..,.-'; , , ' . . 

English Churchi in the Haringvliet ; \Presbyterian Church, on the Schot- 
sche Dijlc.' ' ■ ' ■■■>■■ : ■-• <i :., j 

Rotterdam, with 152,500 inhab., the second commercial town in 
Holland, is situated on the right bank of theMhas, about 14 M. from 
the German Ocean. It is intersected by numerous canals •(grMhten, 
or havens), which give the town a very picturesque appearance ; and 
numerous drawbridges (ophaatbruggmf afford communication be- 
tween the various quarters of the town: '■ ' 

A huge dyke or embankment runs through the centre of the 
town, protecting the lower quarters (Binnensiady ftofn inundation 
during high tide. The 'Hoogstraat; or high street, is built on this 
dyke-, and the finest part of the town, the Buttenstad ,' is situated 
between this street and the Maas. / ' " 

About 2500 seat-going vessels annually enter and quit the port, 
and the traffic with the Upper Rhineby means of barges , towed by 

t For a fuller description of Dutch towns see Saedtier't Belgium anijt 

14 Route 2. ARNHEM. From Rotterdam 

powerful tug-steamers, is very considerable. Rotterdam also contains 
a number of manufactories and distilleries. 

The traveller's leisure had better be devoted to a walk on the 
busy quay (Boompjes) ; to the Gothic Church of St. Lawrence 
(Oroote Kerk) , a brick building dating from 1472, and containing 
the monuments of Admiral de Witt and other celebrated Dutchmen ; 
and to Boymaris Museum, a very fair collection of pictures, open 
daily except Mondays. Those who have a day at their disposal are 
recommended to spend it at the Hague (by railway in 8/4 hr. ; see 
Baedeker's Belgium and Holland^. 

The district traversed by the railway is perfectly flat, lying con- 
siderably below the level of the sea, which is excluded by means of 
carefully constructed dykes and embankments. Canals, pasture-land, 
and occasional windmills are the principal features of the scenery. 
The first station of importance is — 

12 l /2 M. Gouda, or Ter Gouw (*2>e Zalm, in the market-place), 
on the Yssel, with 17,400 inhab., the staple commodities of which 
are bricks, clay-pipes, and an inferior kind of cheese. The principal 
church (Groote or Jans Kerk) contains some fine old stained glass. 

38 M. Utrecht (*Pays Bas ; de V Europe; Bellevue; *Oude 
Kasteel van Antwerpen ; Hotel de la Station , at the station) , the 
'Oude Trecht' or old ford , the Trajectum ad Rhenum of the 
Romans , is one of the most ancient towns in Holland (popul. 
70,000). It belonged at one time to Lorraine , then to the German 
Empire , and was frequently the residence of the emperors. Here 
in 1579 the union of the seven provinces Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, 
Guelders , Over- Yssel , Friesland , and Gronijigen was effected, and 
William I. of Orange was created stadtholder. In 1672 Louis XIV. 
took possession of the town and levied an enormous contribution. 
The well-known Peace of Utrecht , which terminated the Spanish 
War of Succession, was concluded here in 1713. — The Rhine 
is divided here into two arms, the Old Rhine , which falls into the 
German Ocean near Katwyk , and the Vecht , which falls into the 
Zuider Zee. 

Utrecht was celebrated at a very early period for its fine 
churches , the most interesting of which is the *Cathedral, founded 
in 720, and dating in its present form from 1254-67. The Uni- 
versity, founded in 1636, is attended by upwards of 500 students. 

Beyond Utrecht the line crosses the canal (Rynvaart) which 
unites the town with the Lek. Pleasant retrospect of Utrecht. To 
the right and left are four intrenchments (lunettes) , now disused. 
The country is fertile and well-cultivated. At (45 M.) Zeist (near 
which is Driebergeii) there is a Moravian colony ; then stations Maars- 
bergen, and Veenendaal, with numerous apiaries. The line intersects 
the extensive moor of the Veluwe , which extends as far as the 
Zuider Zee. Stat. Wolfhezen, then — 

73^2 M. Arnhem (*Zon, on the N.W. side of the town, nearest 

to Cologne. "WESEL. 2. Route. 15 

the rail. stat. and the pier of the Netherlands Co. ; Pays-Bos, in 
the Oroote Markt, not far from the pier of the Cologne and Diissel- 
dorf Co. ; *Zwynshoofd, in the town ; Bast, also in the town ; Belle- 
vue, 1 /t mile beyond the Zon, prettily situated ; *DePaauw, near the 
station, 2nd class), with 41,800 inhah. (nearly 1 /2 Rom -Cath.), long 
the seat of the Dukes of Guelders , is still the capital of that pro- 
vince. Although a good specimen of a clean Dutch town, it offers little 
to detain the traveller. The Oroote Kerk ('great church') contains 
monuments of the Dukes of Guelders. The Town Hall derives its 
local appellation of Duivelshuis ('devil's house') from the grotesque 
figures which adorn it. 

The environs far surpass those of any other Dutch town in 
attraction. The grounds of *Sonsbeek deserve a visit (entrance 
near the station, l /% M. N. of the town). They are open to the 
public (visitors ring the 'Bel voor den Poortier'). The custodian, 
who also shows the Belvedere Tower, which commands a fine view, 
lives at the entrance (fee for 1 pers. V2 &•» f° r a party 1-2 fl.). 

Immediately below the town is the Reeberg , a slight eminence 
with pleasure-grounds. Higher up is the country-seat of Heidenoord, 
adjoining which are pleasant walks through the woods in all di- 
rections. In the opposite direction , 3 M. to the E. of Arnhem, 
lies the thriving village of Velp, 011 the hills near which are situ- 
ated several beautiful parks and pleasure-grounds , all open to the 
public. The most frequented are those of Roozendaal (with hotel) 
and Beekhuizen. — Railway to Zutphen and Salzbergen, see Bae- 
deker's N. Qermany. 

82 M. Zevenaar is the Dutch, 87 M. Elten the Prussian frontier- 
station. Hence, crossing the Rhine, to Cleve and Cologne, see R. 4. 

The line by Emmerich and Dusseldorf to Cologne remains on the 
right bank. 

93 M. Emmerich (Hotel Royal ; Hof von Holland ; Bahnhofs- 
Hotel) is a clean Dutch-looking town. At the upper end rises the 
Gothic spire of the Aldegundis-Kirche, at the lower is the Milnster, 
in the transition-style of the 11th and 12th centuries. 

10QM. Empel (omnibus five times daily to Rees, an old town on 
the Rhine, IV2 M - distant); 106 M. Meerhoog ; then — 

114M. Wesel ( * Dornbusch ; Oebauer; Oiesen), a strongly forti- 
fied town , with 20,600 inhab. , situated at the confluence of the 
Rhine and Lippe. The handsome Rathhaus, lately restored, and 
embellished with modern statues on the facade , dates from 1396. 
St. Willibrord's Church, originally a fine Gothic edifice of the 12th 
cent., is now little more than a ruin with a roof. It contains a 
marble tablet recording that Peregrine Bertie , son of Willoughby 
d'Eresby and Catherine, Duchess of Suffolk, was born here in 1555. 
The exiles were Protestants, who had fled from the persecutions of 
Queen Mary, and were permitted by the magistrates of Wesel to take 
up their quarters in the church, then unoccupied. In the Exercier- 

1 6 Route 2. DUSSELDORF. From Rotterdam 

Platz, near the station , is a Monument on the spot where eleven 
Prussian officers of Von Schill's Corps, captured by the French in 
Stralsund, were shot in 1809. The town is connected by a bridge- 
of-boats with the island of Bilderich and Fort Blucher, the tete- 
de-pont of Wesel oil the left side of the Rhine. The river is also 
spanned here by the large railway-bridge of the Geldern-Venlo and 
Goch-Boxtel lines (see Baedeker's Belgium and Holland). 

The train crosses the Lippe and traverses a flat and bleak district. 
122 M. Dinslaken lies JU/j M. from the Rhine, ou which, 3 M. 
higher up , is the old town of Orsoy , formerly fortified. 128 M. 
Sterkrade (with an extensive foundry). 

131 M. Oherhausen (Hof von Holland; *Railway Restaurant), 
a town of very recent origin , with 16,600 inhab., is the junction 
of the Cologne-Minden, Miilheim, Ruhrort, Wesel-Emmerich, and 
Altenessen - Minister- Bremen lines. There are extensive iron- 
works in the vicinity (comp. p. 49). 

136 M. Duisburg (*EuropaischerHof; Hof von Holland; Kai- 
serhof ; Prinz Regent), a very ancient town, situated near the Rhine 
and the Ruhr, is connected with both rivers by means of a canal. 
It is now a rapidly increasing manufacturing town, with 41 ,200 in- 
hab. , and one of the chief depots of the Ruhr coal-traffic. The *Sal- 
vatorkirche, of the 15th cent., restored in 1850, contains an epitaph 
to the memory of the geographer Gerhard Mercator, who died, here 
in 1594. Fine view from the Kaiserberg (Wilhelinshohe Inn), on 
the way to Miilheim, 1 M. from the station. Railway to Bochum 
and Dortmund, see Baedeker's N. Germany. 

The following stations are Grossenbaum and Calcum. 

151 M. Dusseldorf. — Railway Stations. The station of the Right- 
Rhenish Railway for Elberfeld, Troisdorf, and Speldorf is on the E. side 
(PI. D,2), those of the Cologne- Minden and the Bergisch-Markiseh lines on 
the S. side of the town (PI. B, C, 4). The station of the last, a very hand- 
some building, is connected with the first-mentioned station by a tramway- 
line. The Bergisch-Markiseh line has another station at Obercassel, on 
the left bank of the Rhine (PI. A, 3). 

Hotels. "Breidenbachek Hof (PI. a ; B, 3); '"European Hotel (PI. b ; 

B, 4), opposite the Cologne-Minden Station, R. 2 m. 50, A. 60 pf. — "Hotel 
Thungen (Kaiserlicher Hof; PI. d; B, 4), opposite the Bergisch-Markiseh 
Station. — Romischee Kaiser (PI. c; A, B, 3, 4), Benrather-Str. 3, with 
good cuisine and wine, R. l l /i-2, A. 1/2 m - ; ,: 'K6lnischerHof(P1. e; B, 3), 
at the corner of the Flinger-Str. and Mittel-Str. ; Stelzmann, opposite the 
Cologne-Minden Station ; Krautstein, Schadqw-Str. 81 ; Rugenberg, Ben- 
rather-Str. 14; Altes Kaffeehaus, Andreas-Str. 1. 

Restaurants. In the H6tel Krautsiein and H6tel Rugenberg, see above ; 
at the Cologne-Minden and Bergisch-Markiseh Stations. "Tonhalle (PI. 24; 

C, 3), a favourite place of recreation , with a large garden and concert- 
rooms (music several times a week, svmphony-concert on Sat.) ; "Kiippers 
& Adams, Elberfelder-Str. 11; <Setiiera,"Berger-Str. 35; Born, Karls-Platz 18; 
Dick, Znll-Str. 9. — Cafes. ''Oeisler, confectioner, Mittel-Str. 6, and on the 
Ananasberg (p, 20), also restaurant; cafe in the Breidenbacher Hof, see 
above. — Beer. Ahmev, Hohe-Str. 32; Baum, Ost-Str. 87; Schafer, Caser- 
nen-Str. 29; Hdrtel, Harold-Str. 18. — Eiskellerberg (PI. B, 2), popular on 
summer evenings, with view. 

LJIte-tScJUoss sJBotstacademie A3 

Z-Jiuouisberg B.2 

&Bi.'ttinischrr Garten B-3, 

DrnbouO.«T '. 

4. Sehadffwfmite C.3, 

* ^.Kurtiirst Joluam Wffiiebns 

ReiterbOd - A.3 

6L%ft«'feAmXv/«iZ C.2. 

LCarnetius IkiOanuL . B.3. 

&. Gymnasium 

9. badass Jagerhof 




1L.V* Jnttrr as ffofkiraic 'B.3. 
QJSarnJuTz.SchwrsteziL- -A-2, 
13.&arRZJcrri /. . B.4 1 , 

te&Lam&ertus A-2. 

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- Pftrileba}men. 

ograpli. Anstalt i 

Wagner * Drtes, Xerpaig 

to Cologne. DtiSSELDORF. 9. Route. 17 

Bath Establishments, in the Rhine, see PI. A, 2. 

..„, . ■ Per ,{"? for 12 P e «ons 60, for each addit. pers. 25 pf. — Tram- 
ways traverse the town and suburbs. 

Post Office (PI. 18), at the corner of the Kasernen-Str. and Harold-Str. 

Telegraph Office, K6nigs-Allee 29. 

Picture Galleries. *ScA«K«>», Allee-Str. 42, where not only the finest 
new works of the Dusseldorf school, but a number of master-pieces of the 
earlier part of the present century are exhibited (most of them for sale). — 
Bitmeyer <& Kraut, Elberfelder-Str. 5: works of the Dusseldorf , and also 
of the Berlin, Munich, French, Belgian, and Dutch schools. Admission to 
each of these galleries 50 pf. — Conzen, Sehadow-Str. 65. — Bdumer <ft Co., 
Schadow-Str. 15 and 17. 

British Consul: Mr. J. A. Crowe. 
_ English Church Service in the smaller Protestant Church, Berger-Strasse. 
Chaplain, Rev. Mr. Oodefroy. 

pOsseldorf, the capital of the district of that name, with 95,460 in- 
hab. , lies on the right bank of the Rhine at the influx of the Diissel- 
bach. It is of comparatively modern origin, and with the exception 
of some of the oldest streets, is a pleasant and well-bnilt town. At 
the beginning of the 16th cent, it was chosen as a residence by the 
Dukes of Berg, and on their becoming extinct in 1609 it continued 
to be the residence of the Princes Palatine till 1716, who then trans- 
ferred their seat to Mannheim, and afterwards to Munich. In 1806- 
13 Dusseldorf belonged to France, and in 1815 it became Prussian. 

Recently Dusseldorf has become an industrial and commercial 
town of some importance, though the manufactories are compara- 
tively unobtrusive. It is chiefly celebrated , however, as a cradle 
of art. 

The Academy of Art, founded by the Elector Charles Theodore in 
1787, which rose to some importance towards the close of last century, 
sustained a severe loss by the removal to Munich in 1805 (on the pretext 
of withdrawing it from the perils of war) of its celebrated picture-gal- 
lery , the chief source of art instruction at that period , and now the 
most valuable part of the Pinakothek at Munich. Under the French sway 
it declined still farther. In 1820 Pbtbb Cobhiuus (born at Dusseldorf 
1788,_ died at Berlin 1867) , who had hitherto painted in Borne , was 
appointed director by the Prussian government, and under his auspices 
the Academy rapidly acquired new importance. But the monumental 
painting, which Cornelius exclusively cultivated, never became thoroughly 
naturalised here , because the master , along with the majority of his 
pupils, spent one half of the year in painting the frescoes of the Glypto- 
thek at Munich, and the other half to a great extent in preparing cartoons 
for the same work. In the Rhenish towns, however, there are a few at- 
tempts at mural painting belonging to this period (e.g. at Bonn and Co- 
blem). The true golden era of the Dusseldorf school did not begin 
till 1821 when IT. Schadow (b. 1789, d. 1862) became director, especially 
as he brought with him from Berlin his talented pupils J. BUbner,- Hil- 
debrandt, Luting, Sohn, and Bendemann, while J. W. Schirmer, a classical 
landseape-painter of Cornelius's school, still remained at Dusseldorf. Sever- 
al of Schadow'a pupils and contemporaries soon rivalled or even surpass- 
ed their master, while lie himself abandoned the monumental and classic 
fresco style of Cornelius and devoted himself to a somewhat naturalistic 
genre style which was more congenial to him , and to the mastering of 
the technical' difficulties of .patataag in Oils. Shortly after his appoint- 
ment the Academy could boast of three hundred pupils. 
) Towards the year 1840, however, -there unfortunately sprang up reli- 
gious dissensions, in which the Roman Catholic element obtained the 
mastery, and which proved destructive of the patriarchal peace and 

Baedekbb's Rhine. 8th Edit. ^ 

18 Route?. DtTSSELDORF. From Rotterdam 

unanimity which had hitherto prevailed at the Academy. As early as 
1838 Bendemann and Hubner had migrated to Dresden , while the rising 
generation of painters who remained at Diisseldorf compensated in some 
degree for this loss by their vigorous and well-coloured landscapes and 
genre-pieces, adhering chiefly to French or Belgian types; but the old 
'esprit de corps' and coherence of the 'school' was gone. In 1854 Schir- 
mer, and in 1858 Lessing quitted the Academy for appointments at Carls- 
ruhe. In 1859, on the retirement of Schadow, whose eyesight had begun 
to fail, Bendemann was summoned from Dresden to undertake the directo- 
rate, but the condition of the school remained unaltered, and at length 
in 1868 this master also resigned his post. Since that period the most 
prominent members of the Academy have been Deger, the celebrated 
painter of religious scenes , and his followers Andreas and Carl Muller, 
Ilienbach, and Lauenstein, while Bendemann himself, the brothers Andreas 
and Oswald Achenbach, Knaus (who went to Berlin in 1875), Vautier, and 
other talented masters continued to paint at Diisseldorf independently of 
the present school. The Academy is now under the directorate of three 
professors elected by their colleagues, and at present there are signs of a 
revival of its reputation. 

In the heart of the older part of the town, with its narrow and 
irregular streets, stands the old electoral Palace (PI. 1 ; A, 3), long 
the seat of the Academy of Art (see p. 19), which was remodelled 
in 1710, restored in the Renaissance style in 1846, and almost en- 
tirely burned down in 1872. In front of the palace is the exten- 
sive National Library. In the palace-yard rises a Statue in marble 
of Elector John William (d. 1716), who was born at Diisseldorf. 

In the Markbt Placb (PI. A, B, 3), in front of the Rathhaus 
(PI. 20), a building half in the Gothic and half in the Renaissance 
style, built in 1567, rises an equestrian Statue of Elector John 
William (PI. 5), in bronze, over life-size, by Orupello, dating 
from 1711, erected according to the inscription by the citizens, but 
in reality by the elector himself. — In the neighbouring Bolker 
Strasse Heinrich Heine was born in 1799 (d. 1856). 

The Maximilians - Pfarrkirche , formerly the church of the 
Franciscans (PI. 15 ; A, 3), contains frescoes by Settegast (above the 
high-altar) and Molitor. 

The Church of St. Lambert (PI. 14 ; A, 2), a Gothic edifice of 
the 14th cent., with a tower partly Romanesque, contains at the 
back of the high-altar the Monument in marble of William IV. (d. 
1592) and John William III. (d. 1609), the last two dukes of Cleve 
and Berg, and of other members of their family, erected in 1629. 
There is also an 'Antependium', on a gold ground, representing the 
patrons of the church, presented by A. Achenbach, on the occasion 
of his joining the Roman Catholic Church. Adjoining the sacristy 
a fine old muTal painting has recently been discovered and restored. 
On the exterior of the N. side of the church is a crucifixion, with 
numerous figures, sculptured in stone in the 16th cent. , successfully 
restored and partly renewed by the sculptor J. Kehl. — An inscrip- 
tion in the Ratinger-Strasse indicates the house in which Carl Im- 
mermann (b. 1796, d. 1840), the author, died. 

The Church of St. Andrew (PI. 11 ; B, 3), formerly the church 
of the court and of the Jesuits, completed in 1629, and connected 

to Cologne. DUSSELDORF. 2. Route. 19 

with the old college which is now occupied by the government 
offices , contains the tombs of Count Palatine Wolfgang William 
(d. 1653) and Elector John William, mentioned above, in a chapel 
off the choir. Side-altars : left, Deger, Virgin ; right, Hubner, 
Scourging of Christ. Side-chapel to the right of the choir : W. 
Schadow, Pieta, a painting in oils. 

On the N. side of the old town rises the new Academy of Art 
(PI. 16 a; B, 2), an imposing Renaissance edifice by Riffart, com- 
pleted in 1879. The principal facade, 520 ft. long, is turned to- 
wards the winter-harbour, and is embellished with handsome win- 
dows and niches for statues. It contains several studios and 
lecture-halls, a room full of plaster-casts, etc. In the Aula, the 
mural decoration of which is not yet completed, are 141 works of 
the once famous Gallery op Old Masters, the greater part of 
which was removed to Munich in 1805 (adm. Sun. 11-1 gratis, at 
other times 50 pf.). The most valuable paintings are an *As- 
sumption by Rubens, and Madonnas by Cima da Conegliano and 
Bellini. It also contains a large collection of drawings of every 
school (14,000 in number) and engravings, and the Ramboux col- 
lection of water-colours. 

The old town en the W. is separated from the Modern Quar- 
ters on the E. side by the broad Allee-Strasse , planted with 
trees, in which are situated Schulte's Picture Gallery (p. 17) and 
the Breidenbacher Hof. At the N. end of the Allee-Strasse and 
near the entrance to the Hofgarten is the handsome new Theatre 
(PI. 23; B, 3), designed by Qiese, and opened in 1875. 

Opposite, in the i'riedrichs-Platz, is the new Kunsthalle, an 
edifice in the French Renaissance style by Giese, completed in 
1881 ; it contains the *Stadtische Oemaldesammlung, or municipal 
gallery of modern Diisseldorf masters. Admission daily 9-6, 50 pf. ; 
catalogue 30 pf. 

Landscapes by A. Achenbach, executed between 1843 and 1866 ; O. Achen- 
bach, Funeral at Palestrina ; A. Baur, Christian martyrs of the Roman im- 
perial age ; C. Begas, Exposure of Moses ; Bewer, Beheading of John the 
Baptist; W. Camphausen, Frederick the Great; Cornelius, The Wise and 
Foolish Virgins, one of the earliest works, and one of the few oil-paint- 
ings executed by this master, begun in 1813, formerly in the possession of 
Thorvaldsen; J. P. Hasenclever, Wine-tasting, the master's last picture; 
Ph. Hildebrandt, Portrait of Wappers, the Antwerp painter; J. Hubner, 
Portrait of Prof. Keller; R. Jordan, The first child; L. Knaiis, Card-players; 
Chr. Kohler, Hagar and Ishmael; C. F. Leasing, Landscape with warlike 
scene; Th. Mintrop, Holy Family; H. K. A. Miicke, Portrait; C. itiiller, 
Annunciation ; J. Niessen, Portrait of Schirmer ; J. Roting , Portraits of 
Schadow and K. F. Lessing; H. Salentin, Village sermon; /. W. Schirmer, 
Italian landscape, Dutch landscape, Twenty-six biblical scenes ; A. Schrbdier, 
Don Quixote before Dulcinea of Toboso; A. Seel, Church of St. Mark, 
Venice; K. F. Sohn, Tasso and the two Leonoras; A. Tidemand, Service 
of the Haugianer in Norway. 

In the open space at the N. end of the Konigs-Allee, near the 
entrance to the Hofgarten , rises the Statue of Cornelius (PI. 7 ; 
B, 3), the most eminent of modern German painters, by Dondorf, 


20 Route 2. DUSSELDORF. From Rotterdam 

erected in 1879. At the sides of the handsome pedestal are alle- 
gorical figures of Poetry and Religion ; in front, Painting, upon the 
Sphinx ; at the back, Germania and Italia, in relief. The frieze 
represents Faust and Helen. — The house in which Cornelius -was 
born, in the Kurze-Strasse, is marked by a memorial-slab. 

Farther on we come to the Schadow-Platz (Pi. B, C, 3), which 
is embellished with a colossal Bust of Schadow (PI. 4), in bronze, 
designed by Wittig. 

The handsome hall of the Realschule , or Commercial School 
(PI. 21 ; C, 3), Kloster-Str. 7, is adorned with a fresco-frieze by 
Bendemann, being an allegorical representation of Art, Science, 
Commerce, and Industry, the finest work of the kind at Diissel- 
dorf. Admission 50 pf., the proceeds being devoted to the foun- 
dation of scholarships ; explanatory notice by Dr. Heinen, 1 m. 

In the Konigs-Platz (PI. C, 3) a new Protestant Church, in 
the Romanesque style , has been erected from plans by Kyllmann 
and Heyden. On the S.W. side of the Platz is the, 
or court-house (PI. 10), the Assisen-Saal, or assize-room, in which 
contains Schadoiv's last great oil-painting (Paradise, Hell, and 
Purgatory) , painted by order of King Frederick William IV. — 
Adjacent are the new Municipal Archives, a brick building. 

The *Hofgarten (PI. B, C, 2; restaurant on the Ananasberg, 
p. 16), which was laid out in 1769, but was extended and altered 
with artistic taste after the levelling of the fortifications in 1802 by 
the director Weihe, to whom a monument (PI. 6) has been erected, 
affords the pleasantest walks at Diisseldorf. The well-kept grounds 
extend down to the Rhine on the W. , and on the E. to the Jagerhof 
(PI. 9 ; C, 2), once a hunting-lodge, and now occupied by the Prince 
of Hohenzollern. The stables in the Duisburger-Str. are tastefully 
adorned with sculptures. 

Nearly adjoining the Hofgarten is the Jacobtsche Oarten Pem- 
pelfort, formerly the residence of the philosopher Friedrich Hein- 
rich Jacobi (d. 1819), and visited by Goethe, Herder, Wieland, 
and other celebrities of that period. Since 1860 it has belonged 
to the 'Malkasten' club of artists, and forms the centre of their so- 
cial meetings, and the scene of their summer festivals. In the 
new building (PI. 17) in the garden, in the Renaissance style,, is a 
fine room with excellent paintings on wood. ■ — To the N.W., in 
the Stern-Str., is the Roman Catholic Marien-Hospital (PI. C, 1), in 
the Gothic style. 

The handsome Post Office (PI. 18; B, 4), is built in the Flo- 
rentine palatial style. - — In the vicinity are the Neuen Anlagen, or 
new promenades , in which stands the new House of the Estates 
(PI. B, 5), built in the Italian Renaissance style by Raschdorff. — 
By the Furstenwall stands the Protestant Hospital (PI. A, 5). — In 
the Bilker-Allee (PI. A. B, 6) is the new Flora Garden, with a fine 

to Cologne. MULHEIM. 2. Route. 21 

The Cemetery, to the N. of the town (PI. B, 4), contains several 
handsome monuments. 

To the N.E. of the town, beyond the Rhenish station (PI. D, 1, 2), 
about lVa M. from the Konigs-Platz, and reached by tramway, lies the 
new Zoological Garden (adm. 50 pf. ; band on Wed. and Sat.), tastefully 
laid out from plans by Bodinus and the painter Professor Camphausen, 
but as yet possessing few wild animals. — Adjoining the Zoological Gar- 
den on the E. is the Diisselthal Asylum for homeless children, formerly 
a Trappist monastery, presented by the government to Count von der 
Becke in 1819, and fitted up by him for its present purpose. 

The ancient town of Kaiserswerth (Rheinischer Hof), on the right 
bank of the Rhine, 6 M. from Dusseldorf and 2y 2 M. from Calcum (p. 16), is 
the seat of a training school for Protestant Sisters of Charity, an extensive 
institution, with branches in many different parts of Germany, founded 
by the benevolent pastor Fliedner (d. 1864) in 1836. The old Romanesque 
Church of Kaiserswerth, of the 12th and 13th cent., contains an admirably 
executed "Reliquary of the 13th cent. , in which the bones of St. Suitbertus, 
a native of Ireland who first preached the Gospel here in 710, are pre- 
served. Of the palace from which the young Emp. Henry IV. was carried 
off in 1062 in a vessel belonging to his austere guardian Archbishop Anno 
nothing is now left but a few fragments, called the 'Konigsburg'. 

Railway to Cologne. To the left rises Schloss Eller. Beyond 
(157 M.) Benrath, among the trees to the right, stands a handsome 
royal chateau erected in 1756-60 by Elector Palatine Charles. Beyond 
(162 M.) Langenfeld the train crosses the Wupper, passes the chateau 
of Reuschenberg (left), and at (146 M.) Kiippersteg crosses the Dhun. 
The Rhine is approached near Schloss Stammheim, a chateau of 
Count Fiirstenberg, beyond which the train reaches (172 M.) Mul- 
heim am Rhein (Bergischer Hof) , a thriving manufacturing town 
with 20,427 inhab., which owes its prosperity to Protestant citizens 
who emigrated from Cologne in the 17th century. Handsome modern 
Gothic church near the station, by Zwirner. 

From Mulheim to Bergisch-Gladbach and Bensbekg, 8*/4 M., branch- 
railway in '/a hr. (1 m. 20 pf., 90, 60 pf.). One of the finest existing Gothic 
edifices, similar in plan to the Cologne Cathedral, is the church of the 
suppressed Cistercian abbey of "Altenberg, founded in 1255, consecrated 
in 1379. This magnificent edifice, situated in the Dhiinthal, 6 M. N. of 
Gladbach, was judiciously restored by Frederick William IV., by whose 
ancestors, the Counts Adolph and Eberhard vom Berge, the abbey was 
founded in 1133. Several members of the family are interred here. — 
Bensberg possesses a chateau built by Elector-Palatine John William in 
1705, now a military school. 

From Mulheim to Elberfeld and Barmen, see R. 7. 

Below Mulheim the train intersects the fortifications of Deutz 
(p. 44), where the ordinary trains stop, while the express crosses 
the railway-bridge to (175 M.) Cologne. 

Steamboat from Dusseldorf to Cologne tedious, although several 
places on the banks possess historical interest. 


3. Cologne. 

Railway Stations. 1. Central Station (PI. F, 4) at Cologne, for all the 
trains to Bonn, Coblenz, Mayence, Ehrenbreitstein, Lahnstein, Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle and Belgium, Dusseldorf, Crefeld, and Cleve, and for the express 
trains to Minden, Hanover, and Berlin. — 2. The St. Pantaleon Station 
(PI. B, 3), for local trains to Briihl. — 3. Right-Rhenish Station at Deutz, 
on the opposite bank of the Rhine , near the railway-bridge , for the or- 
dinary trains of the Koln-Minden line (Dusseldorf, Minden, etc.). — 4. Ber- 
gisch-Markisch Station at Deutz, on the Rhine (pp. 44, 50), for all the 
trains of the lines of that name. — An Omnibus runs from the Central 
Station at Cologne in connection with the trains starting from the last- 
named station. — Porter into the town: for packages not exceeding lllbs., 
30 pf. ; not exceeding 551bs., 50 pf. ; not exceeding 110 lbs., 75 pf. Cabs, 
see p. 23. 

Hotels. ''Hotel dd Nord (PI. a : E, 5), Frankenplatz 6, near the iron 
bridge, with railway-ticket and luggage-dispatch office, R. from 3m., A. 
80 pf. ; ''Hotel Disch (PI. b: E, 4), Brucken-Str. 13-21, R. 3 m., A. 60, B. 
1 m. 20, D. 3 m. 50 pf. ; *Mainzer Hof (PI. c: E, 3, 4), Glockengasse 14-20; 
Victoria (PI. d : D, 5), Heumarkt 46-50 ; "Hotel Ernst (PI. e : F, 4), Trank- 
gasse 3, between the station and the cathedral, R. 2'/2, B. 1 m. ; ''Wie- 
ner Hof (PI. f: E, 4), Glockengasse 6-10; Hotel de Hollande (PI. g: D, 5), 
Thurnmarkt 36-40, on the Rhine. All these are of the first class: R. from 
2-3 m., B. I-IV2 m., D. 2VV3 m., A. 60 pf. — Hotel dd Dome (PI. h : E, 4), 
Domhof 5-11, R. and B. from 2 m. 80, D. 2 m. 50 pf. ; Rossischer Hof (PI. i : 
D, 5), Friedrich-Wilhelm-Str. -, Hotel de Cologne (PI. k: D, 5), Thurn- 
markt 28-34, on the Rhine; -St. Paul, Fettenhennen 19, by the cathedral, 
R. from 2, D. 2 m.; ''Hotel de Paris (PI. m: E, 4), Drususgasse 3; 
"Laacher Hof (PI. 0: D, 2), Am Laach 6-8; Hotel Mdseum, Drususgasse 21. 
— Europaischer Hof, Comodien-Str. 2, near the cathedral, R. & A. 2>/2 m., 
B. 1 m. ; Hotel Billstein, Friedrich-Wilhelm-Str. 7, near the bridge-of- 
boats ; "Hotel Weber (Bonnsches Posthaus), Hoch-Str. 27, in the Augus- 
tiner-Platz (PI. 4; D, 4) ; "Drei Konige, on the Rhine, near the bridge- 
of-boats, R., L., & A. l'/2-2 m. ; "Hotel Fischer, Burgmauer 3; Ber- 
gischer Hof, Thurnmarkt 3-5, near the bridge-of-boats ; Hotel Duhr, 
Rheinberg 5, well spoken of; Landsberg, Marzellen-Str. 1; Union, Do- 
minikaner 2. Average charges in these : R. & B. 2-2'/2 m., D. 2-272 m. 

At Deutz: Prinz Carl (PI. q : D, 6), on the Rhine, with view of Cologne, 
R. from 1 m. 50 pf. 

Restaurants at the Central Railway Station in Cologne and the two 
stations in Deuta. — Wine. "Heaser, Herzog-Str. 10; Antonetty, Comodien- 
Str. 8; "Johnen, Breite-Str. 36B; -Berzdorf, Sandbahn 10; Freischiitz, 
Am Hof 16; "Restaurant at the Gurzenich (p. 37); Welker, Perlenfuhl 5; 
"AUdeutsche Weinslube ('Zur Glocke'), Am Hof 14 (PI. E, 4, 5) ; Steigerwald, 
Lintgasse 9; Stockhausen , Sternengasse 69. — Beer. "Werny, Salomons- 
gasse 18, between the Rathhaus and Hoch-Str., dinner 1 m. 50 pf. ; "Kind, 
Am Hof 12; -Fischer, in the arcade near the Hoch-Str. (PI. F, 5); Ta- 
verne d'' Alsace, Laurenz-Platz 2 (PI. F, 5), Strassburg beer; "Heuser, Antons- 
gasse 4 ; Vier Jahreszeiten, Elogius-Platz 5 ; Kehl, by the Museum ; Daniels, 
Grosse Budengasse 2; Aldenkirchen , Herzog-Str. 4; Simons, Muhlenbach, 
near the Heumarkt, and many others. — Oysters. ~G. Bettger, Kleine Bu- 
dengasse 10; Pommer, Breite-Str. 155. — Cafes. 'Mosler, Oben-Marspforten, 
also the best confectioner in Cologne ; Reichard, Hoch-Str. 104, confectioner ; 
Wiener Cafe', Briider-Str. 1 ; Cafe' du Dime, Domhof 7-9 ; Palant, Hoch- 
strasse 119, corner of the Minoriten-Str. ; "Fischer (see above); Rheinberg, 
Friedrich-Wilhelm-Str. 12; Schmitz, Neumarkt 12. 

Places of Recreation. A military band generally plays on summer 
evenings in the garden of the Prinz Carl hotel at Deutz, which affords 
a good view of Cologne and the busy traffic on the river and the 
bridge-of-boats. Palanfs Kaiser - Garten , near the Thiirmchen , at the 
•N. end of the town (on the way to the Zoological Garden) ; Bayen- 
haus, at the S. end of the town (comp. PI. A, 6) ; "Marienburg, restaurant 

. Appelhof 

. BibUothek 
3. Burger-Jiospit/tl 



. Commandantur I Govt: Geb.) P.2. 
Erz bis choH. Palais . . T.3. 
Rxped. d. Kbfn. Zefawg E.3. 

8. Gamisons-LaMoretft . A.fc 

9 . GewerbeschzUe . C. 2 . 
[Q.Giirzenich . D.5. 

. GviriTLasium itrirdr WUh f C. fe 

i i (Jesuiten >. F.^. 

i * CJ?a«tf J D.2. 

£oy«. D.2. 

Martin -Hospital G.5. 

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FoUxei -Traesidium E.3. 

lS.Post-Jtirectiorv E.3. 

2XiJPriester- Seminar F.4-. 

2\JRathhaus E.5. 

.Regieruntjsqebaiide E . F . 3 . 


23. Heichsbank-RauptsteUe. C 
2b.EJ>nierthurm. E 

25. Schuaffhausen'scherBankeenY. 

26. TnubsUwunaisdiuie E 
ZT.Telup-ap~hen.-Aml. D.3 

28. Tempelkaus D. 

29. Theater Utadt-I . . E. 

30. >ais<7iA««j C. 

31. Wassertimrm C.S 
32.Tr<ilfccn*7«y B. 

33. Zeugkaas E. 

SiStAlAan. . . . B.5. 
"S&.AUerheiUgeth-CapeTAe G-. 4*. 

36..fMn^r«ts. .P.*. 

Sl.StApostebi. B.2. 

38.J<&<ciZta B.3.1. 

39. StColumba. E.4. 

V&.StCunibert G.5. 

Jotl E.F.1.5. 

<&.Elendkirchje B.5. 

12. St Elisabeth., 

iSJ.'rcnujrelisdie'-X. (Alte-I 

H. , ■ ■ i tflfcite/ . 


16. tSV Gereon. 



19. StMaria-Ablass-CapclU 

50. StMaria im Capitol 

5L St Mariari .dXupferaasse 

52. StMaria anljysTaTcherv 

53. StMaria eur Sctimwgasse 
Wi. St Mortal 

55. StMauritius . . 

56. StMiiwriten. . . 

57. StPantaUon tMUil.K) 

58. St Peter. 
60. SfSeverai 

62 .Ursuliner-K. . 









Cleve , Crcfcid vtJcu^s .Dkssrldorf 



O 5 10 20 3U 1-0 50 

Cliortapellen : 
■L.Vng&bertus-K. 5.Jgnes-K. 

I.MatcrniLs-K. G.2muuas-K. 

Z.Jdhaimis-K. 7 . StupluuisiK. 

i.DnCkatiffeiirl. B.Marienrl. 

S.ScluUvkamjner. 10 . Sarrista .. 11. XapttelsaaL . 11. BmioOuk. 



3. Route. 23 

.Zoological Garden, y a M: below the town, nearly opposite to Miilheim 
3&iiii 8 *5 ?i Adin " * m -> <»» Sundays 50 pt ; concerts on Sunday, Sa- 
jnraay, and Wednesday afternoons. Tramway-cars and steamers (see be- 
3V w iE ly . Between the town and the gardens ("Restaurant); 
F, ,; Botanical Garden of the Ftora Oietefe adjoining the Zqological Gar- 
den, see p. 44. Admission 1 m., on Sundays 50*>f.Y Aquarium 50 pf. ; good 
restaurant; concerts on Sundays and Wednesdays, and dftener in summer. 
, . ™ eatre »;*<»<«- heater (PI. 29, E, D, 3), GWkCTgasse (1st Sept. to 
1st May). m»e»m- ZVleoter/.Schildergasse (Pi. D, R. 3v Mmmer Thiatre, 
near the Flora. — Circus Carri, Gertruden-Str. •»,; near -Hfe tfeumarkt. 

Music. Cologne has of late years fceebmg one of the rfttrtt musical 
places in Germany. The OUreenich Concerts (p. 37 ; seats in the body Of 
. 50 pf., in the gallery 2 m., the latter often Oppressively hott, 


the hall 4 *~. w jp*.,. *« wo eguicry £ m», we isncr urwn upproBsivojy iim 
ten in number, which take place annually In winter^ have attained a just! . 
merited celebrity, qwing to the admirable choice of the music', aw well as 
to the number and skill of the performers. These concerts are conducted 
by Dr. Hitler, the director of the Conservatortum of Music. The latter 
(Wolts&tt. 3), founded in 1Q51, is Supported partly by government and the 
city, and partly by private subscription, and hag -numbered among its 'di- 
rectors some of the most talented musicians Of Germany. Another insti- 
tution which has earned a high reputation is the tfUnMr-Oesangvtrein, or 
Men's Vocal Society! conducted by 8. de Lange,- by which admirable con- 
certs are given at the Wolkenburg (p. 4CQ. Amateurs of anisic should en- 
deavour to obtain an Introduction to the Mmikalitche Qmelltthafl, or to the 
Philharmonische Gesellschaft, societies which meet on Saturdays at 7.30 p.m., 
the former at Wolfs-Str. 3, the latter in the fjfirfemch, ''■''•"' 

Baths. Warm at Biegen's, Schildergasse 72 (also Russian baths, *c). 
Baths in the Rhine , by the bridge-of-boats (also warm baths) ; Sehiefer, 
in Deutz, near the bridge-of-boats, Maiden, at the Rhejlnau (PI. A, 6), these 
two with swimming-baths and accommodation for ladies ; Ptottier^Sehvitnm- 
anstalt, in Deutz, below the "iron bridge 5 'Actiin-8chmtmmtnu4aU,'tim the 
Rheiriau (PI. B, 6). . , 

Oab Tariff. Persons: 

A, Per Drive. 

Drive within the city of Cologne 

From a point within "wis city to the suburbs, 
as far aft the Bisehofaweg . . . . ..... 

B, Drives from the City or Suburbs. 
Zoological and Flora Gardens and Stadtgarten 
Bergisch-Mark. Station at Deutz, incl. bridge 

Villa-Colony Marienburg 

C. By (Time. ' 

For »Vhr 

For . .*. . 

Each additional V< hr- ....••••.••• 

For a trunk or heavy package 25 pf., each additional padkage 10 pf.'; 
small articles in the hand free. — Double fares from ,10 pan. to 7 aim. 

Tramways, i. Circular Line ('Ringbabn') round the, eity, beginning 
at the Frankeh-Platz, near the iron bridge (comp. plan). — 2. From the 
Neumarkt (PI D, 3) to EhreitfeU, Melaten, and JWntf. — 3: From the Waid- 
markt (PI. C,4) to Bapehthal and MarUwMury. — ;4.F?tem the Eigelatein 
(PI C 4) to fflgp**., *»e. Flora, and,, the Zoological Garden.,--.?), From the 
Frank'en-Plitz along the Rhine to the Zoological Garden. — 6. From Deutz 
to Kalk and to MIMeim (p. 21). ' „.• k -j ' 

fWeatttboatai see Introduction, pi sv- The piers are near the bndge- 
nf.h<Mto-rPl D.5. 6). Local Steamers ply frequently, between Cologne and 
■MuJheim (P. 21; 25 pf.), starting from, the bridge-of-boats (PI. D, E, 5, 6), 
and touching at St. Humbert (o, 43), and (30 pf.) near the Zoological and 
Flora gardens (p. 4*)- Other steamers ply every half-hour in the afternoon 

24 R ou t e 3, COLOGNE. History. 

from the Filzgrabenthor (PI. D, 5) to Marienburg, a group of suburban 
villas a little above Cologne (25 pf. ; there and back 40 pf.). 

Post Office (PI. 19 ; E, a), Glockengasse 25-27. Branch-offices for letters 
and parcels in the Marzellen-Str., to the N. of the Central Station, at 1 
Hohe-Str., at 35 Klingelpiitz, and at the Hotel du Nord. — Telegraph Office 
(PI. 27), Csecilien-Str. 4 ; also at Bischofsgarten-Str. 29, at the Central Sta- 
tion, and at the office of the Kblnische Zeitung, Breite-Str. 76 and 78. 

Eau de Cologne. The oldest firms are Johann Maria Farina, opposite 
the Jiilichs-Platz (Obenmarspforten 23), and Johann Anton Farina at the 
'Stadt Mailand', Hoch-Str. 129, opposite the W. portal of the cathedral (3 A) ; 
also at Julichs-Platz 4, &c. Case containing six bottles of the ordinary 
medium size, from 7 m. 50 pf. 

Objects of Art and curiosities of all kinds are sold by Lempertz, 
Grosse Sandkaul 4; and by Bourgeois , Unter Fettenhennen. Also at the 
Kblner Kunst and Gewe'rbe-Bazar, Am Hof 14. 

Exhibition of Paintings, at Ed. Schulte , i, Richartz-Str. 16, near the 
Museum (adm. 50 pf . -, comp. p. 17). — Industrial Exhibition, Glocken- 
gasse 3; adm. 25 pf. 

American Consul : Mr. George E. Bullock. — British Vice-Consul : 
Mr. William Hellmers Jr., Rheinau-Str. 18. 

English Church Service at No. 3 Bischofsgarten-Str. (11 a.m. and 4.30 
p.m.). Chaplain, Rev. Dr. Hariman, Hotel Duhr. 

Principal Attractions : Cathedral, interior, and walk round the external 
choir-gallery (p. 31); Museum (p. 32), Hochstrasse; Bathhaus (p. 36); Giirze- 
nich (p. 37); Kbnigsdenkmal in the Heumarkt (p. 38); St. Maria im Capi- 
tol (p. 38) ; thence proceed to the Neumarkt and past the Church of the 
Apostles (p. 40) to St. Gereon (p. 41) ; then to the new Rhine Bridge (p. 31) ; 
Flora or Zoological Garden (p. 44). A glimpse of the chief sights of Cologne 
. occupies. two days. The order Of the following description will be found 
the most convenient. The best time for the churches is the morning 
after 9 o'clock. (Before that hour, and from 11 to 11. 30 a.m. there is 
divine service.) 

The names of the streets leading to the Rhine (W. to B.) are painted 
red, of those parallel to the Rhine (N. to S.) black. 

Cologne (130 ft. above the sea-level), the largest town in the 
Rhenish Province of Prussia , the residence of an archbishop , and 
one of the most important commercial places in Germany, is a for- 
tress of the first class, with 144,750 inhabitants (five-sixths of 
whom are Roman Catholics), including a garrison of 7000 men. It 
lies on the left bank of the Rhine, across which a bridge-of-boats 
and an iron bridge lead to Deutz, a town on the opposite bank 
(15,000 inhabitants). From a distance, and especially when ap- 
proached by steamboat, the town with its numerous towers presents 
a very imposing appearance, but most of the old streets are narrow, 
gloomy, and badly drained. Many of them, however, contain in- 
teresting specimens of domestic architecture, dating from the 16th, 
15th, and even the 13th century. Of late considerable improvements 
have been effected ; most of the narrowest streets have been swept 
away, and replaced by about seventy new ones, containing tasteful 
and substantial buildings. As the girdle of fortifications with which 
it is surrounded is now being extended, the city will probably in- 
crease still more rapidly. The area at present covered by the city 
proper is about 983 acres ; including the suburbs about 1900 acres. 

History. Cologne was founded by the TJbii, at the time when they 
were compelled by Agrippa to migrate from the right to the left bank of 
the Rhine. In A. D. 51 Agrippina , daughter of Germanicus and mother 

History. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 25 

of Nero, founded here a colony of Roman veterans, which at first was 
called Colmia Agrippinentii, and afterwards Cotonia Claudia Agrippina'. 
Of the strong walls of this settlement there are still some remains. 
It was the seat of the Legate of Oerniania Inferior. In 308 Constantine 
the Great began a stone bridge over the Rhine , which connected Mars- 
pforten with what was then the island of St. Martin, and thence crossed 
to Deutz. This bridge was afterwards destroyed by the Hermans, and 
finally removed by Archbishop Bruno (see p. 41). From the. end of 
the fifth century Cologne belonged to the kingdom of the Franks, and 
it was long occupied by the Ripuarian kings. Charlemagne raised the 
bishopric, which had been founded here in the fourth century, to an arch- 
bishopric, the first archbishop being the imperial Chaplain Hildebold, who 
built the oldest cathedral church, and presented to it a valuable library, 
which still exists. 

The archbishops soon began to lay claim to political as well as 
ecclesiastical power, and endeavoured to construe the privileges granted 
to them by the Emperor into unlimited jurisdiction over the city. In 
consequence of these pretensions they were continually at variance with 
the citizens, and their quarrels usually assumed the form of sanguinary 

" "ipp von Semiberg (1167-91), 
Falkenburg (1261-74), and 
contest was decided in favour 
of municipal independence by the battle of Worringen (1288 }. see p. 44), 
and the archbishops were compelled to transfer their residence to Bruhl 
(p. 67), and afterwards to Bonn. They retained, however, the highest 
jurisdiction and other rights, and the citizens continued to take the oath of 
allegiance, 'so long as they should be maintained in the rights and privileges 
handed down to them by their forefathers'. The conflicts carried on in 
the tow* itself, between different noble families or between the nobles 
and the guilds, were still more violent. It was not till 1396, when the 
guilds gained a decisive advantage, that there was a cessation or hostilities 
(eomp. p. 36). In 1482, 1818, and on other occasions, the city was again the 
scene of revolutionary struggles. Its. vigorous fund of vitality is shown by 
the fact that, in spite of all these troubles, Cologne was unquestionably one 
of the wealthiest and most prosperous cities in Germany at the end of 
the 16th century. Its commerce, especially its trade with London, where 
it possessed warehouses at the Guildhall, was of the .greatest importance. 
At an early date Cologne became incorporated with the Santtatic League, 
in which it contested the supremacy with Liibeck. The weights and 
measures of Cologne Were in use in almost every Rhenish, Westphalian, 
and Dutch town. A fair held at Cologne at Easter attracted visitors front 
all parts of Europe, and even from beyond the sea. 

In the course* of its mediaeval history Cologne may boast of having 
twice been a cradle of German Art. The first occasion was about the 
-Diddle of the 12th century, when the ecclesiastical enthusiasm shown by 
the acquisition of the relics of the Magi, and also the civic love of splendour 
found expression in a highly developed style of Architect-due, calculated 
for picturesque effect. One after another the larger ehurehes were re- 
modelled, special attention being devoted to the choir. The best specimen 
of this period of architecture is presented by the ApottelMrehe, as seen 
from the Keumarkt. During the 13th cent, the taste for building con- 
tinued and led to a restoration" of the Cathedral, in which, however, the 
traditional Romanesque architecture was abandoned for the new Gothic 
style, emanating from France and then spreading rapidly throughout Europe. 
For a, period of about fifty years, dating from the close of the 14th cen- 
tury, Cologne enjoyed a second golden era of art, chiefly confined to the 
province of Painting. The municipal archives preserve the names of a 
great number of painters, but only in a very few instances can any of 
these be definitely attached to existing pictures. Among the best known 
are Meitter Wilhehn (died 1378), of whose mural paintings in the Hansa- 
Saal of the Rathhaug some remains are preserved (now in the Museum, 
p. 33), and Meiittr Stephan (Lochner) of Constance, who died in 1451. The 
most famous pictures of this school in Cologne are the Dombild (p. 30), 

26 Route 3. COLOGNE. Cathedral. 

the Madonna of the Priests' Seminary (p. 31), and the Madonna in an ar- 
bour of roses (p. 33). — The taste for architecture was not extinct even at 
a later period. The porch of the Rathhaus, for example, is an interesting 
specimen of the German Renaissance. Not only were old churches re- 
novated, but occasionally new ones were built (e. g. the Church of the 
Jesuits). Prior to 1801, when many of them were secularised, Cologne 
possessed more than 100 churches, which, of course, could only be kept 
in repair by constant care and attention. — In the province of Science, 
Cologne held by no means so high a place as in that of art. The univer- 
sity, founded in 1388, acquired, as the chief seat of the opposition to 
Humanism in the contest of Reuehlin with the Obscurantists, a wide but far 
from enviable reputation. It was suppressed at the close of last century. 

After the 16th century Cologne declined, at first gradually, and after- 
wards rapidly. In common with the rest of the Hanseatic towns its 
commerce lost its former importance. Continual internal discords, leading 
to the banishment in 1608 of the Protestants, who settled at Crefeld, 
Elberfeld, Diisseldorf, and Mulheim, proved very prejudicial to the 
interests of the city. It retained, however, its privileges as a free 
imperial city until its occupation by the French (6th Oct., 1794). By the 
peace of Campo Formio (17th Oct., 1797) it was incorporated with France. 
— It was not till after 1815, under Prussian rule, that Cologne began to 
revive. The rapid progress of its steamboat and railway systems, and 
the enterprise of the citizens, many of whom possess great wealth, have 
combined to make Cologne the centre of the Rhenish trade and one of 
the most considerable commercial cities in Germany. 

The **Cathedral f , or Dom (PI. E, F, 4, 5), "which justly excites 
the admiration of every beholder, and is probably the most magni- 
ficent Gothic edifice in the world, stands on a slight eminence about 
60 ft. above the Rhine, partly composed of Roman remains, near the 
Central Station. As early as the 9th century an episcopal church 
(see p. 25) occupied this site, but in course of time the inhabitants 
regarded it as unworthy of the rapidly increasing size and prosperity 
of their city. The Archbishop St. Engelbert first entertained the 
project of erecting a new church here, but in consequence of his 
untimely death in 1225 (see p. 29) it was never executed. His 
second successor Oonrad of Hochstaden (see p. 30), after the old 
church had been severely injured by a conflagration, at length laid 
the foundation-stone of the present structure with great solemnity 
on 14th Aug., 1248. The designer of this noble work is believed to 
have been Meister Oerard of Riehl (a village near Cologne), to whom 
the Chapter made a grant in 1257 in recognition of his services. 

The choir was the first part of the building proceeded with. 
The work progressed slowly, chiefly owing to the struggles between 
the archbishops and the citizens (see p. 25). The stone used in 
the building was quarried in the Drachenfels (see p. 78). On 
27th Sept., 1322, the choir, which had been temporarily terminated 

t Travellers are recommended not to engage any of the numerous 
valets-de-place who hover about, in and near the cathedral , as their ser- 
vices are unnecessary. The nave and transept with the stained-glass 
windows are open the whole day, but walking about is forbidden during 
divine service (on week-days 9-10 a. m. and 3-3.30 p.m.). The following 
are the authorised fees (each person) : (1). For opening the choir and 
choir-chapels, 1 m. 50 pf. (2). For the attendant who conducts visitors 
along the upper choir-gallery , round the exterior of the cathedral, and 
to the top of the tower, 1 m. 

Cathedral. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 27 

by a lofty wall towards the west, was solemnly conBeexated by 
Archbishop Heinrieh , Graf von Vmteb/urg. The builder soon 
proceeded to lay the foundations of the N. and (in 1325) S* 
transepts, while at the same time the eld church, .whieh was still 
used for divine service, wag gradually removed. In 1388 the nave 
was sufficiently advanced to be temporarily fitted up for service, 
and in 1447 -the bells were placed in the S. tower. Subsequently 
the enthusiasm subsided, and by the end of the 15th century all 
hope of seeing the church completed according to the original plan 
was abandoned. The unfinished building was provided with s/tem- 
porary roof, and nothing more was done except the decoratioilof -the 
iriteWo^ Some' of thwe decorations, such as those of thehigb>*ltar, 
belong to the degraded style of the 17th and 18th centuries. The 
itn<*«»pleted structure became more and more dilapidated. In 1796 
the building was converted by the French into a hay-magazine, its 
ruin being rendered more complete- by the abstraction 'of tile lead 
from thereof. 

Frederick William III. and IV., kings of Prussia, at length 
rescued the desecrated edifice from tet« destruction. The former, 
at the suggestion of Sulpice Boisseree, caused it to be examined by 
the eminent architect SchinKel in 1816, and gave instructions firr 
its restoration. The work of renovation, however, was not begun 
till 1823. It was at first carried on under the superintendence of 
Atoert (d. 1833), and afterwards under that of the talented Zwirner, 
a thorough master of the Gothic style (d. 1864). On Zwirner's death 
Eerr Voigtel (b. 1829) succeeded to his office, and carried the work 
to completion. Zwirner was the first to form the project of com- 
pleting, the cathedral, an idea hailed with general enthusiasm. The 
foundation-stone' of the new part of the building was laid on 4th 
Sejit.i 1842, and more than 15,000i. were afterwards spent yearly on 
the nupdextaking, the greater part of this amount being defrayed by 
government, the tematnder by private subscriptions, societies, and 
the proceeds of a lottery. The entire sum expended between 1842 
and 1880 amounted to upwards of 900,0001. The last stone of the 
huge S. tower was placed iri position in August, 1880, and on the 
16th Oct. of the same year the completion of the Cathedral was cel- 
ebrated in the presence of the Emperor William ahd almost all the 
sovereign princes of the German Empire. 

- The cathedral is a Cruciform structure (see Plan, p. 23), the 
nave being flanked With double, and the transept with single aisles. 
Total length 148 yds. , breadth 67 yds. , length of transepts 94 yds. , 
height Of the walls 150 ft., height of the roof 201 ft., height of the 
central tower rising over the transept 357 ft. The towers, 512 ft, in 
height, are the loftiest in Europe. This enormous maBS of masonry 
is eaiivened by a profusion of tying ttuMiesses; turrets, gttgoyliea, 
galfezies, bofniees, foliage, etc. 

The * W. Facades which has been completed entirely in accord- 

28 Route 3. COLOGNE. Cathedral. 

ance with the still extant original design of the 14th cent. , with 
its two huge towers, the principal portal between them , and the 
vast middle window, is a superb example of strictly consistent Go- 
thic workmanship. The towers consist of four stories, of which the 
three lower are square in form, while the fourth are octagonal, 
crowned with elegant open spires. 

The Crane on the S. tower, which had stood there for 400 years and 
constituted one of the chief landmarks of Cologne, was removed in 1868. 

The largest of the Bells in the S. tower is the Kaiserglocke , which 
was cast in 1874 with the metal of French guns, and weighs 25 tons. 
The next two in point of size, cast in 1447 and 1448, weigh 11 and 6 tons 

The principal portal is 93 ft. in height and 31 ft. in width : 
the side portals 38 ft. high and 18 ft. wide ; the central window 48 
ft. high and 20 ft. wide. The portal of the 8. tower was decorated 
in the beginning of the 15th cent, with excellent sculptures, prob- 
ably by Meister Konrad Kuyn. 

The arms of the transept are terminated by the N. and S. por- 
tals, which were completed in 1859, having been built entirely from 
Zwirner's designs, as the original plans were no longer extant. The 
N. Portal is executed in a simple style, while the *S. Portal is elab- 
orately decorated, and embellished with statues designed by Schwan- 
thaler and presented by the Emp. William (then Prince of Prussia). 

The * Choir, completed in 1322, and flanked with seven chapels, 
exhibits in its lower parts the simple and dignified forms of the 
early Gothic style , while in the upper parts the full magnificence 
and bold outlines of the consummated art are displayed. 

The **Inteb.ior, which is borne by 56 pillars, is 130 yds. in 
length. The nave is 16 yds. wide from the centre of one pillar to 
that of the one opposite, and 145 ft. in height ; each of the inner 
aisles is 7 l fa yds., each of the outer 9 yds. wide ; each of the four 
aisles is 60 feet high. The area of the interior is 7399 sq. yds. 
In 1863 the partition which for centuries had separated the nave 
from the choir (see p. 26) was removed. The effect produced by the 
ensemble is now singularly impressive. 

Nave and Thansbpt. The large stained-glass window above the 
W. portal , executed by Milde of Liibeck , was presented by the 
Crown Prince and the Crown Princess of Germany. The five stained- 
glass windows in the N. (left) aisle, executed in 1508 and 1509, and 
representing archbishops, saints, and armorial bearings, are fine spe- 
cimens of the workmanship of that period. The beautiful modern 
windows of the S. aisle , by Joseph Fischer and Hellweger, pre- 
sented in 1848 by King Lewis I, of Bavaria, prove that the once 
almost obsolete art has regained much of its ancient glory : 1st win- 
dow, John the Baptist ; 2nd, Nativity; 3rd, above, Last Supper, and 
below, Death of Christ ; 4th, Descent of the Holy Ghost ; 5th, Stoning 
of St. Stephen. Below are prophets, evangelists , and fathers of the 
church in full figure. A sixth window , on the W. side of the S. 

Cathedral. COLOGNE, 3, Route. 29 

Transept, was in 1855 filled with stained glass, designed by Hess 
and others, to the memory of Joseph v. Gorres (d. 1848), 'catholica? 
veritatis defensori glorioso'. The modern stained-glass windows of 
the S. Portal, presented by the Emp. William , were executed in 
Berlin; those of the N. portal, commemorating the elevation of 
Archbishop v. Geissel of Cologne to the rank of cardinal, are of 
Cologne workmanship. The old stained-glass on the W. side of the 
N. Transept is partly from several ancient churches of Cologne, now 
demolished, and partly from the chapel of the Virgin in the cathedral. 

The Choib. is separated from the nave by an iron screen, which 
is to be replaced by a lofty rood-loft. We enter by the N. (left) 
door. Immediately to the left is the fine tomb of Anton Keyfeld 
(d. 1539). Consoles projecting from the fourteen pillars of the 
central part, or High Choir proper, bear Statues of Christ, Mary, and 
the Twelve Apostles, probably executed by the cathedral architect 
Michael, and restored in 1842 ; these are overshadowed by artistic 
canopies. The marble reliefs in front of the high-altar are the 
work of the same hand. The modern statues in the transept were 
put up in 1866. The nine frescoes in the arches of the choir, 
executed by Steinle in 1844 , represent Angel Choirs in the eccle- 
siastical symbolic style, differently coloured in accordance with their 
various stages of development ; they are best viewed from the gal- 
lery of the choir (p. 31). The walls behind the choir-stalls are 
covered with tapestry worked by ladies of Cologne, illustrative of the 
Nicene Creed and the Seven Sacraments. The handsome carved 
Stalls are of the 15th century. Under brasses, with engraved full- 
length figures, repose Archbishop v. Spiegel (d. 1835), and Cardinal 
von Geissel (d. 1864). Above the triforium of the choir is a series 
of admirable old Stained Olass Windows, representing the kings of 
Judah , etc. , belonging to the end of the 13th or the beginning of 
the 14th century. The windows in the transepts are filled with 
stained glass presented by private individuals. 

Choir Chapels. 1. The Engelbert Chapel (first to the left, N. 
side) contained down to 1633 the remains of Archbishop Engelbert 
von Berg , who was assassinated by Friedrich von Isenburg on the 
Gevelsberg near Schwelm in 1225 (p. 26) , but they are now pre- 
served in a magnificent silver reliquary in the treasury. The tombs 
of Archbishops Adolf and Anton von Schauenburg (16th cent.) are 
worthy of notice. - — Before the sacristy is the sarcophagus of Arch- 
bishop Engelbert von der Mark (1364-68), with a fine figure in 
sandstone, executed during the lifetime of the deceased. 

2. Maternus Chapel. Tomb of Archbishop Philip v. Heinsberg 
(d. 1191) in the form of a town-wall with towers, gates, and pin- 
nacles ; also a good statue. The altar-piece is by Barthel de Bruyn 
(1548). The original ground-plan of the S.W. tower of the cathedral 
and an original view of the S. tower from the E. side , found in 
Paris in 1816, are preserved here under glass (comp. 3rd chapel). 

30 Route 3. COLOGNE. Cathedral. 

3. Chapel of St. John. Tomb of Archbishop Conrad v. Hoch- 
staden (d. 1261) , founder of the cathedral , with the figure of the 
deceased in bronze, dating from the first half of the 15th cent., 
restored in 1847. The Altar of St. Clara, with excellent wood- 
carving , representing the Passion , and paintings on the wings be- 
longing to the school of the Meister Wilhelm , presented by the 
brothers Boisseree, is worthy of inspection. Under glass in a massive 
oaken frame is here preserved the original sketch on parchment of 
the W. facade of the cathedral with the two towers in their com- 
pleted form. Part of this interesting design was found at Darmstadt 
in 1814, the rest at Paris in 1816. 

4. Chapel of the Three Kings. Here were formerly preserved 
the 'Bones of the Magi', or 'Three Kings', which were brought by 
the Empress Helena to Constantinople. They were afterwards taken 
to Milan, and in 1164 presented by Frederick Barbarossa to Arch- 
bishop Reinald von Dassele, by whom they were removed to Cologne. 
The reliquary in which they are preserved is now in the treasury 
(p. 31). The marble mausoleum erected in this chapel dates 
from the second half of the 17th century. — Below the centre 
window is a valuable relief, in gilded bronze, of the Adoration of 
the Magi (1516). On the S. side is the tomb of Archbishop Ernst 
von Baiern (d. 1612). The other Electors of the House of Bavaria 
repose outside this chapel. The heart of Marie de Medicis (p. 39) 
is also buried under a stone without inscription in front of the chap- 
el. Opposite, at the back of the high-altar, is the tomb of Arch- 
bishop Dietrich von Mors (d. 1463), probably altered at a later date. 

5. The Chapel of St. Aynes contains the celebrated * Dombild, 
a large winged picture representing the Adoration of the Magi in 
the centre, St. Gereon and St. Ursula on the wings , and the An- 
nunciation on the outside. 

This is doubtless the picture alluded to in Diirer's diary of his tra- 
vels in the Low Countries, in which he mentions his paying two 'weiss- 
pfennige' to see the picture which '■Meister StefferC had painted at Co- 
logne. It was this notice that led to the conjecture that Stephan Loch- 
ner was the author of the painting. There is no inscription on the 
picture itself, the supposed traces of writing being merely ornamental 
flourishes. The picture, which is of imposing dimensions, occupies an 
intermediate position between the ideal conceptions of mediaeval times, 
and the modern realism introduced by the Dutch school. As the finest 
work of the Early German School it has received great attention from 
connoisseurs, and justly occupies an important place in the history of art. 

In the middle of the chapel is the Sarcophagus of St. Irmgardis 
(11th cent.), adorned with Gothic arches and painted figures of saints. 

6. Chapel of St. Michael. Marble tombstone of Archbishop Wal- 
ram of Jiilich (d. 1349). Carved altar of the 15th century. 

7. Chapel of St. Stephen. Stone sarcophagus of Archbishop 
Oero (d. 976), of the 10th cent., a relic of the old cathedral, upon 
which was placed in 1802 the portrait-statue of the Imperial general 
Von Hochkirchen (who fell at Landau in 1703), by Fortini. 

Arch. Museum. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 31 

8. Chapel of the Virgin (properly speaking the last bay of the 
outer S. aisle). Tombstone of Archbishop Reinald von Dassele (d. 
1167, see p. 30), upon which the marble statue of Archbishop 
Wilhelm von Genney (d. 1362) was placed in 1842. Opposite is the 
sarcophagus of Count Gottfried von Arnsberg (A. 1368). Near the 
altar is the *Monument of Archbishop Frederick of Saarwerden (d. 
1414), consisting of a figure of the archbishop in bronze on a sarco- 
phagus admirably decorated with figures of saints, the whole restored 
in 1847. — The altar, which was designed by Zwirner in 1856, is 
adorned with *OverbecWs Assumption, purchased in 1855 for 9001. On 
the next wall-pillar is the so-called Madonna of Milan, probably a 
German work of the 14th century. — The Stained Glass of this 
chapel, executed at Cologne in 1857 , represents scenes from the 
life of the Virgin, copied from ancient mural paintings discovered 
in 1842 during the restoration of the choir. 

By a pillar at the entrance to the S. Tbansept is the Statue of 
St. Christopher, about 10 ft. in height, dating from the 16th century. 
The carved altar by the E. wall of this transept, in the late-Gothic 
style, is from the church of St. Maria ad Gradus. 

The Treasury (entrance from the N. ambulatory) contains the 
golden "Reliquary of the Magi, a costly specimen of Romanesque work- 
manship, probably executed in the years 1190-1200. It was seriously 
injured in 1794, when carried away for concealment from the French, 
but was restored in 1807. The silver "Shrine of St. Engelbert, in the 
style of the Renaissance, dates from 1633. There are also several valuable 
Monstrances , including one of the 14th cent. , another of the 17th cent, 
19'/2 lbs. in weight, and thickly set with precious stones, and a third 
presented in 1848 by Pope Pius IX. Processional Cross of the 12th century. 
An 'Osculum Pacis\ of the 16th cent, richly decorated with enamels, 
pearls, and precious stones; Sword of Justice; sacerdotal vestments; 
ten admirably carved ivory tablets by Blelchlor Paulus (170S-1733) , with 
scenes from the Passion, etc. — The Sacristy contains a line ciborium 
and old stained glass. — In the Cathedral library are the Hildebold 
Codices, returned from Darmstadt in 1868. 

The visitor should not omit to walk round the 'Inner Gallery of the 
Choir and those on the Exterior of the Choir, or to ascend the Central or one 
of the W. Towert (adm. by card, see p. 26; attendant at the S. portal, where 
the ascent begins), as a better idea may thus be formed of the grandeur of 
the structure. The external gallery, or better still the open gallery of the 
central tower, commands an extensive "Prospect over the sea of houses, 
the plain intersected by the Rhine, and the Seven Mts. in the distance. 

The Archiepiscopal Museum (PI. 16; admission in summer 
daily, 9-1 and 3-6 ; in winter on Wednesdays, Sundays, and holi- 
days, 9-1 ; fee 25-50 pf.), opposite the S. gate of the cathedral, is 
established in a chapel, formerly belonging to the Archiepiscopal 
Palace and re-erected in 1665. It contains a collection of ecclesiasti- 
cal and other objects of mediaeval art, of which the most valuable is 
a Virgin belonging to the Priests' Seminary, by an able Master of 
the Old Cologne School (p. 25). 

The Iron Bridge (PI. F, 5, 6), which crosses the Rhine to the 
E. of the cathedral (completed in 1859), is broad enough for a 
double line of rails and a separate roadway for ordinary traffic. It 

32 Route 3. COLOGNE. Museum. 

is 453 yds. long, and 47 ft. above the average level of the water. 
Over the entrance on the left (Cologne) bank is an Equestrian Statue 
of Frederick William IV. by Blaser, on the right bank an ^Equestrian 
Statue of William J. by Drake, both erected in 1867. The approach 
to the bridge on the left bank affords a good survey of the choir of the 
cathedral. Deutz, on the right bank, see p. 44. 

In an open space a little to the S.W- of the cathedral, rises the 
"Museum, or Wallraf-Richartz- Museum (PI. 17; E, 4), built in 
the Gothic (Tudor) style by Felten in 1855-61, the funds for its 
erection (about 30,000t.) having been presented to the city by Herr 
Richartz, a wealthy merchant (d. 1861). The stately building faces 
the N. , while at the back are two wings, with handsome late- 
Gothic cloisters, adjoining the church of the Minorites. The nucleus 
of the collections of pictures and antiquities is formed by those 
bequeathed by Professor Wallraf (d. 1824) to his native town. In 
the grounds on the E. side is the old Roman arch of the Pfaffenthor, 
an ancient gate of the city transferred thither from its original posi- 
tion near the W. portal of the cathedral. The statues which adorn 
the building externally, by Blaeser, Fuchs, Mohr, and Werres, re- 
present characters of distinction in the annals of the city. The 
museum is open on week-days, in summer 9-6, in winter 9-4, ad- 
mission 75 pf. (Wed. gratis); on Sundays and holidays, 9-1, gratis; 
closed on Easter-day, Whitsunday, and Christmas-day. Handbook 
to the museum 1 m., catalogue of pictures 50 pf., of Roman anti- 
quities 75 pf. 

Ground Floor and Cloisters. Entrance-ball, on the right and left of the 
staircase, busts of Wallraf and Richartz, in marble by Blaeser. — To 
the right we first enter a large Hall , in which modern sculptures are 
usually exhibited. The stands in the centre bear a series of admirable 
water-colours by Caspar Scheuren (Nos. 1003-1028), illustrating the scenery, 
traditions, history, and monuments of the province of the Rhine. To the 
left we obtain a view from above of the Roman mosaic pavement in the 
cloisters. — We next enter a Saloon containing the Roman Antiquities: 
statuettes, busts, masks (some of them spurious). 1. Colossal marble head 
of a Medusa found at Rome; 4. Epicurus; 9. Scipio Africanus; 21. Julius 
Ceesar; casts of well-known antiques. — ■ The adjacent Saloon contains a 
collection of Engravings, Drawings, Manuscripts, and also of Coins, Small 
Works of Art, Oetns, Carvings, Remains of Sculptures, etc. 1030A, Forty- 
two cartoons by Ramboux for the tapestry in the cathedral (p. 29). 

The Upper Cloisters contain a valuable collection of German pottery 
from Siegburg, Frechem, and Raren ; fine specimens of Venetian glass ; 
Roman glass and pottery ; cabinets in the German Renaissance style ; a 
valuable collection of thirty scenes in Stained Glass, being modern copies 
of old masters of Cologne and the Netherlands, executed at Munich, and 
bequeathed by the brothers Boisseree. Also numerous photographs of 
celebrated works of art. — The Lower Cloisters contain Roman and 
mediseval stone-monuments. Also Mosaic Pavements, one of which of con- 
siderable size, the 'Mosaic of the Sages' (No. 30), found during the con- 
struction of the new hospital, bears portraits of Diogenes, Socrates , Aris- 
totle, Chilon, Plato, C'leobulus, and Sophocles; it consists in part of 
small squares of glass, and probably dates from the fourth century. No. 188. 
Remains of a wall, painted alfresco; "193. Sarcophagus, found at Cologne, 
with reliefs of Hercules liberating Hesione, Hercules stealing the Delphic 
tripod, Theseus and the Minotaur, and two dancing-girls ; 198. Metrical 

Museum. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 33 

inscription from the grave of a boy; Votive stones to Mercnrius Cissonius 
(10), and Semele 'et ejus sororibus' (25); 1. Altar of Jupiter Saxanus. 
found in the Brohl Valley (p. 87), and erected by the Koman soldiers 
working in the quarries there. Also remains of the mural paintings from 
the Hansa-Saal of the Rathhaus by Meister Wilhelm v. Koln (p. 25), re- 
presenting the 'nine good heroes'. 

To the left on the ground-floor are six rooms containing pictures of 
great historical interest of the Eakly Cologne School, which, however, 
will afford little satisfaction to the visitor who regards the collection from 
an sesthetic point nf view only. The Virgin with the bean-blossom, the 
Madonna in an arbour of roses, the Descent from the Cross by the Master 
of the Lyversberg Passion , and the Death of Mary by the Meister von 
Calcar are the most important works. We begin with Room I., entered 
from the upper cloisters, (a) Gothic Pictubes (Nos. 30-39) of the years 
1300-1370; 35. Passion in 27 sections; 36-39. Passion. — (b) Meisteb Wil- 
helm and his School, from about 1350 to 1420 (Nos. 40-117). '40. 
(Room II.) Meister Wilhelm, Triptych: the Virgin in the centre, with a 
bean-blossom in her left hand , and the Infant Christ on her right arm ; 
on the left St. Catherine, on the right St. Barbara. 41. (Room II.) Meister 
Wilhelm (?), Christ on the Cross surrounded by Mary and eight Apostles; 
98. St. Veronica with the napkin; 99. (Room I.) Legend of St. Ursula, 
with a view of the city of Cologne. — (c) Meisteb Stephan and his school, 
from about 1420 to 1460 (Nos. 118-46, in Room II.). "118. Madonna in 
an arbour of roses ; 119-120. St. Ambrose and St. Mark , wings of a 
picture by this master in the museum at Darmstadt (No. 168) ; "121. Last 
Judgment (the pictures of the martyrdom of the Twelve Apostles belong- 
ing to this work are in the Stadel Gallery at Frankfort , and six saints, 
formerly at the back of these, are now in the Pinakothek at Munich). 
122, 123, Scourging and Entombment of Christ. — (d) Cologne School, in- 
fluenced by that of the Van Eycks, from 1430 to 1550 (Nos. 147-445, in 
Rooms III-VI.). s 151-158. The 'Lyversberg Passion', an altar-piece for- 
merly in the possession of a Herr Lyversberg, after whom several works 
by the same hand as this are usually named ; '158-163. Triptych , De- 
scent from the Cross (1480), on the wings Andrew and Thomas , on the 
outside the Assumption of Mary ; *164. Christ on the Cross ; 182. Glori- 
fication of Mary ; 184. Last Judgment; 195. Adoration of the Magi; 196. 
Mass of St. Gregory; 197, 198. Wings with saints; -199. Triptych, Mysti- 
cal marriage of St. Catherine with the Infant Christ; on the wings SS. 
Rochus and Gudula inside , and SS. Achatius and Cecilia outside. 205. 
So-called 'Altar-piece of St. Thomas', a triptych: in the centre Christ 
appearing to the doubting Thomas; inside the wings, the Madonna 
with St. John, and St. Hippolytus with St. Afra; outside, in grisaille, St. 
Symphorosa with her seven sons, and St. Felicitas with her seven sons. 
'206. Altar of the Holy Cross (by the master of the Boisseree St. Bartho- 
lomew in the Pinakothek at Munich), a triptych ; in the centre Christ on 
the Cross, on the wings John the Baptist and St. Agnes. "207. Death of 
Mary by the Meister von Calcar, a work after which several others by 
the same hand are named , with the Donors on the wings. The other 
pictures, by A. von Worms, B. Bruyn, and other later masters of Cologne 
are interesting to connoisseurs only. — The antechamber adjoining the 
entrance-hall contains a few modern works of art. 

The Staircase is adorned with "Fkescoes by Steinle, illustrative of 
the history of art and civilisation at Cologne. The scenes begin with the 
picture to the left as we look back from the topmost landing of the stair. 
1. Roman and Romanesque Period: Constantine the Great (324-337) on 
his throne, surrounded by warriors, artists , and others , some of whom 
hold in their hands plans of the emperor's buildings at Treves and 
of his bridge at Cologne; on the other side, Charlemagne (716-814), also 
enthroned, with his retinue, including Eginhard, Alcuin, and Paulus 
Diaconus. Between the two emperors is St. Helena with her attendants. 
In the corner adjoining Charlemagne are the most famous archbishops 
of Cologne: St. Hildebold (d. 819) with the model of the old cathedral, St. 
Bruno (d. 965) with the church of St. Pantaleon, Heribert (d. 1021) with 

34 Route 3. COLOGNE. Museum. 

the church of the Apostles , and Anno (d. 1075) with the church of St. 
Gereon. Next to these is the Franconian queen Plectrudis (8th cent.) 
with the plan of St. Maria im Capitol. Below , in the adjoining scenes, 
is the legend of Cologne ; St. Maternus , the first bishop , baptising con- 
verts in the Rhine, St. Gereon with his companions, St. Ursula and her 
virgin followers, and St. Hermann Joseph in St. Maria im Capitol. — 
Opposite, on the wall to the right, is — 2. The Mediaeval Period: in the 
centre Albertus Magnus , the learned theologian of Cologne, with his pu- 
pils, including Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus ; beyond these are 
mystics, humanists, and artists. On the other side, to the right of Albertus, 
is Conrad of Hochstaden (p. 25), to whom the architect of the cathedral sub- 
mits a plan of the edifice ; farther on, Meister Wilhelm of Cologne and Meister 
Stephan ; then the two burgomasters welcoming a vessel of the Hanseatic 
League. In the subordinate scenes , the popular Festival of St. John 
(p. 37), the arrival of the relics of the Magi, a tournament, and the 
industrial activity of Cologne. — On the central wall, to the left of the 
door -. 3. Renaissance and Modem Period : to the left, Rubens receiving the 
order for the altar-piece of St. Peter's church (p, 39); Winckelmann 
studying the Laocoon; in the centre the brothers Boisserce (p. 74) and 
Friedrich von Schlegel ; to the right, Wallraf and Richartz, the founders of 
the museum. Below, the Carnival of Cologne. — To the right of the door : 
4. Continuation of the Cathedral: completion of the S. portal in presence of 
Frederick William IV. , the architect Zwirner , and the archbishop Jo- 
hannes v. Geissel. Below, the society for advancing the building opera- 
tions , and the vocal societies of Cologne. — Above the central entrance 
door, in the upper part of the staircase, are the armorial bearings of 
Cologne, with Marsilius, the hero of Cologne, and Agrippina, the Roman 
empress. — From the highest landing we enter the rooms of the — 

Upper Floor. In a straight direction is the Antechamber : right, *982 A. 
Camphausen, King William saluted by his troops after the battle of Sedan, 
with Bismarck, Moltke, and Roon among his retinue; left, 955. Simon Meis- 
ter, Fred. William IV. on horseback. — Busts of Michael Angelo by 
C. Mohr, Rubens by Fr. Meynen, Wolfgang Miiller by Hof meister, the 
brothers Boissere"e and Alex, von Humboldt by Ranch. 

Rooms to the Right of the antechamber. Collection op Modern Paint- 
ings. Room I, "Gustav Richter, Queen Louisa of Prussia, painted in 1879 
aud presented to the Museum by Herr Joest; Gronevald, Scene from 'Wie- 
land the Smith' ; Bromeis, Scene in the Roman Campagna. — Corner Room. 
963. Kbhler, Miriam's song of praise after the passage of the Red Sea by 
the Israelites; 965b. Schwerdgeburth, Promenaders outside the gate; 976. 
J. Schrader, Portrait of himself; 987. Salentin, Pilgrims at a medicinal 
spring; Roybel, Sportsmen; C. GUnther, Theologians disputing; Portraits 
of Goethe by Rabe and Kolbe; Ad. Schrbdler, Don Quixote; 942. G. Schick, 
Eve -, ''959. J. W. Schirmer, Italian landscape ; 984. C. L. F. Becker, Hut- 
ten crowned with laurels; 970a. Theod. Mintrop, 'Maiwein', with genii; 
951. C. Begas, Parents of the artist. — A Cabinet with modern engrav- 
ings (adjoining which are the exhibition rooms of the Kblner Kunst- 
verein, or art-union) leads to — Room III. (the last), the principal saloon 
of the modern masters, E. of the staircase. No. 963. Lessing, Landscape; 
971a. A. Achenbach, Starting of a tug-steamer; 980. Bbttcher, Summer night 
on the Rhine; 974. J. Schrader, Cromwell at the death-bed of his daughter; 
990. Piloty, Galileo in prison ; 964. Jordan, Soup day ; 972. Zimmermann, Scour- 
ing day; 952a. G. Rottmann, Cefalii; 559a. IT. Wider, Tombola players in 
Trastevere (Rome); *966. Bendemann, Exiled Jews; 981. W. Camphausen, 
Prince Eugene at the battle of Belgrade; 994 A. Stiickelberg , The rustic 
Romeo and Juliet (from a tale by Keller); 991. 0. Achenbach, Castel Gan- 
dolfo; 970. Geselschap, Soire'e musicale; 992. Vaulier, Funeral feast; 986. 
Correns, Portrait of Zwirner, the architect. 

Rooms to the Left. Room I. Works of the early Franconian, Saxon, 
and Swabian Schools : 522. A. Diirer, Piper and drummer ; Cranach the 
Elder, 534. Mary Magdalene, 535. Jesus as a boy. 551-553. Joachim Patinir, 
Portraits. — Room II., beginning to the right of the entrance: 652A. 
Adrian Brouwer, Old peasant; "800 A. Franc, f'rancia, Madonna and Child, 

Hochstrasse. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 35 

an admirable work presented by Boissere'e ; Franc, de Herrera, Peter's de- 
nial; Jan van der Kapelle, Sea-piece; Kupetzki, Portrait; N. Maas, Portrait; 
817. Tintoretto, Ovid and Corinna; 654 A. Carl Fabritius (pupil of Rem- 
brandt), Portrait; 652c. J. Gerritz Cuyp, Portrait; 901. Ph. de Champaiane, 
Portrait of Jabach, the wealthy patron of art; "618. Rubens. Holy Family 
(probably by pupils) ; 624. Van Dyck, Portrait of Jabach; 941. David, Peri- 
cles with the body of his son Paralus; 632. O. Honthorst, Holy Family; 
617. Rubens, St. Francis receiving the stigmata; 801. Inn. da Imola, Ma- 
donna ; 802. Giac. Francia, The Apostle Andrew ; 812, 813. P. Veronese, 
Heads as studies; 633. Jordaens, Prometheus. 634A. Jordaens, Portrait; 
O. van den Eeckhout, Esther and Haman; J. van der Meer, Landscape; 
Janson van Keulen, Portraits ; Ph. de Koninck, Landscape. — The following 
rooms contain numerous mediocre works by Italian and French masters. 

At the back of the Museum is the Church of the Minorites 
(PI. 56 ; E, 4), an early-Gothic building of simple but handsome pro- 
portions, probably commenced in 1220, but not completed till forty 
years later, and recently restored at the cost of the lateHerrRichartz 
(p. 32). It is 65 yds. in length ; the nave is 67 ft. high and 24 yds. 
broad. The large window above the portal in the principal facade and 
the elegant spire(of last century), restored in the style of the original, 
are specially striking. The fine sacristy has a round pillar in the 
centre. The church contains the tombstone of the celebrated theolo- 
gical disputant Duns Scotus (d. 1309), with the inscription: Scotia 
me genuit, Anglia me suscepit, Gallia me docuit, Colonia me tenet. 

In the Appellhofs-Platz, opposite the Comodien-Str. , is the Appell- 
hofgebdude, or Court of Justice (PI. 1 ; E, 3), an unattractive mo- 
dern building. Farther on, in the Zeughaus-Str., on the left, is the 
Arsenal (PI. 33 ; E, 3) with the Guard-House, erected in 1601 ; on 
the right are the palatial Government Buildings (PI. 22 ; E, F, 3), 
erected in 1830. Farther W. in the same direction, at the corner of 
the Apern-Str. , is the Rbmerthurm (PI. 24; E, 3), an ancient 
round tower inlaid with stones of different colour. It once formed an 
angle of the ancient Roman town, considerable fragments of the walls 
of which still exist in the vicinity (on the 'Burgmauer'), and is un- 
doubtedly to a great extent of Roman origin, but the upper part is 
modern. The Steinfeldergasse leads hence (leaving the new Gym- 
nasial or Jesuit Library to the left) to St. Gereon's, see p. 41. 

The Synagogue (PI. 63; E, 4), in the Glockengasse , an edifice 
in the Moorish style, designed by Zwirner, and built in 1859-61 at 
the expense of the banker Oppenheim, is covered with a handsome 
gilded dome. — Farther up the same street is the new Theatre 
(PI. 29 ; E, 3), designed by Raschdorff, and completed in 1872. 

Between the cathedral and the Museum , at the small Wallrafs- 
Platz, begins the narrow Hochstrasse (PI. D, E, 4), the busiest 
street in Cologne, which with its prolongations (Marzellen-Str. and 
Eigelstein to the N., Hochpforte and Severins-Str. to the S.) inter- 
sects the entire city from N. to S. The street is gradually being 
widened by the erection of all new buildings farther back than the 
old ones. To the right, in the centre of the Hochstrasse, is the 
Konigin- Augusta-Passage (PI. E, 4), an arcade with shops. 

36 Route 3. COLOGNE. Rathhaus. 

Between the Hochstrasse and the Rhine are situated several 
important buildings, not far from each other. 

The*Bathhaus (PI. 21 ; E,5), an interesting structure, builtin dif- 
ferent centuries and recently restored , stands on the substructions 
of a Roman stronghold (probably the Prietorium), of the arches of 
which some remains are still visible in the cellar. The oldest part 
of the present building (14th cent.) is the central portion (with the 
Hansa-Saal), looking towards the Rathhaus-Platz. In 1569-71 an 
elegant portico in the Renaissance style was built in front of this, 
from the plans of Wilhelm Vernickel (whose designs , along with 
those of his competitors, are still preserved in the municipal ar- 
chives), bearing long Latin inscriptions and reliefs alluding to the 
tradition of Burgomaster Gryn's fight with the lion (see below). The 
handsome, five-storied Rathhausthurm, formerly adorned with num- 
erous statuettes, was built in 1407-14, from the proceeds of the 
fines imposed upon noble families in 1396. — The E. portions of 
the structure, facing the Altenmarkt, were erected in 1549-50 ; the 
facade, richly ornamented with reliefs and statues, was altered in 
1591, but restored by Raschdorff in the original style in 1870. 

The Lbwenhof, built by Lorenz in 1540 in the Renaissance style, then 
newly introduced into Germany, is so named in reference to the tradition 
(above alluded to) that Archbishop Engelbert sought the life of Burgo- 
master Gryn, and threw the obnoxious citizen into a lion's den in his palace, 
from which, however, his intended victim contrived to escape unhurt. 

The :f Hansa-Saal, or Hanseatic Hall (30 yds. long, 8 yds. wide, 32 ft. 
high), on the first floor of the Rathhaus, recently restored, is said to be 
that in which the first general meeting of the League took place on 19th 
Hov., 1367. The S. wall is entirely occupied by nine rich canopies, with 
large figures vigorously executed in stone, representing heathen, Jewish, and 
Christian heroes (Hector, Alexander the Great, Csesar ; Joshua, David, Judas 
Maccabseus; Charlemagne, King Arthur, Godfrey de Bouillon); above 
these , but smaller , Charles IV. , who fortified the town and presented it 
with the privileges of a market, as the figures on the right and left indicate. 
In the windows are the armorial bearings of the different imperial fami- 
lies of Germany, on the long wall those of forty-five patrician families of 
Cologne , on the ceiling those of the burgomasters of Cologne , from 1346 
to the downfall of the independence of the city. The two upper series 
are the arms of the twenty-two guilds. — The principal apartment of the 
portion of the Rathhaus which was erected in 1550 (towards the Alten- 
markt) is the room called the 'MuscheV (shell), completed in 1761. The 
T-apeslry^ with which it is adorned, was executed by Vos from drawings by 
Wouverman, and was purchased by the Town Council from the heirs of 
Elector Clement Augustus. — The former Raths-Saal is in the tower. The 
fine carved door was executed by Melchior Reidt in 1603 ; to the same 
period belong the stucco ceiling , ornamented with medallions of the 
emperors, and the door leading from the Arsenal into the commission room. 

In the Rathhaus-Platz, opposite the Rathhaus, is the late-Gothic 
Chapel of the Rathhaus (now used by an Old Catholic congre- 
gation) , which formerly contained the Dombild (p. 30) , and was 
consecrated in 1426. The spire is of graceful proportions; the sa- 
cristy dates from 1474. — The handsome new Civic Library (PI. 2), 
in the Portalsgasse, was erected by Hr. Weyer in the style of the 
Renaissance. — A monument to Field-Marshal Moltke was erected 
in the adjacent Laurenz-Platz in 1881. 

Gurzenich. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 37 

The old Scotch Church of "Gross St. Martin (PI. 54; E, 5), form- 
erly situated on an island in the Rhine , dates originally from the 
Merovingian period. The existing church, built by Abbot Adelhard, 
after the repeated destruction of previous edifices, was consecrated 
by Archbishop Philip in 1172. The massive E. portion, with its 
imposing tower (270 ft. high) surrounded by four corner- turrets, 
seems to have been constructed in the 13th century, and was 
restored in 1437 and 1454-99. (The S.W. corner-turret fell in 
1526, and was not restored till 1870.) Before the handsome, 
pointed W. portal stood a porch covered with groined vaulting, 
probably dating from the 14th century, one half of which was 
removed at the last restoration. 

In the Interior, in the corner to the left of the entrance, is a marble 
font, adorned with lions' heads and foliage, said to have been presented 
by Pope Leo III. in 803. On the upper side-altars are six modern statues 
by Hoffmann of Rome , on the left SS. Martinus, Eliphius , and Brigitta, 
on the right the Virgin with angels. The N. aisle contains a fine Descent 
from the Cross, by Du Bois, and Christ before Annas, by Honthorst. 

To the S. of the Rathhaus is the *Gurzenicb. (PI. 10 ; D, 5), with 
its pinnacles and turrets, built in 1441-52 at a cost of 80,000 florins, 
to serve as a 'Herren Tanzhaus' and banquet-saloon on occasions 
when the Town Council desired to entertain distinguished guests 
with a magnificence worthy of the city. Besides the 'Gurzenich' 
property the Council purchased several other pieces of ground to 
form a site for this imposing building. The architect was Johann 
vonBuren. The first grand festival was held here in 1475 in honour 
of Emperor Frederick III. Other festivals took place in 1486, 1505, 
1521, and on several occasions in the 16th century. In the 17th 
and 18th centuries the large saloon fell into decay, and was used as 
a magazine till 1857, when, after undergoing a thorough renovation 
at the hands of Jul. Raschdorff, it was restored to its original uses. 
This is the finest of the ancient secular edifices of Cologne. 

Above the E. gateways are statues of Agrippa and Marsilius, the 
founder and the defender of Cologne in the Roman period, executed by Jlohr, 
painted by Kleinertz in the ancient style, and erected in 1859 in place of 
the old ones, which had become injured by exposure to the weather. 

Interior (adm. 50 pf.). On the ground-floor is the former magazine, 
converted by Herr Weyer in 1875 into a fine Exchange Hall. — On the 
first floor is the spacious "Fest-Saal (58 yds. long, 24 broad), borne by 
twenty-two richly carved wooden columns, with a gallery. The modern 
stained-glass windows represent the armorial bearings of Julich , Cleve, 
Berg , and Mark , the mediseval allies of Cologne , with St. Peter as the 
patron saint of the city, two Imperial eagles, the arms of Cologne itself, 
those of six burgomasters of the period when the building was first erected, 
and those of the twenty-two guilds. The two large Chimney Pieces of the 
15th century, richly carved with scenes from the early history of the 
town, are worthy of inspection. — The Antechamber ('Kleine Gurzenich' 
or 'Isabellen-Saal') is adorned with mural paintings by Schmitz of Diissel- 
dorf, representing the entry of the Empress Isabella (wife of Frederick II.), 
the legend of the Cologne wood-cutting expedition (viz. that Marsilius 
saved the town from a beleaguering enemy by sending out armed women 
against them on the pretext of felling wood), and the Festival of St. John 
(a symbolical washing away of the evil of the year in the Rhine, men- 
tioned by Petrarch, who visited Cologne in 1333). — Concerts, see p. 23. 

38 Route 3. 

COLOGNE. St. Marin im Capitol. 

In the Heumabkt (PI. D, 5), to the E. of the Giirzenich, rises 
the "Monument of Frederick William III., erected in 1878 by 
the inhabitants of the Rhenish provinces. It consists of a colos- 
sal equestrian statue of the king on a lofty pedestal, surround- 
ed by statues of the principal statesmen and warriors -who co- 
operated with him in raising Prussia to the rank of a first- 
class power and in freeing the Rhenish provinces from French 
domination (Bliicher, Stein, Arndt, Humboldt, etc.). The reliefs 
on the sides indicate the progress of the Rhenish provinces in 
science, art, commerce, and manufactures. The chief figures and 
the statues on one side are by Oustavus Blciser (1813-1874), those 
at the front and back by Drake , the rest by Schweinitz, Tondeur, 
and Buchting. The pedestal was designed by Schievelbein (d. 1867). 
— Turning to the right at the S. end of theHeumarkt, we reach — 
The Church of *St. Maria im Capitol {Zint Marjen in local speech ; 
PI. 50), consecrated in 1049 by Pope Leo IX., a cruciform edifice 
in the Romanesque style, constructed on an imposing and somewhat 
peculiar plan. The choir and transept (apparently of the 12th 
century) terminate in semicircular apses with an ambulatory 
round each, and impart to the end of the building the trefoil shape, 
of which this is the earliest example at Cologne. The vaulting of 
the nave dates from 1250. The church owes its name to the tradi- 
tion that this site was once occupied by the Roman Capitol , which 
was succeeded by the palace of the Franconian kings. The original 
edifice, of which no remains exist, is said to have been built by 
Plectrudis, wife of Pepin of Henstal, and mother of Charles Martel. 

The * Interior has 
been decorated with 
modern frescoes , begun 
by Steinle (paintings in 
the apse) and E. Oatzke, 
and completed by Qoeb- 
bels under the superin- 
tendence of Essenwein of 
Nuremberg. Several of 
these are in the old 
Romanesque style, and 
therefore somewhat un- 
pleasing to modern taste. 
The figures are from 
drawings by Klein, of 
Vienna. — In the W. 
vestibule and under the 
organ - loft are some 
tomb - stones belonging 
to the Merovingian and 
Carlovingian periods. 
The door which leads 
into the apse of the N. 
transept, decorated with 
very prominent reliefs, 
dates from the foundation of the church. The S. (Hardenrath's) chapel (of 
1465) contains pictures of the School of Meisler Stephan, and fine stained glass. 
The richly sculptured organ-loft (originally a screen) of 1523, the font of 

St. George. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 39 

1594, and a late-Romanesque portable altar are well worthy of inspection. — 
The line Crypt, with its nave and aisles, its quadrangular chapels, and 
its side-chambers , corresponds with the form of the choir. It contains 
the tomb of Plectrudis, and some ancient mural paintings. 

To the right, in the vicinity, is the Templars' Lodge (PI. 28 ; 
D, 5), Rheingasse No. 8, a handsome Romanesque edifice , with 
round-arched windows, niches, and corbie-stepped gables, dating 
from the 12th or the beginning of the 13th century. It was the fa- 
mily residence of the 'Overstolzen', and was purchased by the town 
in 1836 and judiciously restored. It is now used as a Baptist place 
of worship. 

The Prot. Trinity Church (PI. 44 ; C, D, 5), in the early Christian 
basilica style, designed by Stiiler, was consecrated in 1860. 

St. George (PI. 45 ; C, 4), consecrated in 1067, was originally 
a plain columnar basilica, with a crypt of the same character (now 
restored). The porch dates from 1536. The objects of greatest in- 
terest are a Romanesque crucifix of wood , remains of Romanesque 
and Gothic mural paintings and stained glass, and a tomb of 1545. 

— Adjacent, No. 225 Severin-Str., is the Friedrich-Wilhelm Gym- 
nasium, a handsome modern Renaissance edifice. 

St. Severin's (PL 60 ; A, 5), at the S. end of the town, stands 
upon the site of a Christian Church built as early as the 4th cen- 
tury, and has been often destroyed. The present church was con- 
secrated in 1237 and has recently been thoroughly restored. The 
effective quadrangular tower was erected in 1393-1411 ; the nave 
was furnished with new vaulting in 1479 ; the baptismal chapel, 
adorned with stained glass, dates from 1505. 

The sarcophagus of St. Severin with a roof-shaped lid, the excellent 
mountings of a door of the 12th century , a copper-gilt reading-desk in 
the form of an eagle , the Gothic choir-stalls , and some old mural and 
easel paintings will repay inspection. 

In the Augustiner-Platz , in front of the Casino (PL 4 ; D, 4), 
rises a Statue of Prince Bismarck, by Schaper, unveiled in 1879. 

Farther to the S., in the Sternengasse (No. 10, right side) is a 
handsome house in which Rubens is erroneously said to have been 
born (comp. p. 52). The house bears an inscription and a relief 
above the door in memory of the illustrious master ; and on the op- 
posite side is an inscription recording (correctly) that Marie de 
Medicis, widow of Henri IV. of France, died here in exile in 1642. 

— The house No. 23 - 25 Sternengasse is that of the well-known 
patron of art, Eberhard v. Jabach, who died in 1636. 

Continuing to follow the same line of streets, we reach the church 
of St. Peter (PI. 58 ; entrance in the Sternengasse), of the 16th 

Over the High Altar is the * Crucifixion'of St. Peter, by Bubens, re- 
covered from Paris in 1814. This fine picture , one of the most vigorous 
works of the master, but repellent owing to its startling fidelity to na- 
ture , was painted by order of the Jabach family in memory of Herr 
Eberhard Jabach (see above). It is shown by the sexton for the some- 
what exorbitant fee of l 1 /* m. Behind the altar reposes Johann Rubens, 
the father of the painter (see p. 52). — A late-Gothic carved altar (Bear- 

40 Route 3. COLOGNE. Hospital. 

ing of the Cross, Crucifixion, Descent from the Cross), with fine pictures 
on the wings , is exhibited for an additional fee of 75 pf. — The brazen 
font, surmounted by an equestrian figure, dates from 1569. 

The adjoining Church of St. Caecilia (PI. 38; D, 3, 4), a very 
ancient building, was restored as early as 930-41, and again in the 
12th century, on which occasion parts of the edifice of the 10th cen- 
tury appear to have been retained. It contains a curious crypt, 
which is wrongly described as a remnant of the oldest episcopal 
church built by St. Maternus, The relief above the arch of the door 
is worth inspection. 

Opposite is the Wolkenburg (PI. 32 ; D, 4), built in the style of 
the Gurzenich , the meeting - place of the Manner - Oesangnerein 
(p. 23). 

At the back of the two churches last described is situated the 
spacious Hospital (PI. 3; D, 3), erected in 1846. It may be in- 
spected in the afternoon ; visitors , on entering their names in a 
book, usually contribute to the funds (small fee to the attendant). 

In the N.W. angle of the Neumarkt (PI. D, 3), a square planted 
with trees (military parade at noon) , the largest in Cologne , rises 
the *Apostles' Church (PI. 37; D, 2), a remarkably handsome ba- 
silica with aisles and double transept. Over the E. point of inter- 
section rises a dome flanked with two slender corner-towers , and 
over the W. intersection a square tower. The picturesque choir and 
the arms of the E. transept terminate in very spacious rounded ap- 
ses, adorned with two series of niches and a miniature gallery above 
them. The church, begun about the year 1200, on the site of an 
older structure of the 11th century, which had been destroyed by 
fire , was completed about the middle of the thirteenth century and 
is now undergoing restoration. 

When the plague raged at Cologne in 1357, Richmodis von Lyskirch- 
en, wife of the knight Mengis von Adocht , was attacked by the malady, 
and having fallen into a deathlike swoon , was interred in the Apostles' 1 
Church. Being awakened from her trance by a thievish gravedigger in 
his attempts to abstract her ring, she returned to the house of 
her husband, who imagining he beheld an apparition, declared he would 
sooner believe that his horses could ascend to the loft of his house than 
that his departed spouse should return in proprid persond. Scarcely had 
the words escaped his lips, says the legend, than horses' hoofs were heard 
mounting the stairs, and their heads were speedily seen looking out of a 
window in the upper story of the house. The lady recovered, and lived 
for many years afterwards. Two horses' heads, affixed to the upper story 
of the house with the tower on the N. side of the Neumarkt (No. 10), are 
said to have been placed there in commemoration of the miraculous 
event, but probably formed part of the armorial bearings of Nicasius von 
Haquenay, who built the house. 

To the W. of the Apostles' Church aTe the Apostel-Gymnasium, a 
fine modern brick structure, by ltaschdorff, and the handsome Resi- 
dence of the Commandant (PI. 5 ; D, 2). 

The Mauritiuskirche (PI. 55 ; C, 2) in the Mauritius-Steinweg, 
built by Vincent Statz, in 1861-65, is a Gothic edifice, with a 
tower 230 ft. in height ; the interior contains a 'pieta' by Hoffmann. 
— To the W of it the Arndt-Strasse leads to the Gewerbe-Sehule, or 

St. Oereon. 


3. Route. 41 

industrial school, built by Raschdorff, behind which is situated the 
Turnhalle (gymnastic hall). 

The Church of St. Pantaleon (PI. 57; now a military church, 
and also used by the Old Catholics) was constructed on the site of 
an older building in 964-980. The materials for this purpose are 
said to have been taken by Archbishop Bruno (d. 965), brother of 
Emperor Otho the Great , from the remains of Constantine's bridge 
(see p. 25). The present building, recently restored, dates from the 
12th and 13th centuries, and partly also from the 16th ; but the 
substructure of the tower in the centra , with its two-storied ad- 
ditions, seems to belong entirely to the 10th century. Archbishop 
Bruno and the Empress Theophano (d. 999) are buried in the 
church. There are some remains of Romanesque mural paintings 
in a side chapel. 

In the Grosse Griechenmarkt , in the neighbourhood, is the 
large reservoir of the Waterworks. 

On the way from the Apostles' Church to St. Gereon's we pass 
the Roman Tower, mentioned at p. 35. 

The Church of *St. Gereon (PI. 46 ; F, 2), dedicated to the 318 
martyrs of the Theban legion, with their captain Gereon, who, ac- 
cording to the legend, perished here 
in 286 during the persecution of the 
Christians under Diocletian, is an 
edifice of very peculiar style. The 
long Romanesque choir is adjoined 
by a decagonal nave in the Gothic 
style, with a quadrangular vestibule. 
The original structure, circular in 
form, traces of the undoubted Roman 
origin of which are still extant, is 
said to have been erected by the 
empress Helena, mother of Constan- 
tine the Great. Archbishop Anno (d. 
1075) added the choir with its two 
square towers, and the spacious crypt. 
In 1219-27 the round part of the 
church, having become dilapidated, 
was converted into the present de- 
cagonal nave, 153 ft. in height, 20 
yds. in length , and 18 in breadth, 
covered with groined vaulting; the 
eight shorter sides are adjoined by 
large round niches. Other alterations 
took place in the 14th and 15th cent., 
to which period belongs the vaulting of the choir and of the vesti- 
bule. The disfiguring additions of the 17th and 18th cent, have 
recently been removed. The sacristan, who is generally to be found 

42 Route 3. COLOGNE. St. Urmia. 

in the church (visitors knock), lives at the Gereonsdriesch 17, a 
'Platz' planted with trees (fee for 1-2 persons 1 m. ; for more, 
50 pf. each). 

The Vestibdle contains tombstones from the former cloisters (comp. 
p. xxv). 

The 'Interior, now that the central altar added in the 17th cent, has 
been removed, presents its original singular appearance. In small chapels 
in the recesses of the nave , above which runs a gallery borne by small 
columns , are seen the stone sarcophagi of the martyrs, half built into 
the walls. Their skulls are arranged under gilded arabesques along the 
sides of the Choir, to which nineteen steps ascend. The handsome carved 
choir-stalls date from the 15th century. The E. end of the choir is reached 
by seven steps more. — The Sacristy, in the purest Gothic style, dating 
from 1316, containing fine Gothic stained glass, and the octagonal Bap- 
tistery, with ancient mural paintings, are also worthy of note. 

The Crvpt below the choir, with its three aisles borne by eighteen 
columns, dating principally, as already mentioned, from the 11th cent., 
contains an interesting specimen of the art of that period : viz. a "Mo- 
saic Pavement, the sections of which represent scenes from the lives of 
David and Samson (not Joshua and Joseph as sometimes described), and 
the signs of the Zodiac. It was, perhaps , executed by Italian workmen, 
as similar scenes are very common in Italian churches. The fragments, 
which had got into disorder, were successfully restored and supplemented 
by the painter Avenarius in 1869-71. 

About a hundred paces to the E. of the church, in theGereons- 
Strasse , which is planted with trees, is situated the Archiepiscopal 
Palace (PI. 6 ; F, 3), in front of which rises the Mariensaule , a 
monument designed by V. Statz, and erected in 1858 to commemorate 
the promulgation of the new doctrine of the immaculate conception 
of the Virgin. 

Farther N., in the Klingelpiitz, is the Arresthuus (PI. G, 3), a 
prison constructed in 1838 in a radiating form. 

St. Ursula (PI. 61 ; G, 4), is situated on the site of a church of 
the 5th century, but has undergone much alteration. The Gothic 
portal is noteworthy. 

The N. aisle, near the choir contains a monument, by Johann Lenz, 
erected in 1658 to St. Ursula, an English princess, who, according to the 
legend, when on her return from a pilgrimage to Rome, was barbarously 
murdered at Cologne with her 11,000 virgin attendants. The figure is in 
alabaster, with a dove at the feet. The bones of these virgin martyrs 
are preserved in cases, placed round the church. The legend is also il- 
lustrated by a series of old paintings, frequently retouched , on the wall 
beginning to the right of the entrance. Ten old pictures of the Apos- 
tles, to the left of the S. entrance , are painted on slabs of slate , one of 
them bearing the date 1224. Under the organ , by the pillar to the left, 
is a well-executed old Gothic sculpture , representing the bearing of the 
Cross. The sarcophagus of a child belonging to the family of the Fran- 
conian major-domo's is also worth inspection. — The Goldene Rammer, or 
treasury (admission l'/im,, for 1-3 persons) contains the fine late-Romanesque 
Reliquary of St. Ursula , several other reliquaries of the Gothic period, 
and a carved rock-crystal chessman of the Carlovingian period. 

The Jesuits' Church (PI. 47; F, 4), erected in 1618-29, is a 
striking example of the Renaissance style , partaking of a Gothic 
character, peculiar to this order. The pulpit and high-altar are over- 
laden with decoration. The bells were cast with the metal of cannons 
taken by Tilly at Magdeburg, and presented by him to the church. 

Town Wall. COLOGNE. 3. Route. 43 

St. Andreas (PI. 36 ; F, 4), with Romanesque nave of 1220 and a 
raised Gothic choir of 1414, contains a fine brass -gilt reliquary 
(the 'Reliquary of the Maccabees'), of late-Gothic workmanship, 
with reliefs. 

The neighbouring street ' Vnter Sachsenhauseri contains num- 
erous handsome buildings. Of these may be mentioned No. 8, the 
Bank of the Schaa/fhausen Co., with a fine new wing, in the style 
of the Renaissance ; Nos. 24-26 , the office oi' the Cologne Fire and 
Hail Insurance Companies ; and the mansions of Herr Oppenheim 
and Herr Kaaf. 

On the Rhine, near the N. end of the town, is situated the Church 
of *St. Cunibert (PI. 40 ; G, 5), an excellent example of the tran- 
sition-style, consecrated by Archbishop Conrad in 1247, the year be- 
fore he laid the foundation of the cathedral, and recently restored. 
It is a vaulted basilica with two transepts and three towers. The 
principal tower, over the W. transept, fell in 1830, but has also 
been restored. 

The Interior contains fine * Stained Olan (in the choir) of the 

13th century, remains of good Romanesque mural paintings , pictures of 

the Cologne school, and sculptures of the 14th and 16th centuries (relief 

of the Crucifixion). The choir has lately been decorated with encaustic 

Mural Paintings by Welter. Fine modern organ. 

The opposite Marien-Hospital for incurables (PI. 15) was erected 
by subscription. 

One of the most remarkable works of its kind is the well-pre- 
served Town Wall , with broad , deep fosses and admirable gate- 
towers (such as the Severinsthor , Hahnenthor, Gereonsthor, and 
Engelsteinthor), which according to documents still extant was begun 
in 1200. It describes a semicircle, the chord of which, about IV2M. 
in length, is formed by the Rhine. Its removal, however, has been 
rendered necessary by the plans for the extension of the town. 

Near the Bayenthurm (PI. A, 6) , a square pinnacled tower of 
the 13th-14th cent., at the upper end of the town, is the Sicherheits- 
hafen ('safety-harbour', where vessels take refuge in winter from 
the dangers of the floating ice), which was formed in 1848 by con- 
necting the Rheinau, then an island, with the mainland. Part of 
the Rheinau is now laid out as a promenade. At the S. end of the 
harbour is a spinning factory. The warehouses of the Freihafen 
(PI. E, 5), or free-harbour for goods in bond, immediately below 
the bridge-of-boats, were erected in 1838 in the style of the Giir- 
zenich. The traveller intending to cross the Iron Bridge (p. 31) 
approaches it by the Domthor to the N. 

Passing the Trankgassenthor , to the N. of the bridge , and St. 
Cunibert (see above), where there is a pier of the steamboats noticed 
on p. 23, we reach the N. end of the town ('Am Thiirmchen' ; comp. 
Plan H, 5, 6, and the Map of the Environs), cross the entrance to 
the Old Sicherheitshafen, and skirting a number of gardens (Kaiser- 
Garten, see p. 22) and villas, at length arrive at the ^Zoological 

44 Route 4. ZONS. From Cologne 

Garden (admission , see p. 23). A military band generally plays 
here on Wed. afternoons. Grounds well laid out, fine collection of 
animals. *Refreshment-room. Cabs, tramway, and steamboats, see 
p. 23. — Adjacent is the *Botanical Garden of the 'Flora Co.' 
(admission, see p. 23 ; good restaurant), with a handsome conser- 
vatory and an Aquarium (Director, Herr Niepraschk). The Belve- 
dere commands a good survey of Cologne and the Seven Mts. — 
The belvedere of Bruckmann's Restaurant, between the Zoological 
and Flora gardens, is another good point of view. 

To the W., between the St. Gereon'sThor and the Ehren-Thor, 
lies the Town Garden (Stadtischer Garten; PI. F, 1), with a hor- 
ticultural school, which affords a favourite promenade. 

The extensive Cemetery, on the road to Aix-la-Cliapelle, 1 /i M. from the 
Hahnen-Thor (cab for 1-4 pers. 2 m.), contains several fine monuments, 
including those of Prof. Wallraf and Herr Richartz (p. 32), memorial mon- 
uments of the wars of 1866 and 1870-1871, and a monument to the memory 
of French prisoners who died here. — Aoout 3 M. W. of Cologne, at the 
village of Weiden, is an interesting vaulted Roman tomb , with a sarco- 
phagus, niches, and busts. 

On the right bank of the Rhine, opposite Cologne, lies Deutz 
(hotel, seep. 22; railway-stations, see p. 22), the tete-de-pont 
of Cologne, and the Roman Castellum Divitense. It existed as a 
fortress down to 1114, after which it was repeatedly destroyed, as a 
settlement here would have been inconsistent with the privileges of 
Cologne. Since 1816 Deutz has been fortified by the Prussians in 
connection with Cologne. The Roman Catholic Church contains the 
altar- tomb of St. Heribert, of the year 1147. The Protestant Jo- 
hanniskirche was consecrated in 1861. 

4. From Cologne to Neuss (Dusseldorf) , Crefeld, 
and Cleve. 

Railway to Clem in 2V2-3'A hrs. (fares 9 m. 60, 7 m. 20, 4 m. 80 pf.); to 
Dilsseldorf in l'/4-l 3 A hr. (fares 3 m. 70, 2 m. 80, 1 m. 90 pf.). From Neuss 
onwards, the Bergisch-Markisch line, crossing the Rhine, see p. 47. 

Cologne, see R. 3. — 2 M. Nippes. — 5 M. Longerieh. 

9'/2 M. Worringen, the Buruncum of the Romans, and one of 
their cavalry-stations. In a battle fought here in 1288 between the 
citizens of Cologne and the Brabanters under the Duke of Berg on 
one side, and the Archbishop of Cologne and the Duke of Guelders 
on the other , the struggle between the burghers and their arch- 
bishop was decided in favour of the former. 

13 M. Dormagen , the Roman Durnomagus. About V/2 M. to 
the E., on the Rhine, lies Zons, the Roman Sontium, a small town 
with numerous towers, which once belonged to Cologne. The Pre- 
monstratensian abbey of Knechtsteden , with a beautiful Roman- 
esque church begun in 1138, is situated 3 M. to the W. 

to Cleve. CREFELD. 4. Route. 45 

18 3 /4 M. Norf. To the right, farther on, is seen the railway- 
bridge of the Bergisch-Markisch line in the distance (p. 47). 

22'/2 M. Neuss (Rheinischer Hof ; see map annexed to plan of 
Diisseldorf), often mentioned as a Roman fortress in the annals of 
the Batavian war , under the name Novesium , is one of the oldest 
towns in Germany. Pop. 17,000. In 1774 it was in vain besieged 
by Charles the Bold of Burgundy for forty-eight weeks, and in 1586 
was conquered and treated with great severity by Alexander Farnese. 
It once lay on the Rhine, from which it is now l^M. distant. The 
handsome *Quirinu$kirche, an interesting building in the transition- 
style, begun in 1209 by the master Wolbero, is a basilica with nave 
and aisles, and with towers over the transept and over the W. side, 
which externally forms a second transept. Above the aisles run 
galleries, and some of the windows are peculiarly shaped. The 
niches of the W. portal are filled with statues of St. Peter and St. 
Paul by Bayerle of Diisseldorf. The E. tower, which was re-erected 
after its destruction by lightning in 1741, is crowned with a Statue 
of St. Quirinus, who was probably a Roman soldier. The Rathhaus 
contains a considerable collection of Roman Antiquities. 

From Neuss to Aix-la-Chapelle and Diisseldorf, see R. 5; to Neersen- 
Jfeuwerk and Rheydl, see p. 48; to Diiren, see p. 12. 

A branch of the Bergisch-Markisch railway (change carriages at Neuss) 
leads by Heerdt to Obercassel, on the Rhine, opposite Diisseldorf, and 
connected with it by a bridge of boats. Diisseldorf, see p. 16. 

28 M. Osterath. 32y. 2 M. Oppum, the junction for the line to 
Essen and Dortmund, which crosses the Rhine at (6 M.) Rhein- 
hausen, between Verdingen (p. 49) and Hochfeld, by a bridge, 1040 
yds. long, completed in 1875, and spanning the river in four hand- 
some arches. Essen, and thence by Bochum and Langendreer to 
Dortmund, see Baedeker's Northern Germany. 

34 M. Crefeld (* Wilder Mann; *Hilgers; Herfs; Enzlers Re- 
staurant) is the seat of the chief silk and velvet manufactories in 
Germany, which employ about 30,000 looms and produce fabrics of 
an annual value of 3,000,000Z.-3,500,000i., vying in excellence 
with those of Lyons, and largely exported to England, America, and 
other foreign countries. Several new Churches. In the Rathhaus are 
good frescoes (the battle of Arminius) by Janssen of Diisseldorf. 
Monument in memory of the Franco-German war of 1870-1871, by 
Walger of Berlin. There are also monuments in honour of Cor- 
nelius de Greiff, an eminent philanthropist, and C. Wilhelm, the 
composer of the 'Wacht am Rhein'. Pop. 73,866 (13,000 in 1830), 
25,000 being Protestants. The Stadthalle, a large concert-hall, was 
completed in 1879. The new Zoological Garden is a favourite place 
of resort, at which open-air concerts and other entertainments are 
given. Crefeld is first mentioned byname in a document of 1166 
and obtained municipal privileges in 1373. On the extinction of the 
Counts of Moers in 1600 it came into the hands of the Princes of 
Nassau and Orange, under whom the foundation of the town's pro- 

46 Route 4. CLEVE. 

sperity was laid by the protection extended to Protestants and Ana- 
baptists banished from the Duchies of Jtilich and Berg. In 1702 
Crefeld fell by inheritance to the crown of Prussia, to which it has 
since belonged with the exception of a few years (1794-1814) 
when it was subject to France. In June, 1758, Prince Ferdinand 
of Brunswick , the general of Frederick the Great , defeated the 
French under Count Clermont in the vicinity. Crefeld is the junc- 
tion of the lines to Aix-la-Chapelle and to Ruhrort (R. 6), and also 
of local lines to Viersen, Siichteln, etc. 

41 M. Kempen (Herriger), an ancient town with a well-pre- 
served Romanesque church , the supposed birthplace of Thomas a 
Kempis (d. at Zwolle, 1471). The fertile district begins to assume 
the Dutch character. 46 M. Aldekerk; 48*/2 M. Nieukerk. 53 M. 
Geldern (*H6t. Holtzem), once the capital of the Duchy of Guelders, 
has belonged to Prussia since 1713. Our line here intersects the 
railway from Holland ( Venlo, Straelen) to Bremen and Hamburg. 
The train crosses the Niers. 58!/o M. Kevelaer (frequented by pil- 
grims); 62 M. Weeze. 

66Y2 M- Goch, an important place in the middle ages, also a 
station on the line from Boxtel to Wes"el, which is now traversed by 
the express trains from Berlin to Flushing (Berlin to London in 
24 hrs.). 

From Goch to Wesel, 24 M., railway in l l /<-tV» hr, (fares 4 m., 
3 m., 2 m.). — 5 M. Uedem. 

12'/2 M. Xanten (Ingenlath), a town of great antiquity, with 2600 in- 
hab., the Castra Vetera of the Romans, founded by Augustus after the de- 
feat of LolHus (B.C. 18), whose camp was situated on the Fiirstenberg, 
near Birten, l fe M. to the S. The 'Nibelungenlied' mentions Xanten as 
the birthplace of Siegfried the dragon-slayer (p. 76). The 'Collegiate Church 
of St. Victor, erected in 1213-1522, is a gem of Gothic architecture, and 
is adorned with paintings by J. v. Calcar, De Bruyn, and other artists. 
The choir, separated from the nave by an elegant bronze screen , is 
worthy of notice. The cloisters contain some interesting tombstones. One 
of the walls of an ancient building, apparently about 330 ft. square, was 
excavated to the N. of Xanten in 1879, but it is uncertain whether it is of 
Soman or of Frankish origin. 

Beyond Xanten the train crosses the Rhine, passes some unimportant 
stations, and reaches (24 M.) Wesel (p. 15). 

74!/ 2 M. Cleve. — Hotels. Maywald, on the S. side of the hill, with 
large garden; "Bad-Hotel, "Hotel Stykom, belonging to a company, with 
gardens and baths , to the W. of and outside the town, in the Thiergar- 
ten, 'pension' 5 m., R. from 2 m. ; "Robbers, also in the Thiergarten ; Hotel 
Loook, opposite the post-office; "Hotel Holtzem, near the palace. — Beer 
at the Deutscher Kaiser, adjoining the Stiftskirche. 

Visitors' Tax, for stay of more than a week, 5 m.; two pers. 8 m.; 
each additional member of a family 1 m. 

Cleve, Dutch Kleef, pop. 10,000, once the capital of the duchy of 
that name , is beautifully situated on a wooded hill, 4!/ 2 M. W. of 
Emmerich, and is much frequented by Dutch families in summer. 
The Gothic * Stiftskirche, an imposing brick edifice, erected in 1345, 
contains monuments of Counts and Dukes of Gleve (the finest that 
of Adolph VI., d. 1394), and one of Margaretha von Berg(d. 1425). 
— A Statue of the Elector John Sigismund (d. 1619) by Bayerle, 

HERZOGENRATH. 5. Route. 47 

erected on the roarfto the palace in 1859, is a memorial of the an- 
nexation of the district to the Electorate of Brandenburg in 1609. 

On a picturesque eminence in the town rises the Palace of the 
former dukes, generally called the Schwanenburg (in the court- 
yard a Romay Altar found in the neighbourhood), with the lofty 
*8chwanenthurm , erected by Adolph I. in 1439, on the site of an 
ancient tower supposed to have been built by Csesar. The Schwa- 
nenthurm, which derives its name from the legend made so widely 
known through Wagner's opera of 'Lohengrin', and the Clever-Berg, 
i/ 2 M. distant, command the most beautiful views on the Lower 
Rhine. Near the Schwanenburg rises the Prinzenhof, erected in 
1663 by Maurice of Orange, Governor of Cleve (appointed by the 
Elector of Brandenburg) , and now the property of the Prince of 
Waldeck. To the S. extends a range of hill, on which lies 'Berg 
und TkaV (*Restaurant), with the grave of Prince Maurice (d. 1679). 
Towards the W. lie the hills known as the Thiergarten, laid out with 
pleasant park-like grounds, which adjoin the road and railway to 
Nymwegen. The Roman camp Colonia Trajana, established by the 

Emp. Trajan, lay near Cleve. 

Beyond Cleve the Rhenish Railway pursues its N. direction, crosses 
the Rhine by means of a steam -ferry near stat. Elten, and at etat. 
Zevenaar unites with the Dutch line to Amsterdam and Rotterdam (R. 2) ; 
see also Baedeker's Belgium and Holland, 

To Nymwegen by railway via, Groesbeck and Cranenburg in 40 nun. ; 
comp. Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 

From Cleve diligence once daily in i 1 /* hr. to (71/2 M.) Calcar, the 
Gothic church of which, of the 14th cent., contains a remarkably fine al- 
tar-piece by Johann of Calcar, and below it some admirably carved wood- 
work Calcar was the birthplace of the celebrated Prussian General Seyd- 
litz; (d. 1773), the conqueror at Rossbach, a handsome monument to whom 
adorns the market-place. 


5. From Aix-ia-Chapelle by Gladbach to Diisseldorf. 

Comp. Map, p. it. 

53 M. Railway to Dusseldorf in lVs-3 hrs. (fares 7 m. 50, 5 m. 60, 3 m. 
80 pf. ; express 8 m. 80, 6 m. 50, 4 m. 60 pf.). 

This railway ('Bergisch-Markisch' Co.) has two stations at Aix- 
la-Chapelle, one at the Marschierthor, the other at the Templerbend 
(comp. p. 4). At stat. Richterich the Mastricht Line diverges to 
the left. The tall chimneys near (51/2 M.) Kohlscheid belong to 
coal-mines. The train now descends into the pleasing and partially 
wooded valley of the Wurm. 

At (8 M.) Herzogenrath (Zum Wurmthal) , French Rolduc , a 
small town with an ancient castle , the buildings of the suppressed 
Abbey of Klosterrath (now a school) look down from a height on 
the left. The Church was consecrated in 1209, and its crypt in 1108. 

On the left near (12i/ 2 M.) Palenberg, rise the chateaux of Rim- 
burg and Zweibruggen, and at (15 M.) Geilenkirchen that ot Trips. 
The train then traverses the undulating Duchy of Julich , and be- 
tween (20 M.) Lindern and (24'/ 2 M.) Baal crosses the valley of the 

48 Route 5. GLADBACH. 

fioer(p. 12). — 27VaM. Erkelenz, an old town with the picturesqu 
ruins of a castle destroyed in 1674 , and a handsome church of th 
14th century. 33 3 / 4 M. Wickrath, with a government stud. 

35'/-2 M- Rheydt ( Krusemann ; Jubges), with 18,000 inhabitants 
is the junction of the Gladbach-Roermond-Antwerp line (see below 
and of the Left-Rhenish line to Gladbach, Neersen-Neuwerk, am 
Neuss (p. 45; 17 M. in iy 4 hr.). 

About 6 SI. to the E. of Rheydt is situated Schloss Dyek, the chatea 
of Prince Sahn-Reifferscheid-Dyck, with beautiful grounds, and a garde 
which boasts of the most complete collection of cacti in Europe. (Goo 
inn, opposite the gate of the chateau.) — Schloss Ziedberg, 3 M. to the K 
of Dyck, commands an extensive prospect. 

38 M. Gladbach (*Herfs; Kothen ; *Lenssen's Restaurant) is 
rising manufacturing town of 37,380 inhab., and one of the centre 
of the Rhenish cotton , woollen , iron , and engine-making indus 
tries. To distinguish it from another place of the same name (p. 21 
it is termed Miinchen-Gladbach, the epithet Miinchen (i.e. 'Mo'n 
chen' or monks) being derived from a Benedictine abbey, founde* 
in 793 and suppressed in 1802, to which the town owes its origin 
Admission to any of the numerous factories or dye-works is usual! 
granted by the owner on application. The imposing brick edifice to 
the right of the Bergisch-Markisch station is a spinning and weav 
ing factory. Several important insurance societies have their head- 
quarters here. The early-Gothic choir of the Miinsterkirche, dating 
from the second half of the 13th cent., is supposed to have beei 
built by Meister Gerard of Riehl (p. 26); the treasury contains : 
tine late-Gothic portable altar and other interesting objects. Thi 
terrace of the Erholung Club (introduction by a member necessary) 
situated in a shady park, and the old Abbey afford commandini 
views of the Gladbach manufacturing district ('Fabrikbezirk'), whicl 
includes the towns of Gladbach, Rheydt, Viersen, Odenkirchen 
Diilken , and Suchteln , and presents a scene of great industria 

Gladbach is the junction of the Crefeld and Ruhrort line (see R. 6; 

From Gladbach to Antwerp , 99 M. , railway in 4 hours. Station 
Rheydt, Rheindahlen, Wegberg, (14 M.) Dalheim (frontier-station). Thenc 
to Antwerp, see Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 

Branch-line from Gladbach to Julich, Eschweiler, and Stolberg, see p. 11 

The line now turns towards the E., traverses a flat, arable, am 
partially wooded tract , and leads to (43 M.) Kleinenbroich am 
(43'/2 M.) Neuss (p. 45) , the junction of the Aix-la-Chapelle 
Diisseldorf, Cologne- Crefeld, and Diireu-Neuss lines. Soon afte 
leaving the station , the train crosses the Rhine by an iron bridgi 
completed in 1873 (see plan of Diisseldorf). To the left fine viev 
of (53 M.) Diisseldorf (y. 16). 

6. From Gladbach to Crefeld, Euhrort, and Essen. 

Comp. Map, p. 44. 

42 M. Railway in 2y 2 hrs. (lares 5 m. 40, 4 in. 10, 2 m. 70 pf.). 

Miinchen- Gladbach, see p. 48. — 5l/ 2 M. Viersen (Hilgers ; 
Dahlhausen), a town with 21,000 inhab. and extensive manufac- 
tories of silks and velvet ribbons. 

A line diverges hence to Venlo, the junction of the Dutch railways to 
Flushing and Rotterdam, to the W., and to the S. to Mattrichl. See 
Baedekers Belgium and Holland, 

Viersen is also connected by a short branch-line with Neerten-Neu- 
werk on the Neuss railway (see R. 5). 

The Crefeld line next crosses the Nord- Canal , begun by Na- 
poleon, but never completed. 9 M. Anrath, then (14 M.) Crefeld 
(P. 45). 

18y 2 M. Uerdingen (*Kellner), a commercial town on the Rhine, 
with several extensive liqueur and sugar manufactories, is the junc- 
tion of lines to Oppum, Linn, Hochfeld, Essen, etc. (comp. p. 45). 
— 23 M. Trompet. 

26 M. Homberg, whence travellers are conveyed by steamboat 
in 8 min. to Ruhrort, and landed at the station of the Cologne-Min- 
den, or that of the Bergisch-Markisch railway. The towers (128 ft. 
in height) at the Homberg and Ruhrort harbours are employed in 
placing laden trucks on the steam-ferry by which the Rhine is here 

27 M. Ruhrort (*Cleve Hotel; Preussischer Hof ; Rheinischer 
Hof), with 8500 inhab., lies on the Rhine at the influx of the Ruhr, 
and is one of the most important trading towns in the district. Its 
extensive harbour, 4 M. in length, is connected by branch-lines 
with the main railways. The export of coals from Ruhrort amounts 
to about 1 Ya million tons annually, for the transport of which it 
possesses a number of powerful tug-steamers and 400 barges, some 
of them upwards of 500 tons burden. One-half of the coal export- 
ed goes to the various towns on the Upper Rhine, and as far as 
Strassburg, and the other half to Holland. The Quays of Ruhrort 
are of considerable extent. A granite obelisk on the quay is to the 
memory of Ludwig von Vincke (d. 1844), the president of the pro- 
vince, who materially improved the navigation of the Ruhr. Oppo- 
site the railway-station are situated the blast and puddling-furnaces 
of the Phoenix Co. 

From Ruhrort branch-lines run to (5 1 /* M.) Oberhauien and (7 M.) 
Sterkrade (p. 16). 

29 M. Meiderieh, a place with 12,000 inhab., important iron- 
works, and a monument in memory of the war of 1870-71 . 

35 M. Mulheim an der Ruhr, see Baedeker's Northern Qermany. 
35'/2 M. Millheim-Eppinghofen, the second station of Mulheim. 

42 M. Essen, see Baedeker's Northern Qermany. 

pAEDEKEK'g Rhine. 8th Edit. 4 

7. From Cologne to Elberfeld and Hagen. 

43'/2 M. Railway ('Bergisch-Markisch'), express in l 3 /4, ordinary trains 
in 21/2 hrs. ; fares 5 m. 60, 4 m. 20, 2 m. 80 pf. 

Cologne, see Route 3. The terminus of the Bergisch-Markisch 
railway is at Deutz, outside the fortifications to the N. of the town, 
on the right bank of the Rhine (20 min. from the central station 
at Cologne ; omnibus, see p. 22). 

2 M., see p. 21; 7M. Schlebusch; 91/2 M. Opladen; 
I2V2M. Leichlingen ; 16M. Ohligs-Wald [whence a branch-line runs 
in y 4 hr. to Solingen (Bairischer Hof), an important manufacturing 
place] ; 20 M. Haan, the junction of the Diisseldorf-Elberfeld line ; 
23 M. Vohwinkel, the junction of the line to Steele, an important 
coal-railway. The train now crosses the Wupper and reaches — 

26i/ 2 M. Elberfeld-Steinbeck, (27 M.) Elberfeld, (28 M.) Vnter- 
Barmen, and (29^2 M.) Barmen, which begin at the bridge over 
the Wupper, and now form together a single large manufacturing 
town, which fills the bottom and extends up the sides of the -valley, 
and is intersected by the railway, the high-road with a tramway- 
line, and the Wupper. 

Hotels in Elberfeld. Hotel Bloem zum Weidenhof (PI. a; F, 4); 
Victoria (PI. d; F, 4) ; Post (PI. e: E,3); Hotel Scharpenack (PI. c; E,3); 
Rheinischek Hop (PI. f ; E, 4) ; Kolnischee Hop; Zweibrucker Hop (PI, f ; 
E, 4). — Hotels in Barmen. Kaiseehof, Vogler (PI. a; D, 3), Evangeli- 
sches Vereinshaus, all near the station; Zcr Pfalz(P1. b; E,3), Schhtzen- 
haus (PI. c; D, 3), in the town. 

Restaurants at Elberfeld. Biermann, Alter Markt (beer); Himmelmann, 
Schwanen-Str. (wine). 

The sister towns of Elberfeld and Barmen, which have risen to 
importance since the middle of last century, now contain 189,000 
inhab. (Elberfeld, 93,500; Barmen, 95,800), and rank among the 
richest manufacturing towns on the continent. The chief products 
of their very numerous and extensive factories are cotton, calico, 
silk, ribbons, Turkey-red dyed goods, soap, candles, and chemi- 
cals. Since the introduction of power-looms the value of the cotton 
and silk manufactures has risen to 130 million marks annually. 
The old parts of the towns are irregular and confined , but the 
modern portions contain many fine private buildings. The finest 
part of Elberfeld is the quarter to the S.W., near the Nutzenberg 
(PI. A, 5), a hill with a belvedere commanding an extensive view. 
The Konig-Strasse (PI. B, C, D, 5, 4), Briller-Str. (PI. B, 4, 3), and 
Sadowa-Str. (PI. A, B, 4), all in this neighbourhood, are three of the 
handsomest streets in the town. The principal public edifices are : 
the Bathhaus (PL 16); the Reformirte Klrche (PI. 10), designed by 
Zwirner ; the Lutheran Church ; the Landgerichtsgebaude (PI. 12), 
or courts of law, with a picture of the Last Judgment in the princi- 
pal court by Baur ; the large Hospital (PI. O, 6) ; the Head Offices 
of the Bergisch-Markisch Railway (PI. 22). The Hardt (PI. G, 3), 
where there are a monument to St. Suitbertus and a memorial of 
the warriors of the campaign 1870-71, commands a pleasing view. 

HAGEN. 7. Route. 51 

— In Barmen the chief buildings are the Protestant Church (PI. 10), 
designed by Hiibsch ; the Missionshaus (PI. 22), and the Missions- 
kinderhaus, containing an interesting collection of curiosities from 
foreign countries; the new Theatre. On the way from the station 
of Elberfeld to that of Barmen, the train passes an iron monument 
to Frederick William III. 

From Elberfeld to Dusseldork, 17 M., railway in 1 hr. (fares 2 m. 
40, 1 m. 80, 1 m. 20 pf.). Stations Vohwinkel, Haan (see above), Hoch- 
dahl, Erkrath, Gtrresheim, Diisseldorf (p. 16). 

The line skirts the E. side of the valley of the Wupper. 30 M. 
Bittershausen. It then crosses the Wupper, quits the Duchy of 
Berg, and enters the County of Mark. The river anciently formed 
the boundary between the Franks and Saxons, and now separates 
the Rhine-land from Westphalia. — 34 M. Schwelm (Rosenkranz), 
a town with 7200 inhabitants. Farther on, the train passes the 
Schwelmer Brunnen, a chalybeate spring, and through several cut- 
tings, and reaches (36y 2 M.) Milspe. Pleasing view up the valley of 
the Ennepe, which the train crosses by embankments and a viaduct, 
100ft. in height, to (38 M.) Oevelsberg, a town consisting of a 
long row of detached houses. The stream turns the machinery of 
numerous small iron-works, where scythes, sickles, and shovels are 
largely manufactured. A kind of axe for felling the sugar-cane is 
also made here for export. At (41 M.) Haspe are extensive pud- 
dling works and rolling-mills. 

43y 2 M. Hagen (H6tel Liinenschloss, at the station ; Spannagel, 
Olitz, in the town ; ^Railway Restaurant), a manufacturing town 
with 26,300 inhab., and the junction for Dortmund, Cassel (see 
Baedeker's N. Germany), and Siegen. 

From Hagen to Siegen in 3'/2 hrs. (fares 8 m. 60, 6 in. 50, 4 m. 30 pf.). 
This line (the Ruhr- Siegbahn), which connects the manufacturing regions 
of the Lenne and the Sieg with the coal-measures of the Ruhr, runs to 
the N. for a short distance in the valleys of the Volme and the Ruhr, 
and then turns to the S. at the foot of the Hohen- St/burg, into the pictur- 
esque and populous valley of the Lenne, which it follows as far as Alten- 
hundem. 5 M. Kabel. On a hill to the right near Limburg rises a column 
to the memory of a Prince Bentheim. 10 M. Limburg (~ Benlheimer Bof, 
by the bridge ; Oerhardi , at the station) , a prettily situated town with 
5000 inhab., is commanded by the chateau of Prince Bentheim, situated 
on a bold wooded height, and affording a fine view. 12'/2 M. Letmathe (Ho- 
tel Titz; Restaurant at the station), with 3700 inhab., is the junction for 
Iserlohn (see below). 

I8V2M. Altena (Klincke, beyond the bridge; Quitmann, in the town) is 
a very picturesquely situated little town, with the ancestral Schloss of 
the Counts von der Mark, which commands an admirable view. 24 M. 
Werdohl; 30 M. Plettenberg; 38 M. Finnentrop , whence a branch-line 
leads by Attendorn to the small town of Olpe (Deutscher Kaiser), with 
iron-works, and to Rothemiihle; 41 M. Qrevenbriick ; 46 M. Altenhundem, 
where the line enters the Hundem- Thai. At (53 M.) Welschen-Ennest the 
watershed of the Rahrbacher Hbhe (1312 ft.) is penetrated by means of a 
tunnel, beyond which the train reaches (60 M.) Kreuzthal, (63 M.) <?ei'«- 
weid, and (65 31.) Haardt. 

66 M. Siegen ("Ooldner Lowe), a busy old mining town, with a pop- 
ulation of 12,900 souls, the centre of the iron manufactures of the district, 
and of a system of meadow-farming, with a special school for that branch 


52 Route 8. SIEGBURG. From Cologne 

of agriculture. The two castles belonged to the Princes of Nassau-Siegen 
who became extinct in 1743. The lower castle contains a monument to 
a Count of Nassau-Siegen, who was a Dutch governor of Brazil and after- 
wards, in the Brandenburg service, Stadtholder of Cleve (d. 1679; comp. 
p. 47). At Siegen, on the day of SS. Peter and Paul, 29th June, 1577, was 
born the eminent painter Peter Paul Rubens, whose father Johannes Rubens, 
the Antwerp bailiff, with his wife Marie Pypeling, was then living here 
in exile (till 1578). 

At Betzdorf the line joins the Cologne and Giessen railway, see R. 7. 

[Feom Letmathe to Iserlohn by a branch-line in 10-18 min. (fares 
60, 40, 25 pf.). Intermediate station Dechenhohle, see below. 

Iserlohn (Sander; Hilgers), a manufacturing town of some im- 
portance, with 16,800 inhab., the chief products of which are iron and 
bronze wares, needles, and wire. The picturesque environs are crowded 
with workshops of every kind. 

At the Griine, an inn on the Lenne between Iserlohn and Letmathe, 
rise two detached rocks termed the 'Pater' and the 'Nonne 1 , near which is 
the Griirmannshbhle , a cavern containing numerous fossil remains of ante- 
diluvian animals. On the railway (see above) , 10 min. to the E. of the 
Griine , is situated the highly interesting * Dechenhohle (restaurant at the 
entrance), a stalactite cavern discovered in 1868 (cards of admission, 75 pf. 
each, sold at the station), lighted with gas, and extending about 300 yds. 
into the hill. The finest points are the Orgelgrotte and the Mxengrotte.] 

8. From Cologne to Frankfort by Giessen. 

143 M. Railway from Cologne to (103 M.) Giessen in 4i/4-5'/4 hrs. (fares 
13 m. 30, 10 m., 6 m. 70 pf.); from Giessen to (40 M.) Frankfort in iy 4 - 
3 hrs. (fares 4 m. 40, 3 m. 30, 2 m. 20 pf. ; express, 5 m., 3 m. 60 pf.). 

The train starts from the Right-Rhenish station at Deutz, and 
traverses a flat country at some distance from the Rhine. The great 
annual gunnery and rifle practice of the 8th corps of the Prussian 
army takes place in June and July on the Wahner Heide, an exten- 
sive plain , i/jM. to the E. of(8M.) Wahn. Beyond (12'/ 2 M.) 
Troisdorf, where the Right-Rhenish line diverges (p. 68), the line 
crosses the Agger, on the bank of which to the right is situated an 
extensive iron-foundry. 

15 M. Siegburg (*Stern), with 6800 inhab., lies pleasantly on 
the slope of a hill at the confluence of the Agger and the Sieg. 
Above it rise the buildings of an old Benedictine Abbey, founded 
by Abp. Anno in 1066 and now a reformatory. Of the abbey- 
church the crypt alone remains. The Parish Church, dating from 
the second half of the 13th cent., contains several interesting tombs, 
including that of St. Anno (d. 1075), Archbishop of Cologne, the 
stern guardian of Emp. Henry IV. Siegburg possesses a large gov- 
ernment shot-factory, extensive calico-printing works, and other 
important industrial establishments. — Branch -line from Sieg- 
burg to Friedrich-"S^ilhelms-Hutte, see p. 68. 

After crossing the Sieg , a view of the Seven Mts. to the right 
is obtained. 19 M. Hennef. The castle of Allner, the property ol 
the oculist Dr. Mooren of Diisseldorf , adjoining the wood to the 
left, stands at the confluence of the Broel and the Sieg. Farther 
on, to the left, the monastery of Bbdingen , surrounded by vine- 
yards, and the chateau of Attenbach. On the opposite side lies the 

to Frankfort. GIESSEN. 8. Route. 53 

village of Blankenberg (*Honiath , with a terrace commanding a 
beautiful view), formerly an important fortified town, with a ruined 
castle ; it is now a popular summer-resort. Tunnel. 

Beyond (27 M.) Eitorf (*Oerlach) a retrospect is obtained of the 
monastery of Merten on the hill to the right. The wooded hills en- 
closing the valley now increase in height. Two tunnels are passed 
through near Herchen and Hoppengarten. Near Windeck, with the 
castle of that name on the hill to the left, the railway and high- 
road pass through a deep cutting. 36 M. Schladern (diligence twice 
daily to Waldbroet). A new channel has here been constructed for 
the Sieg, while the old one has been left dry for a distance of 2 M. 
Tunnel. From (40 M.) Au a diligence plies twice daily to (10M.) 
Altenkirchen, a town with 1500 inhab., near which the French un- 
der General Kleber defeated the Austrians in 1796. [Marienstatt, 
7'/ 2 M. to the E., contains the interesting church of a Cistercian 
abbey of the 13th century.] 

44 M. Wissen, also connected by diligence with (IOV2 M.) Al- 
tenkirchen. A little farther, on the opposite bank of the Sieg, rises 
the old chateau of Schonstein, the property of Prince Hatzfeld- 

At (51V2 M.) Betzdorf the line divides : that to the left runs 
to Siegen (in ifahx., see p. 52 and Baedeker's Northern Germany); 
that to the right to Giessen. 

The line to "Wetzlar and Giessen ascends the valley of the Heller 
to (56 M.) Herdorf, (58 M.) Neunkirchen, and (63 M.) Burbach, 
crosses the watershed between the Heller and the Dill near Wur- 
gersdorf, and threads its way through the Hiekengrund. It next 
enters the Dillthal. 73 M. Haiger. 

77V2 M. Dillenburg (Hirsch; Frankfurter Hof), a picturesque 
town with the ruins of a castle of that name, in which William of 
Orange, the liberator of the Netherlands, was born in 1533. A 
tower, erected to his memory by Holland and Nassau in 1872-75, 
commands an extensive prospect (adm. 30 pf.). 

8O1/2 M. Herborn (670 ft. ; Metzler), with an old castle, now 
a seminary ; 84 M. Sinn. Beyond (89 M.) Ehringshausen the line 
enters the Lahnthal, and unites with the Nassovian Railway (from 
Lahnstein to "Wetzlar, R. 27). 

95 M. Wetzlar, see p. 199. 

The line now ascends the Lahn , crosses the frontier of Hessen 
near Dutenhofen, and unites with the Main-Weser line at Giessen. 
The ruins of Qleiberg and Fetzberg are seen on the left. 

103 M. Giessen (*Kuhne, near the station ; *Einhorn; Rappe ; 
Prinz Carl ; good beer and fine view at the Felsenkeller), situated 
on the Lahn, is principally of modern origin, and contains 14,000 
inhabitants. It is the seat of a university, founded in 1607, which 
is attended by about 350 students. 

IO81/2 M. Langgons. About 3 M. to the left of (114 M.) Butz- 

54 Route 8. NAUHEIM. 

bach rise the considerable ruins of the castle of Miimenberg, de- 
stroyed in the Thirty Years' "War. The higher (145 ft.) of its two 
towers commands an extensive view. 

120 M. Kauheim. — Hotels. Hotel de l'Europe ; Bellevde ; Ktjb- 
saaL; Detjtsches Haus; Goldener Engel; Iburg. — Lodgings, 6-30 m. 
per week. 

Restaurants. Neuer Cursaal; Cafi Oermania; Cafe' de Paris. 

Visitors' Tax for stay of more than 5 days, 1 pers. 10m., each ad- 
ditional member of a family 5 m. 

Cabs. Per drive, one-horse, 1-2 pers. 50 pf., 3-4 pers. 70 pf. ; two-horse 
70 pf. or 1 m. 5 pf. Per hour: 2 m. 5, 2 m. 75, 4 m. 30, or 5 m. 15 pf. 

Nauheim, a small town of 3000 inhab., pleasantly situated on 
the N.E. slope of the Taunus Mts., with regular streets, shady 
avenues , and pleasure-grounds , has of late become a favourite 
watering-place, visited by 5-6000 guests annually. The warm 
saline springs, which are strongly impregnated with carbonic acid 
gas, have been known for centuries, but did not begin to attract 
visitors until about 1840. Extensive evaporating-houses and salt- 
pans. The waters of the Friedrich- Wilhelms-Sprudel (95° Fahr.), 
the Orosse Sprudel (90°), and the Kleine Sprudel (84°) are used 
for the baths, which are admirably fitted up. The Curbrunnen, 
Carlsquelle (somewhat resembling the Rakoczy of Kissingen), and 
the Ludwigsquelle (alkaline) are drinking-springs. Adjoining the 
Trinkhalle, at the E. end of the town, are several greenhouses. At 
the foot of the Johannisberg, about l /2 M. from the station, is the 
handsome Conversationshaus, with elegant rooms and a fine terrace. 
Comp. Baedeker's Northern Germany, 

The train skirts the Gradirhauser ('evaporating-houses'), crosses 
a lofty viaduct, and reaches — 

122 M. Friedberg (Hotel Trapp), a Hessian district-town with 
4300 inhab., once a free imperial town. The Protestant Lieb- 
frauenkirche is an interesting Gothic structure, built in 1290-1350, 
with towers dating from the 15th century. See Baedeker's Northern 

127 M. Nieder-Wollstadt. To the right rise the Taunus Mts. 
130 M. Gross-Karben ; 132 M. Dortelweil; 134J/ 2 M. Vilbel, near 
which the Nidda is crossed; 137M. Bonames, station for Homburg 
(p. 215); 141 M. Bockenheim, with a watch-tower. 

143 M. Frankfort, see p. 200. 

9. The Rhine from Cologne to Coblenz. 

Comp. Maps, pp. it, 56. 

Steamboat (about 59 M.) in 7-8 hrs. (down 4 l /2-5hrs.), fares 3m. 60, 2 m. 
40 pf. Piers at Bonn, Konigswinter, Rolandseck, Remagen , Linz, Ander- 
nach, and Neuwied; small-boat stations at Plittersdorf-Godesberg , Unkel, 
Nieder-Breisig, Brohl , St. Sebastian, etc. — Cabs, etc., at Cologne, see 
pp. 22, 23. — Railway (57 M.) in 2-3 hrs. (fares 7m. 30, 5 m. 25, 3m. 70pf.), 
see R. 10. 

In the following routes r. and I. indicate the position of towns, and 
other objects, with regard to the traveller ascending the river. The Left 


Rhenish and Right . Rhenish railways, however, are named after the left 
(W.) and right (E.) hanks respectively with regard to the traveller de- 
scending the river. j • ; ■ :; 

Soon aftei the steamer has quitted the majestic city of Cologne, 
with its cathedral, numerous towers, and lofty bridge, the chateau 
of Bensbelrg (p. 21); on an eminence 9 M. to the left, comes in 
sight. l About */| Mi' to the£. rises the Erdmburg; a hill surmount^ 
ed by remnants of a wall) believed to be of ancient Germanic origin* 
Several small-boat stations (Pons, Siirth, Weanling, LUl$do*f, Widdig, 
and Mendorft nob folio*, -which the express steamers pass without 
stopping. Opposite the island at Graupemverth, at the mouth of to 
Sieg, lies Qraii-Rheindorf. On the hill-side, to the left, several miles 
inland, rises the suppressed Benedictine abbey of Sieybutg (pi 52), 

On the left we soon perceive the church of Schwarz-Rheindorf, 
a curious structure, consisting of two" stories, consecrated in 1151 
by Archbishop Arnold of Wied, who is buriedhere* Beneath the 
dome is an octagonal aperture between the stories; 10 ft. in dia- 
meter, so that persons in the upper can distinctly' hear the service 
performed in the lower. The object of this singular arrangement 
has never been satisfactorily explained. Interesting mural paintings 
of the 12th cent, were discovered in the lower church a few years 
ago during the restoration Of the building (corny. 'p. xxii). The ex- 
terior is also worthy of, inspection, especially the remarkably elegant 
miniature gallery which runs round the upper part of the church on 
the E. 'side.' 

To the right we next observe the Jenuitenhof, and then the 
Wichelshof (p. 72). As the steamboat approaches Bonn, the charms 
of the scenery of the Rhine' gradually begin to present themselves. 
The lofty tower of the Munstef, the handsome residences On the 
Rhine'above the town, the long buildings of the University peeping 
from among the trees, aiid the grounds Of the 'Alte ZolP give the 
town a very attractive appearance when viewed from the steamboat. 

r. Bonn, see Route 12. 
- After Bonn is quitted we enter the most picturesque and famous 
portion of the river. Ramendotf, to the left; with Woods in the 
background, was formerly a lodge of the knights of the Teutonic 
Order, the chapel of which was removed to the cemetery at Bonn 
(p. 75). 

1. Obercasset, and railway-ferry to Bonn, see p. 68. 

r. Plitteradorf (Restaurant Mundorf, with ^pension'), station for 
Godesberg (p. 66), 1 M. to the S.W. ' 

1. Niederdollendorf, see p» 68. 

On the right rises the handsome tower of the ruined castle of 
Oodesberg (p. 66), on an eminence, 1% M v from the Rhine. On 
the bank lies Rwmgtdorf. 

1. Konigswinter (150 ft. ; p. 76), beyond which rises the 
*Draehenfela. Ascent of the latter, and the Seven Mountain*, see 
p. 77 et seq. ,° ..■■■': 

56 Route 9. ROLANDSECK. From Cologne 

t. Mehlem (Stern; Krone), a small village, with a modern Ro- 
manesque church and numerous country-houses standing in gardens, 
is a railway-station (p. 66), and is connected with Konigswinter by 
a ferry. 

To the left, at first concealed by the islands, lie Bhondorf, 
high above which towers the ruin on the Drachenfels (908 ft. 
above the Rhine; see p. 78), Rommersdorf, farther back, on the 
slope of the hill, and the scattered village of Honnef (p. 69). 

The steamer next passes the islands of (r.) Honnenwerth, or 
Rolandswerth, and (1.) Orafenwerth. On the former, peeping from 
the midst of trees , stands an extensive nunnery of very ancient 
prigin, mentioned for the first time in a document of the 12th cen- 
tury. The nunnery was suppressed in 1802 , but was re-opened in 
1845 as a girls' school under the auspices of Franciscan nuns (closed 
at present). The present buildings with the tower were erected 
after a Are in 1673, and a handsome new wing was added in 1869. 

r. Sola&dseck. — Hotels. Hotel Billau, at the pier; "Hotel 
Rolandseck; 'Hotel Roland; all with gardens and view. 'Hotel Decker, 
unpretending, pension 4 m. 

Restaurants. Schlep ; Railway Restaurant, with fixed, but high charges, 
magnificent '-"View from the terrace. 

Boat to Nonnenwerth and back l'/2 m. •, to Rhondorf and back l'/2 m. ; 
to Konigswinter 2*/s - 3 m. Ferry to Honnef 5 pf. — Donkey to the Ro- 
land's Arch 75 pf., horse 1 m. ; to the tower 1 m. 50 pf. ; for the return 
ride >/s to >/« more. 

Rolandseck (rail, stat.), which lies at the foot of the first consider- 
able heights on the W. bank ofthe Rhine, is one of the most beautiful 
and frequented spots on the river, and is surrounded with numerous 
villas and pleasant gardens, chiefly belonging to wealthy merchants 
from the Lower Rhine, and extending along the wooded slopes at the 
back of the village. Ascending from the station, by the H6tel Ro- 
land, and passing a pavilion on the hill, we arrive in l / t hr. at 
the Rolandsbogen , or *Roland Arch (500 ft. above the sea) , the 
last relic of the Castle of Rolandseck, perched on a basaltic rock , 
344 ft. above the Rhine. The *View hence, which is seen to best 
advantage by evening light, is less extensive than that from the 
Drachenfels, but more picturesque, as it embraces the Seven Moun- 

The castle is said to have been built by the knight Roland, the paladin 
of Charlemagne, who fell at the battle of Ronceval. The earliest histori- 
cal mention of it is in a document of 1040 or 1045, where it is called 
Rulcheseck; the convent on the island was named Rulcheswerth. In 1120 
Archbishop Frederick partially restored the ruin for the purpose of de- 
fending his dominions against Henry IV. The fortress stood till the close 
of the 15th cent., when it fell entirely to decay. The beautiful legend 
connected with the castle and convent may be thus briefly told: — 

The brave knight Roland, scouring the Rhine in search of adventure, 
found himself the guest of Count Heribert, lord of the Seven Mountains, 
at his castle of Drachenburg. According to custom the daughter of the 
host, the peerless Hildegunde, welcomed him with the offering of bread, 
wine, and fish. Her beauty riveted the gaze ofthe young knight, and 
Hildegunde and Roland were shortly affianced lovers. But their happiness 
was brief: Roland was summoned by Charlemagne to the crusade. Time 

ti-fi -v*' *§?-m 


to CoUenz, REMAGEN. 9. Route. 5? 

sped on, and anxiously did Hildegunde await his return. But sad rumours 
came. The brave Roland was said to have fallen by the hands of the In- 
fidels, and the world no longer possessing any charm for the inconsolable 
Hildegunde, she took refuge in the 'Kloster' in the adjacent island of 
Nonnenwerth. The rumours, however, of the death of her betrothed were 
unfounded. Although desperately wounded, he recovered, and hastened to 
the halls of Drachenburg to claim his bride ; but instead of being welcom- 
ed back by her fondly remembered smile, he found that she was for ever 
lost to him. In despair he built the castle, of which one crumbling arch 
alone remains , and there lived in solitude , catching an occasional 
glimpse of a fair form passing to and fro to her devotions in the little 
chapel of the Kloster. At length he missed her, and soon the tolling of 
the_ bell and a mournful procession conveyed to him the heart-rending in- 
telligence that his beloved Hildegunde was now indeed removed for ever. 
From that moment Roland never spoke again -, for a short time he drag- 
ged on his wretched existence, but his heart was broken, and one morning 
he was found rigid and lifeless, his glassy eye still turned towards the 
convent chapel. 

The modern tower on the top of the hill, Y2 M. to the W. of the 
ruin, affords a wider prospect, embracing Godesberg, the lower hills 
of the Seven Mts., and the plain between Bonn and Cologne. The key 
may be procured from the proprietor, Herrvom Rath, who lives oppo- 
site the H6tel Roland ; on Sundays the custodian is generally at the 
tower (25-50 pf.). 

About V2 M. from the tower is the Roderberg, a crater, 340 yds. in 
diameter, and 60 ft. in depth, with a rounded margin. The bottom is 
now arable land, belonging to the farm of Bruchhof. 

r. Oberwinter (Post). The retrospect hence is one of the finest 
on the Rhine. Rolandseck , and the Drachenfels with its castle, 
the cliffs of the Wolkenburg , and the whole of the peaks of the 
Seven Mts., upwards of thirty in number, form a picture of incom- 
parable beauty, while the lovely island of Nonnenwerth and the 
grand river itself constitute the foreground. On the right bank is 
the flattened summit of the Lowenburg, with its ruin. The isolated 
cone to the extreme right is the Hemmerich. 

In 1846 one-half of the Birgeler Kopf, a hill on the bank opposite 
Unkel, became detached and was precipitated towards the Rhine. 
Traces of the slip are still observable. 

1, Rheinbreitbach (*Clouth, with 'pension' and garden), a fa- 
vourite summer-resort, lies at the entrance to a wide valley, which 
extends from the Rhine to the Siebengebirge (comp. p. 69). Fine 
view from the Heilig, a hill surmounted with a cross, !/ 2 M. from 

1. Unkel (Clasen; also rail, stat.) is a prosperous village, between 
which and Remagen the Rhine describes a wide curve. A little in- 
land is the village of Scheuren. Of the numerous country-houses 
situated on both banks of the river , the most conspicuous is the 
chateau of Marienfels, l / 2 M. below the Apollinariskirche. 

r Remagen. — Hotela. "Hotel Fubstenbebg and Konig vonPbeossen, 
on the Rhine , both belonging to the same landlord , with gardens , first- 
class and often crowded in summer; Rhein-Hotel, on the Rhine, next 
door' to the Fiirstenberg Hotel. — Deutschek Kaiseb, at the station, R. 
IV2 m B. 60 pf. ; Hotel Fassbender, H6tel Monjau, and Hotel Cramer, 

58 Route 9. REMAGEN. From Cologne 

all in the principal street, with restaurants; Hokstmann, at the railway- 
station; Zum Apollinakisbekg, a little below the town, moderate. 

Carriages. To the Apollinarukirche, one-horse 1 m. 25 pf., two-horse 
lm. 50 pf. ; to Rolandseck 4 or 6m., there and hack 7 m. or 10 m. 50 pf. ; to 
Altenahr 10 m. or 13 m. 50 pf., there and hack 14 or 18 m., or spending 
a night there 15 or 21 m. ; Laacher See and hack 14 m. 50 pf. or 18 m., by 
Andernach 18 or 22 m. 

Remagen (rail, stat.), a small town with 3000 inhab., situated 
13 M. above Bonn and 22 M. below Coblenz, is an excellent starting- 
point for excursions. It is mentioned as Rigomagus in the Peutinger 
map of Roman roads (see p. xxiv), and Roman mile-stones, now 
preserved at Mannheim and Bonn, have been found here. Remagen 
was a place of some importance in the middle ages, but declined 
after the Thirty Years' War. It once belonged, like Sinzig, to the 
duchy of Jiilich ; in 1624 it came into the possession of Pfalz-Neu- 
burg, and afterwards into that of Pfalz-Baiern, or the Bavarian Pa- 

At the lower end of the town is the Roman Catholic Church, 
with a Romanesque nave and a Gothic choir, consecrated in 1246. 
In the interior are a handsome Gothic canopy and several sculp- 
tures of the 15th century. The Romanesque Portal adjoining the 
Roman Catholic parsonage, adorned with grotesque sculptures of the 
12th cent., is worthy of inspection. Whether it originally belonged 
to a palace or a church is unknown. At the upper end of the town 
is a new Protestant Church, in the Gothic style. 

A road to the right near the Protestant church crosses the rail- 
way and the high-road and ascends through a hollow bordered by 
shady footpaths (donkey 1 m. ; for the whole excursion 2 m. 50 pf.) 
to the (20 min.) summit of the *Victoria-Berg, with promenades, 
benches, and several diiferent points of view (Victoria-Tempel, with 
a restaurant , Eremitage , Hofreiden , Ahrplatte) , commanding a 
charming and varied prospect, especially by evening light. In the 
foreground is the Apollinariskirche, by which the visitor may re- 
turn to the town. 

Immediately below Remagen a broad road, diverging to the left 
from the high-road, ascends the Apollinarisberg, a Tock of clay-slate, 
rising abruptly from the road. On the way up is seen a Roman 
votive stone, now built into the wall, which was found during the 
construction of the railway, and bears an inscription referring to 
Mercurius Ambiomarcis. The Apollinarisberg is crowned by the 
elegant Gothic four-towered * Apollinariskirche, erected in 1839 by 
Zwirner, the late eminent architect of the cathedral of Cologne, at 
the expense of Count Furstenberg - Stammheim (d. 1859). This 
little church occupies the site of an ancient and much frequented 
pilgrimage-shrine. In 1164 Frederick Barbarossa is said to have 
presented the head of the highly revered St. Apollinaris, Bishop of 
Ravenna, to Archbishop Reinald von Dassele of Cologne, who was 
in the act of conveying it to Cologne, together with the relics of 
the Magi, when by some miraculous agency the vessel which con- 

to Coblenz. , \ LINZ. 9. Route. 59 

tained them stopped in the middle of the river here, and refused 
to proeeed until the head of the holy man had been deposited in a 
chapel recently erected on the Apollinarisberg. fit is now in the 

•»' Tto church 4s open daily 9V4-18, and 2-6 o'clock; on Saturdays and 
the eves of festivals 9>/»-12, and 2-4, on Sundays and holidays 11-12, and 
1-3 O'clock (admission, 30 pf.). The *Ihtesiob is adorned with ten large 
*Freseoes in the heat style of modern German religions painting. 

On the left, scenes from the life of the Saviour, by Deger and /«» 
bach, on the right;- from the life of the Virgin ; central scene, Women 
of the Old Testament, by Mailer; below, Meeting of St, Joachim and St. 
Anna, and Mary ascending the steps of the Temple, by Ittenbach. In the 
8. transept, St.' Apollinaris consecrated bishop , and miraoulons resuscita- 
tion of a girl V in the TS.\ destruction of idols, death and beatitude of the 
saint, and a Crucifixion. In the choir on the right, Coronation of the Virgin { 
left, the Resurrection. On the. external side of the arch, on the-right, St. Jo- 
seph, on the left, 'Mary and the Child, by Deger. In the Chancel the Saviour 
with the Virgin and St. John the Baptist, by Deger, St. Peter and St. 
Apollinaris with the four Evangelists, by Ittenbaeh. — The Cbtpt contains 
the sarcophagus of the saint, of the 14th cent., surmounted by a modern 
statue by Stephan of Cologne. In the adjoining chapel is a painted cruci- 
fix carved by Vei( Stoit. 

' Just before turning <6 the right to teach the chape) we pass a 
finger-post indicating the way to the top of the Victoria -Befg 
(p.' 58; after 5 min. ascend to the right), which is reached hence 
in 20-25 minutes. 

Railway from Remageii to Ahnkeiter, see p. 81. 

i Heppingen and the iaudikron are reached by the road by which the 
traveller ha/s appended the Apollinarisberg, and which; he follow* to the 
right after returning to it from the church (see p. 82). ' 

Opposite Remagen, near fegel (rail. stat. i *Weinberg, with. ve-» 
randa), rises the Erpeler Lei (666 ft. above the sea, 502 ft. above 
the Rhine), a basaltic cliff, the columns of which are thicker than 
those of the Minderberg and Battenberg quarries (see below); fine 
view from the top (ascent from the N. side, in 25 min.). Abo?e 
Erpel are' (I.) Kasbaeh, and Linzerhausen, the latter commanded by 
the ivy-clad ruins of OekenfeU. 

J. Iiinss (rail. stat. ; *Weinstoek, near the station, with a gar- 
den on the Rhine, 'pens.' & l fe&,', Bdtel Hammerstein ; Deutsehet 
Kaiser), an ancient town Of the Electorate of Cologne with 3000 
inhab!, is still partly surrounded by walls and towers. The Romans 
esque *Church of St. Martin, dating from the 13th cent.; with a 
Gothic spire and other Gothic additions Of the 16th itent., contains 
fine stained glass and an admirable winged picture of the old Cologne 
school (1463), representing the Annunciation and Crucifixion on 
the' outer Wings, the Annunciation and Coronation of the Virgin on 
the inner, and the Nativity, Adoration, Presentation in the Temple, 
and Christ appearing to hig mother in the centre. This picture and 
the old frescoes were' restored in 1850., Fine view from the Do- 
natusberg, or Kaiserberg, which is crowned with a chapel. The en- 
virons, of Linz yield good red wine. 

The extensive "Basalt Quarries of Dattenberg and the Minderberg near 
Linz deserve Inspection, especially the latter. .The road to the "Hinder- 

60 Route 9. ARENFELS. From Cologne 

berg ascends the valley to the E,, past the Sternerhiitle. (Near the latter 
is a chateau of the Prince of Salm-Kyrburg ; above it the Renneberg with a 
tower on the summit.) From the Sternerhiitte the path ascends to the left, 
and the quarry soon comes in view. It is a spacious hall of beautiful 
black prismatic columns of basalt, square or hexagonal in form, some of 
them upright, others heaped together in confused masses, each 3-10 in. 
in diameter, and sometimes 20 ft. in length. When struck they produce 
a clear metallic ring. The View from the height above this quarry (1420 ft. 
above the sea, 1256 ft. above the Rhine) is very fine. The traveller should 
now return by the Kasbachthal towards the W., at the mouth of which 
there is a tramway for the transport of the stone from the hill down to 
the valley (guide unnecessary). The whole excursion from Linz and back 
takes about 3 hrs. 

The columns in the quarry of *Dattenberg, situated in a side-valley 
about 1 M. above Linz, are as high as those at Minderberg, but much 
thicker. A fine view is obtained here also. These basalts are chiefly 
exported to Holland, where they are used in the construction of dykes. 

From (r.) Krippe, a small village on the Rhine, connected with 
Linz by a ferry , a path leads past the estate of Qodenhaus to the 
Mineral Spring of Sinzig, which contains carbonate of soda, and is 
free from iron. 

Between Remagen and Nieder - Breisig the Rhine describes a 
curve which the railway and road cut off. The beautiful church of 
(r.) Sinzig (p. 65, on the railway, 1^2 M. from the river) is visible 
from the steamboat. 

"We now pass (r.) the mouth of the Ahr (p. 81). The village 
of Dattenberg (see above) is next seen peeping from a ravine on the 
left. On the same bank lies Leubsdorf with the Saalhof, a small 
building with four turrets, anciently a royal chateau. Near it Arien- 
dorf, with a chateau of Herr v. Lorch. 

On the left we next observe the castle of Arenfels, erected by 
Henry of Isenburg , and named by him after his wife the Countess 
of Are. It is now the property of Count Westerholt, by whom it was 
handsomely restored under the directions of Zwirner, the architect 
of Cologne cathedral. Interior shown to visitors on Wednesdays. The 
Rittersaal contains some fine old weapons and pictures , and the 
grounds (open to the public) command beautiful views. — The 
Malbergskopf (1290 ft. ; 1^2 hr. from Honningen), crowned with a 
cross in commemoration of the events of 1870-71, commands an 
extensive prospect. 

1. Honningen (*Zum Schloss Arenfels ; also rail, stat.), at the 
foot of Arenfels, and Bheinbrohl (Krone; Traube), with a hand- 
some modern Gothic Church, are large villages, situated in a fertile 
plain, beyond which the mountains to the left rise more abruptly 
from the river. 

r. Nieder-Breisig (also rail. stat. ; p. 65) lies opposite Hon- 
ningen. Near the S. end of the village stands part of the Tempel- 
hof, an old Templars' Lodge. About I 3 /* M. higher up , a path 
ascends the wooded hill to the chateau of — 

r. Rheineck, the carriage - road to which winds up the N. and 
W. sides of the hill; on the Rhine, far below, lies the hamlet of 

to Coblenz. ANDERNACH. 9. Route. 61 

Thai Rheineck. The square tower, 65 ft. in height, on the E. side, 
is the only relic of the old castle, erected in the 12th cent., -which 
was destroyed by the French in 1689, and by the troops of the 
Electorate of Cologne in 1692, and finally burned in 1785. The 
knights of the castle became extinct in 1548. The new chateau, 
in the round-arch style, the property of Herr von Bethmann-Hollweg, 
was erected in 1832 by Lassaulx. 

The Interior (to which visitors are generally admitted ; fee for 1 pers. 
50-75 pf., a party 2-3 m.) contains several works of art. Picture by Segas, 
representing Emp. Henry IV. in the court of the chateau of Canossa. In 
the chapel the Sermon on the Mount and the Beatitudes by Steinle, 
frescoes, 1839-40. Crucified Christ in marble, by Achtermann of Rome. The 
"View from the garden (always open) embraces the course of the Rhine 
from Andernach to the Apollinarisberg. 

On the right, the Brohlbach falls into the Rhine at Brohl (* Peter 
Brbhl ; *Nonn Sen. ; *Nonn Jun. ; also railway-station) , which ad- 
joins the hamlet of Nippes, and is the dep6t for the tuffstone 
quarried in the Brohlthal. Excursion through the Brohlthal to 
Laach (one-horse carriage 8 m. ; gratuity extra), see p. 87. 

1. Nieder-Hammerslein (Zwick), yielding good wine ; then Ober- 
Hammerstein (Zur Burg Hammerstein), near which rises a massive 
rock of grauwacke, crowned with the ruin of Hammerstein. The 
Emp. Henry IV. resided in this castle for some time when perse- 
cuted by his son Henry V., and here he kept the imperial insignia 
till their removal by his usurping successor. During the Thirty 
Years' War the castle was successively occupied by Swedes, Span- 
iards, troops of Cologne, and soldiers of Lorraine, and it was at 
length destroyed in 1660 by the Archbishop of Cologne, as being 
too powerful a neighbour to be tolerated. 

On the heights, 4 M. to the E. of the Rhine, the course of the P/ahl- 
graben , a Roman intrenchment constructed as a protection against the 
attacks of the Germanic tribes, is distinctly traceable, and may be followed 
from Monrepos (p. 03) as far as the Seven Mts. (comp. p. 216). 

Above (r.) Fomich rises the Fornicher Kopf, an extinct volcano 
(see p. xix). 

r. Namedy, at some distance from the river , possesses a small 
Gothic abbey-church of the 15th cent., bisected by a row of slender 
columns, and an old mansion which once belonged to the knights of 
Namedy. On the left lies the considerable village of Leutesdorf 
(*Moog-Eisen ; also rail, stat.), behind which rise productive vine- 
yards planted among the rocks. Below is an old Gothic church. On 
the right rises the wooded Krahnenberg. The mountains which 
confine the river now recede. 

r. Andernach (*'Hackenbruch, Hoch-Str. ; Glocke, Rhein-Allee, 
with restaurant; Schafers Restaurant, on the Schanzchen, near 
the Rhine, at the lower end of the town ; also railway-station), an 
ancient little town with 5000 inhab., with narrow streets, and still 
to a great extent surrounded by its old walls, extends picturesquely 
along the bank of the river, above which rise conspicuously the Old 
bastion, the Rheinthor, the crane, and the lofty tower at the lower 

62 Route 9. NEUWIED. From Cologne 

end of the village, while the handsome parish-church with its four 
towers is visible in the background. Andernach was the Roman 
Antunnacum, or Antonaco, one of the fifty forts of Drusus. Subse- 
quently to the 6th cent, it is frequently mentioned as a royal Fran- 
conian residence. In the middle ages it was an Imperial town, but 
was taken by the Electorate of Cologne in 1496 ; in 1688 it was 
burned by the French. 

The *Parish Church, dedicated to St. Genovefa, with its four 
towers and richly decorated portals, is a fine late-Romanesque edifice 
(1206), without a transept. The still earlier choir, around which 
runs a gallery of small columns, dates from 1120. 

Over the aisles runs a triforium. On the vaulting of the nave are the 
Imperial arms, with those of the town and of Hermann IV., Archbishop 
of Cologne (d. 1508). Choir re-decorated in 1856. Carved wooden pulpit 
brought in 1807 from the Abbey of Laach (p. 89). Late-Romanesque font. 

At the upper end of the town, near the Coblenzer Thor, from a 
deep fosse, rise the ruins of the once fortified Castle of the electors 
of Cologne, with its handsome towers, erected in the 15th cent., 
and destroyed by the French in 1688. — The Rathhaus, a late- 
Gothic building of 1564 , contains a few Roman antiquities. 

The lofty round * Watch-Tower on the Rhine, with an octagonal 
story above, adorned with a pointed frieze, was erected in 1451-68 
and restored in 1880. The wide breach on the W. side was made by 
the French cannonade in 1688. — The picturesque Crane on the 
Rhine dates from 1554. 

The lava millstones, the tufa, trass, and other volcanic products of the 
neighbourhood, form an important branch of commerce. — About Vs SI. 
inland from Andernach is the extensive Lunatic Asylum of St. Thomas. 

Railway from Andernach to Mayen, see p. 86. 

On the hill above the village of (1.) Fahr (Hufsehmidt), which 
lies nearly opposite Andernach, is a handsome country-house. 
Farther up, on an eminence, stands the Romanesque Feldkirche, 
surrounded by fruit-trees ; at its base lies the village of Irlich, 
near which the Wiedbach falls into the Rhine. The hill rising on 
the opposite bank , a little inland , is the Plaidter Hummerich 
(685 ft.). The steamboat next passes the mouth of the Nette (r.), 
on which, 72 M. inland, are the extensive mills of the Netter-Hof, 
and soon stops at the pleasant and thriving town of — 

1. Neuwied (* Anker, * Wilder Mann, both on the Rhine , D. 
2 1 / / 2in. ; * Moravian Hotel, frequented by English travellers; Mader, 
at the station of the right bank ; Hommer, at the station of the left 
bank; railway on both banks, comp. pp. 65, 70). The town, with 
its broad, well-built streets, was founded in 1653, on the site of 
the village of Langendorf, which had been destroyed in the Thirty 
Years' War, by Count Frederick of Wied , who invited numerous 
settlers, without distinction of religion or payment of money. Under 
his auspices the town rapidly increased. The population (11,000) 
consists of Protestants, Roman Catholics (2000), Moravian Brothers, 
Baptists, and Jews, who have lived together here in great harmony 

to Coblem. NEUWIED. 9. Route. 63 

since that period. -Stuck, chicory, tobacco, and cigars 'ate the prin- 
cipal products. The schools of Neuwied enjoy a high reputation, 
and are frequented by pupils from England as well as from all parts 
of Germany, msbi - •. j„. ■.;.,., .--,. 

At the lever end of the town rises the spacious Palace of the 
Prince of Wied, with its fine Park. A building near the palace- 
gate , adjoining th© street , contains a small Collection of Roman 
Antiquities, from Niederbiber (see below'). 

The Hogranrian Brothers, also called Herrnhuter from Herrnhut in 
Saxony, where they had established <themselvea after their expulsion 
from Moravia during the Thirty Tears' War, occupy a separate part of 
the town: Their establishments afford an insight into the habits of this 
sect and are worthy of inspection. They were originally followers of 
John Huss, and their number increased enormously after his death. 
They now form a kind of religious republic , having their own laws 
both for public and private life, which are administered by their eiders. 
The gravity and austerity pt their manners and habits has gained for 
them the* appellation of the Quakers of (Germany. The unmarried brethren 
live in a separate "building, and carry on different trades, the profits 
of which are devoted to the community. Fayence stoves and deerskin 
gloves are their best manufactures. Visitors are readily admitted, and 
are first conducted to the magazine, where they are expected to make 
some purchase. The establishment for the sisters is similarly conducted. 
They are recognised by their peculiar white head-dresses, fastened with 
ribbons of different colours, according to their age and condition — girls 
dark red, young unmarried women pink, married women blue, widow* 
white. At stated seasons 'love-feasts'* ' are celebrated in the church , ac- 
companied by singing, prayers', a sermon, and tea-drinking. Their schools 
are well attended and in high repute; 

Excubsioh fbom Neuwied to Mosretos asp A lT WiEi>. From , the 
station of the Bight Rhenish line (p. 70) we proceed to 1}ft ST.] 'WstOei- 
dorf arid turn to the left, following the road- Which ascends the- valley of the 
Wied. At the (1 M.) Raiselstein Foundry, the oldest puddling-work in 
Germany, founded in 1824, walkers cross the stream and traverse the 
pleasant park ofWothhautm ("Restaurant), following the right bank to £egeM- 
dorf, while the carriage-road leads by (ly« M.) Niederbiber. Near the 
village in 1791, 1819, and 1857, were excavated extensive remains of a 
Roman castle', one of the largest on the Rhine, which, however, is not 
mentioned by any Roman author. The objects 'of Interest found here are 
preserved in the museum of Neuwied, and; jnelude the silver standard; of 
a cohort and a stone erected in 246 by the College of the Victorleaaes 
S.igniferi, whence the fort was once erroneously supposed to have been 
named Victoria. ThetexeavaHon8'liav*-s*Bee'%een filled- up: From |H/sM.) 
Segndarf a broad road ascends in windings; but these the pedestrian may 
avoid by taking the footpath to the left above Segendorf, .by which Mon- 
repos is reached in '*/«' hr. The villa on the brow of the hill is the seat 
of the DoWager Princess of Wied. ' 

Konrepoa (869 ft. above the Rhine) , a chateau of the Prince <of 
Wied, stands in a beautiful park and commands an extensive prospect 
(refreshments tit' the Hahnhof, to the W. of the chateau). The 'Sohitou 
(reached in 10 miii. from the back of the Sehktss by a path through the 
-heeeh wood in a straight direction) affords a good survey- of, a s^de-yaUey of 
the Rhine. A finer point is the "Alfwieder Autmcht, the route. to which is 
by the carriage-road to the E. of the Schloss, and then by the third path 
diverging to the right (stone way-post by a large oak}. Footpaths descend 
henee in 20 min. to 'Altwied (Mailer i, a village Situated on the Wied »l>0at 
QH, above Niederbiber, and commanded by, th,e extensive ivy-ch>d ruiijs 
Offhe ancestral castle of the ancient Counts of 'Wied. — The Branntbnrg, 
i'nr.'to the NiW. of Kiederbiber (reached via Oberbiber) , a ruined- castle 
on a wooded height, commands & picturesque yjew., 

64 Route 9. ENGERS. 

Immediately above Neuwied, on the same bank, are the Her- 
mannshiitte, the property of Herr Krupp of Essen, and the Oermanin 
foundry. On the opposite bank we next observe the village of — 

r. Weissenthurm, with its small modern church. At the N. end 
of the village rises a square watch-tower, erected in 1370 by Kuno 
von Falkenstein, the extreme point of the dominions of the Electors 
of Treves, which here adjoined those of Cologne. Above the village 
stands an obelisk to the French General Hoche, who crossed the 
Rhine here in 1797 with the army, and shortly afterwards died 
suddenly at Wetzlar, at the age of 30. 

Above Weissenthurm are lime-kilns and a manufactory for pre- 
paring the Engers stone (see below) ; then Vrmitz and Kaltenengers, 
opposite — 

1. Engers [Zur Romerbriicke ; Restaurant Wettels, opposite the 
railway-station), formerly ' Kunostein-Engers' , the ancient capital of 
the Engersgau. In 1386 Archbishop Kuno von Falkenstein (p. 104) 
erected a castle here with a round tower (the ivy-clad trunk of 
which rises below the chateau), to protect the navigators of the Rhine 
from the rapacious Counts of the Westerwald. The adjoining cha- 
teau, now a Prussian military school, was erected in 1758 by Elec- 
tor Johann Philipp von Walderdorf. To the left a retrospect of Mon- 
repos is obtained, to the right a view of the Camillenberg or Kar- 
melenberg (1214 ft. ; 4^2 M. from the river), near Bassenheim. 

Near (1.) Muhlhofen, where the Saynbach falls into the Rhine, 
is the foundry of that name; farther back the Concordia Foundry. 
On a hill in the background of the valley rises the ruined castle of 
Sayn (p. 70). 

On both banks of the river here is dug up a peculiar kind of pumice- 
stone conglomerate (p. 87). It is cut into squares, mixed with mortar, 
and dried, and is much valued as a building material for inside walls. 

1. BendorfQp, 70), at some distance from the river; farther up 
(r.), the villages of St. Sebastian and Kesselheim , opposite the 
island of Niederwerth, which conceals the town of (1.) Vallendar 
(p. 70). 

On the long island of Niederwerth is a dilapidated village, with 
a convent-church built in 1500, containing a carved altar-piece 
and fragments of good stained glass. Edward III. of England re- 
sided here for a short time in 1337, and had several interviews with 
the Emp. Lewis and other princes. 

1. Mallendar. On the hill above the village stands Haus Besse^ 
lich, once the property of the Knights Templar, and afterwards an Aug- 
ustinian nunnery down to 1804, when it was secularised. On the 
hillside, higher up the river, is Urbar, surrounded by fruit-trees. 

r. Wallersheim, above it Neuendorf, chiefly inhabited by rafts- 
men. The smaller rafts generally halt here for the purpose of being 
formed into larger, which are sometimes 800-1000 ft. in length 
and 150-250 ft. in breadth; they are furnished with wooden huts 
for the crew, which frequently numbers 150 men. 

SINZIG. 10, Route. 65 

The steamboat now passes the base of Ehrenbreitstein , opposite 
the influx of the Moselle , commanding a view of the picturesque 
old Moselle bridge, and stops at Coblenz (R. 16]. 

10. From Coblenz to Cologne. 

Railway on the Left Bank. 
Comp. Maps, pp. 44, SS. 

56'/2 M. Railway in 2-2 3 A hrs. (fares 7 m. 30, 5 m. 25, 3 m. 70 pf.). — 
Railway on the Right Bank, see R. 11. 

Return-tickets taken on either side of the river are available for the 
journey both going and returning on the opposite bank, and the traveller 
(1st or 2nd class) may sometimes find it convenient to break his journey 
and cross and recross the river repeatedly. The following are the corre- 
sponding stations : Bingerbriick and Riidesheim, Niederheimbach and Loreh, 
St. Goar and St. Goarshausen , Boppard and Camp, Rhent and Braubach, 
Capellen and Niederlahnstein, Coblenz and Ehrenbreitstein (crossing the rail- 
way bridge 50, 30, 20 pf. additional), Neuwied on the left and Neuwied on 
the right bank, Andernach and Leutesdorf, Niederbreisig and Bonningen, 
Sinzig and Linz, Remagen and Unkel, Rolandseck and Honnef, Mehlem and 
KSnigswinler, Godesberg and Obercassel, Bonn and Bevel. Views to the right. 
— Steamboat, see R. 9. 

Coblenz, see R. 16. As the train crosses the Moselle a fine view 
of Ehrenbreitstein is obtained to the right. At the foot of the 
fortified Petersberg (1.) is the pyramidal monument of Marceau 
(p. 95). The train now traverses the extensive and fertile plain 
which stretches from Coblenz to Andernach. At (5 J /2 M.) Vrmitz 
are large stores of the Engers sandstone mentioned at p. 64. 

8 M. Neuwied (steamb. stat. see p. 62). The station is Y2 M. 
from the town on the opposite bank, with which communication is 
maintained by a steamer and a ferry-boat. The train crosses the 
Nette, passes the lunatic asylum of St. Thomas (1. ; p. 62), once an 
Augustinian nunnery, and reaches • — 

IOY2 M. Andernach (steamb. stat.), see p. 61. The station is 
Y2 M. from the town, of which the church, the ancient tower, and 
walls are conspicuous. (Branch-line to Mayen, see p. 86.) Beyond 
Andernach the train skirts the river and commands a fine * View in 
both directions (comp. pp. 61, 62). 

Opposite (15 M.) Brohl (Brohlthal, etc., see R. 15) is the church 
of Rheinbrohl ; the train then passes the foot of Schloss Rheineck 
and (15V2 M.) Nieder-Breisig (p. 60), opposite (r.) the castle of 
Arenfels. The line now cuts off the wide curve which the Rhine 
describes between Niederbreisig and Remagen. 

20'/2M. Sinzig (DeutschesHaus), probably the Roman Sentiacum, 
a very ancient town, still partly surrounded by high walls, with 2000 
inhab., lies at the entrance to the Ahrthal (R. 14), iy 2 M. from the 
river. It was once the site of a Franconian palace , afterwards an 
Imperial residence, which latterly belonged to the Duke of Jiilich. 
Picturesquely situated on a slight eminence rises the handsome 
*Parish Church, which was consecrated in 1220, a fine example 
of the late-Romanesque style , the round predominating, with very 

66 Route' 10. GODESBERG. From Coblem 

slightly projecting transepts , square turrets at the sides of the 
choir, and an octagonal tower rising over the centre. The interior 
has recently been restored and decorated. The choir contains a 
*Winged Picture on a gold ground, representing the Crucifixion and 
Ascension, and the Death of Mary, by an early Cologne master, re- 
stored in 1855. At the foot of this eminence is a tasteful little 
Gothic chateau, built in 1858 by Statz of Cologne. On the Helenen- 
herg, to the right of the line, and on the S. side of the town, rises 
another country-house with pleasant grounds. 

The train now crosses the insignificant Ahr, from the valley of 
which rises the blunted cone of the Landskron (p. 82). This 
district is extremely fertile, and is called the '■Qoldene Meil'. 

23 M. Remagen (steamb. stat.) and the Apollinariskirche, see 
pp. 57, 58. This is the station for the Ahr Valley railway (R. 14). 
The train returns to the river here ; beautiful *Retrospect. The 
peculiar stratification of the rocks is exposed to view in the rail- 
way-cuttings. The train runs close to the river , commanding a 
beautiful view of the opposite bank and the Seven Mountains 
(comp. p. 57). 

27^2 M. Rolandseck (steamb. stat. ; Rail. Restaurant , with 
magnificent **View, see p. 56). In the river lies the island of 
Nonnenwerth, a little below which rise the picturesque Drachen- 
fels and the Seven Mts. on the opposite bank, forming the most 
conspicuous feature in the landscape until Bonn is reached. 

The train now quits the river entirely. 30 1/2 M. Mehlem, the 
station for Konigswinter on the right bank (p. 76 ; ferry), is l /i M. 
from the Rhine. Comp. the Map, p. 76. 

32 M. Godesberg (*Blinzler, with garden; *Adler; Zur Guten 
Hoffnung), a village with 2300 inhab., situated at the point where 
the valley of the Rhine begins to expand, is a favourite summer 
resort, where wealthy merchants of Cologne, Elberfeld, and Crefeld 
have erected a number of handsome villas, surrounded by pleasant 
gardens. The Romanesque Protestant Church was erected by a 
wealthy merchant of Crefeld in 1857 ; another , near the station, 
was built quite lately. The Roman Catholic Church, in the Gothic 
style, was completed in 1862 from designs by Statz. The Hydro- 
pathic Establishment is much frequented. The alkaline chaly- 
beate Stahl-Quelle, sunk afresh in 1864, at the entrance to the 
small Oudenauer Thai, at the foot of the Draischberg, was known to 
the Romans, as is proved by a votive tablet to ^Esculapius, found 
on the castle-hill in the 16th cent., and now preserved in the mu- 
seum at Bonn. The new Bath Establishment at the spring contains 
forty bedrooms and twenty bath-rooms. Pleasant walks in the 

On an eminence (246 ft.), 72 M. to the N. of the station, stands 
the Castle of Godesberg (400 ft. above the sea), with a handsome 
tower, 98 ft. high, which is ascended by 150 steps. Fine view from 

to Cologne. BRUHL. 10. Route. 67 

the summit. The ruin belongs to the Empress of Germany. The 
Cemetery of the village lies -within the precincts of the castle. 

At the base of the hill a Roman colony is said once to have flourish- 
ed, while at the summit rose a fort, supposed to have been founded by 
the Emp. Julian (A.D. 360), and a temple of Jupiter, afterwards a Chris- 
tian church. The castle was erected in the 13th and 14th cent, by the 
archbishops of Cologne as a place of refuge during their frequent feuds 
with their subjects, who on several occasions carried the war as far as 
Bonn. In 1583 the Bavarians, who fought in support of Archbishop Ernest 
of Bavaria against the deposed Gebhard of Waldburg, who had become a 
Protestant, stormed and blew up the castle, which was defended by Count 
Adolph of Neuenahr, the last of his family. The tower alone escaped 

On the right , as Bonn is approached , immediately after the 
train has crossed the Bonn and Coblenz road, is seen the *Hoch- 
kreuz, a Gothic column 30ft. high, erected in 1332-49 to a knight, 
who is said to have fallen in a duel at this spot, and entirely re- 
stored in 1854. 

On the hill to the left is the Rosenburg (p. 75), and farther off 
the Kreuzberg (p. 75). To the right appears Bonn with its con- 
spicuous new Protestant church and its lofty minster-tower. 

36 M. Bonn (steamb. stat.), see p. 71 ; railway-ferry to Ober- 
cassel, see p. 68. 

Near (40 M.) Roisdorf rises a mineral spring resembling that of 
Selters. To the W., at a little distance from the line, is a chain 
of low and partially wooded hills called the Vorgebirge, on which 
numerous villages with orchards and country-houses are situated. 
The last vineyards in the land of the grape are now passed. — 
44 M. Seehtem , whence a branch-line Tuns to the St. Pantaleon 
station (p. 22) on the S. side of Cologne. Before reaching — 

47 M. Bruhl (Pavilion ; Belvedere ; Barion), the train intersects 
the park of Bruhl, passing the chateau of Falkenlust on the right, 
which was once a hunting-lodge of the electors, but is now private 
property, and stops opposite the royal Palace of Bruhl, a handsome 
building, erected by Elector Clement Augustus in 1728. During 
the French period Marshal Davoust resided in it for several years. 
It was restored in 1842 by Frederick William IV., and has since 
been frequently occupied by the royal family. The interior is shown 
by the castellan. The finely decorated halls contain old portraits of 
Bhenish electors and other princes. The garden and paTk are 
favourite places of resort, and are always open to the public. Bruhl 
itself is a small town with 3500 inhabitants. Near the station is a 
hydropathic establishment. 

50 M. Kalscheuren, junction for the Eifel Bailway mentioned 
at p. 181. The crowded houses of Cologne soon come in sight. The 
train describes a curve round part of the town, above whose ramparts 
tower the imposing cathedral and other churches, intersects the old 
fortifications on the N. side , and enters the central station at — 

56t/2 M. Cologne, see R. 3, 


11. From (Cologne) Deutz to Obercassel (Bonn) and 
Ehrenbreitstein (Coblenz) . 

Railway on the Bight Bank. 

Comp. Map, p. 56. 

55 M. From Deutz to Troisdorf in •/» hr. (fares 1 m. 35, 1 m. 10, 
80 pf.); from Troisdorf to Ehrenbreitstein in P/i-2% hrs. (fares 5 m. 60, 
4 m. 20, 2 m. 80 pf.)- The express train starts from the Central Station at 
Cologne. — From Bonn by steam-ferry to Obercassel; thence to Ehren- 
breitstein in l'/z-2 hrs. (fares 5 m., 3 m. 80, 2 m. 45 pf.). 

The traveller bound for Coblenz should take a ticket to Ehren- 
breitstein only, the station of which is nearer the principal hotels of 
Coblenz than the station of the latter. The railway from Ehrenbreitstein 
to Coblenz crosses the river above the bridge-of-boats, describing a circuit 
of nearly 2 M. (fares 50, 30, 20 pf.). It should also be observed that all 
the quick through-trains from Cologne to Bonn, Coblenz, Mayence, and 
Frankfort run on the left bank of the river (R. 10). 

From Cologne to (12l/ 2 M.J Troisdorf, see R. 8. — 14 M. 
Friedrich- Wilhelms-Hiitte, an extensive foundry, is connected by a 
branch-line with the small town of Sitgburg. The train crosses the 
Sieg, and returns to the Rhine at (18 M.) Beuel (p. 73), opposite 
Bonn (p. 71 ; omnibus to the bridge-of-boats or the ferry 20 pf.). 

20y 2 M. Obercassel (*Wolfsburg ; Rheinischer Hof), a thriv- 
ing little town of 18,000 inhab., with an old church-tower and a 
large cement-factory , lies on the Rhine amidst fruit-trees , and 
affords pleasant summer-quarters. Well-constructed walks lead to 
the Steinerne Hauschen (8/4 M. from the station ; fine view), the 
quarries of the Rabenlei, Heisterbach (p. 80; 2 M.), and other 
picturesque points in the neighbourhood. At the village of Kuding- 
hofen, 2 M. to the left of the station, rises the Ennert or Foveaux- 
Hduschen (518 ft.), which commands a beautiful view. Adjacent 
are extensive basalt quarries. — Obercassel is connected with the 
Left Rhenish Railway by a steam-ferry, and our train is here joined 
by passengers from Bonn. Travellers bound for Siegburg, Troisdorf, 
and Deutz generally change carriages here, while those for Bonn 
keep their seats and are ferried across the river. 

22^2 M. Dollendorf is a good starting-point for excursions among 
the Seven Mts. The station lies between the villages of Nieder- 
Dollendorf (Krone), on the Rhine, and Ober- Dollendorf (Thiebes), 
at the mouth of the Heisterbach valley. Heisterbach (p. 80) is l 1 ^ M. 
distant by the road. *View from the Pfaffenrbttchen. 

23 '/ 2 M. Konigswinter (p. 76) is the favourite starting-point 
for exploring the beautiful scenery of the Seven Mts. The station 
lies at the lower end of the town. The valley of the Rhine now 
contracts. The train skirts the base of the Drachenfels and runs 
close to the river. 

26 M. Rhondorf (Post; Hotel- Pension Drachenfels; Pension 
Wolkenburg), a pleasant summer resort, 1 M. to the S. of Honnef. 
On the lateral wall of the church is a well-preserved tombstone, in 
trachyte from the Drachenfels, of the last knight of the Drachen- 

HONNEF. 11. Route. 69 

fels, with armorial bearings and date 1530, brought here from the 
abbey of Heisterbach. — From Rhondorf to the Lowenburg, 3'/^., 
see p. 80; to the Draohenfels 40 min., by a new bridle-path ; to 
Konigs winter 1 M. 

27 M. Honnef. — Hotels. "Hotel Klein, "Hotel -Pension Nizza, 
both with gardens and views ; Hotel Weisbebg ; Hotel de Bebghes ; Zum 
Siebengebirge ; Hotel de Hollande, at the station. — Pension Adami, 
Pension Karcher, both with gardens. 

Carriages. From the station to Honnef, for 1-2 pers., one-horse 60, 
two-horse 80 pf., each additional pers. 25 pf. ; to Rolandseck Ferry, one- 
horse l'/i, two-horse l 3 /4 m. i to Kbnigswinter l'/a or 2 m., there and back 
2'/2 or 3 m. ; to the Margarethenhof 4'/2 or 6 m. ; to the LSwenbvrger Hof 
6'/a or 9 m., there and back 9 or 12 m. ; for half-a-day 7 or 12, whole da}' 
12 or m m. 

Honnef, a scattered village with 4300 inhab., lies 1/2 M. to the 
left of the railway, in a luxuriantly fertile plain, about 3 M. long 
and 1 M. broad, which extends between the >S.W. base of the Seven 
Mts. and the Rhine. It is one of the pleasantest and sunniest spots 
on the Rhine , being sheltered from the N. and E. winds by the 
Seven Mts., and surrounded by vineyards and orchards. Honnef, as 
well as Rhondorf and Rheinbreitbach, has increased considerably 
within the last few years, and owing to its genial climate and 
pretty scenery has become a favourite summer resort. A number of 
villas, some of which are let to visitors, have lately sprung up here 
and at the neighbouring villages of Sellhof, Beuel, Bondorf, and 

Environs. Beautiful walk of 2 hrs. : by the farm of Zicklenburg to 
Menzenberg (on the slope of the hill is grown the best red wine of the 
district), past the large Hager-Hof, by a footpath to Rheinbreitbach (p. 57), 
and back by* the road to Honnef. Other excursions: by Menzenberg to 
the Hager Kbppelchen (•/« hr. ; line view) ; over the Heidenkamm to the 
"Haanenburg ( 3 /4 hr.), the tower of which commands a fine view; to the 
(1 hr.) Leiberg (1142 ft.), a basaltic hill commanding a beautiful view, the 
way to which is indicated by a guide-post at the S. end of Honnef. — 
Near Rheinbreitbach (p. 57) are the old copper and lead-mines of the 
Virneberg, which were known to the Romans. 

From Honnef to the Lowenburg, IV2 hr., see p. 80. 

In the Rhine, to the right, lie the islands of Nonnenwerth and 
Grafenwerth ; on the opposite bank are the picturesque arched ruin 
of Rolandseck and the village of that name. The village of Rhein- 
breitbach (p. 57) is next passed, opposite which lies Oberwinter. At 
(24 M.) Unkel (p. 57) the train quits the fertile plain which lies at 
the foot of the Seven Mts., and passes Erpel, opposite to which lies 
Remagen with the elegant Apollinariskirche (pp. 57, 58). 

34 M. Linz (p. 59) lies opposite the mouth of the Ahr, above 
which, a little inland, rises the handsome church of Sinzig. The 
train next passes Leubsdorf, Schloss Arenfels, and Ariendorf. Oppo- 
site (38 M.) Honningen (p. 60) lies Nieder-Breisig, a little above 
which rises Schloss Rheineck. The train passes Rheinbrohl, with its 
Gothic church (opposite the Brohl Valley, p. 87), and Nieder- and 
Ober-Hammerstein, at the base of the Hammerstein. On the opposite 
bank, a little above (43y 2 M.) Leutesdorf (p. 61), the picturesque 

70 Routt 11. ^BENDORF. 

and ancient town of Andernach (p. 61), with its round tower and 
handsome church in the background , comes in sight. The valley 
of the Rhine expands , and we obtain a pleasant view of Neuwied 
on the right , and Netterhof on the left bank. The train crosses 
the Wied, skirts the park of the Prince of Wied, and stops at — 

47 M. Neuwied (p. 62). The station is a little to the E. of the 
town. The train now runs inland and traverses an extensive plain, 
but returns to the river at (49'/o M.) Engers (p. 64), beyond which 
are several iron-works. 

50'/2M. Bendorf (Nassauischer Hof), a small town with 3500 
inhab., situated amidst orchards 3 / 4 M. to the E. of the line, with 
an interesting Romanesque church. 

Excursion to Sayn. The village of Sayn (Burg Sayn or Post, with 
garden; Friedrichsberg) , with extensive iron -works belonging to Herr 
Krupp of Essen, and a chateau and park of Prince Sayn-Wittgenstein- 
Sayn, commanded by the ruined castle of Sayn, is situated in the Sayn- 
thal, I1/2 M. from Bendorf and the same distance from Engers. 

"Schloss Sayn (generally shown on Sundays and Thursdays, 1-5 o'clock; 
proceeds of admission-fee devoted to charity ; the attendant also expects a 
trifling fee) is handsomely fitted up and contains a choice Collection of Mo- 
dern Pictures. Among them, Kriiger, Portrait of the Russian field-marshal 
Wittgenstein, grandfather of the present proprietor ; Bar. Vernet, Return 
from hawking (portraits of the princess and her family); other works by 
Qudin (d. 188j), Isabey, Wappers, Verboeckhoven, Granet, Winterhalter, De- 
camps, &c; smaller works by Wouwerman, F. Bol, and others. Also sculp- 
tures by Bartolini and L. Bienaimi, and several busts by Rattch. The Cha- 
pel, a tasteful modern Gothic structure, with a crypt, contains a figure of 
Christ in ivory , said to be by Qiovanni da Bologna , and stained glass 
from Munich. 

The 'Park lies on the slope of the hill , on which are situated the 
extensive ruins of the old Castle erected in the 10th cent, and destroyed 
by the French in the Thirty Years' War, the ancestral seat of the once 
powerful counts of Sayn. One of the vaults of the castle contains a sarco- 
phagus with an oaken statue (13th cent.) of Count Heinrich of Sayn, the 
founder of the neighbouring abbey of Sayn. On the slope of the hill are 
the ruined castles of Stein and Reifenberg. 

We may now return to the Rhine by the Friedrichsberg, or Renne- 
berg, a park whence a fine view is obtained. Thence to Engers l 1 ^ M. 

Farther up the Saynthal, through which ascends the road to Alten- 
kirchen, are the (3'/2 M.) ruins of the castle of Isenburg, the ancient seat 
of a still existing family. 

About 2 M. to the N. of Sayn rises the spire of Heimbaeh, near which 
are the ruins of the ancient abbey of Rommersdorf , with fine cloisters 
and chapter-house, erected about 1200, now the property of the Duke 
of Aremberg, and used as farm-buildings. 

53 Y2 M. Vallendar (Capitain, with garden ; Anker; Albert ; local 
steamer to Coblenz), a busy little town with 3500 inhab. who 
carry on a brisk river-traffic, lies on an arm of the Rhine opposite 
the island of Niederwerth (p. 64). On the banks of the river 
are large depots of the Hohr pottery (p. 71). On a height 
above the town stands the handsome Church, built by Lassaulx 
in the round-arch style in 1839, with a tower of the 15th cent. ; 
it contains .some stained glass, representing the Madonna enthroned, 
designed by Hess. Weitersburg, on the hill V2 M. to the N. of 
Vallendar, commands a beautiful view of the Rhine with its is- 

BONN. 12. Route. 71 

lands and its banks from Andemach to Coblenz. About halfway 
up the hill is a summer-house of the Vallendar Casino, to which 
visitors are admitted on introduction by a member. 

In the valley at the back of Vallendar rise O/2 M.) the Romanesque 
towers of the nunnery of Schffnstatt, which was abandoned in 1567, and 
afterwards destroyed by the Swedes. The nave of the church has en- 
tirely disappeared. Adjoining it is a cloth-factory. A good road ascends 
hence through a picturesque grassy valley, flanked by wooded hills, to 
(3 M.) Hbhr (Milllenbaeh), a thriving village on' the hill, at which, to- 
gether with the neighbouring villages of Grenzhausen and Arzbach, earthen- 
ware, useful and ornamental, is largely manufactured. 

A little farther on, a picturesque view is obtained of Coblenz 
and the mouth of the Moselle. The station at Ehrenbreitstein 
(p. 96) lies at the foot of the precipitous rock on which the fortress 
is situated. 

12. Bonn. 

Hotels (Plan, p. 76). Stern (PI. a; B,C, 4), in the market-place; "Royal 
Hotel (PI. b; A, 4), Coblenzer-Str. 11, with a garden on the Rhine; these 
two of the first class, with corresponding charges ; Bellevue (PI. c ; A, 4), 
Coblenzer-Str. 35, R. 2-3 m., B. 1 m.; s Hotel Klet (PI. d; B, 5), Coblen- 
zer-Str. 1, R. 2 m., L. 40, D. 2 m. 50, A. 60, B. 80 pf., also a restaurant and 
h6tel garni; these last two also have gardens on the Rhine. Rheineck 
(PI. e; B, 5), opposite the steamboat-pier, R. iy2-2'/2 m., a. 60, B. 1 m., D. 
2 m. 50 pf. ; * Rheinischer Hof (PI. f; C, 4), *Schwan (PI. g), both in the 
Stern-Strasse, near the market, and Bradn's Hotel (PI. h ; B, 4), Munster- 
Platz 2, are good second-class inns ; Hotel Eintraoht, Sandkaule 15, also 
a 'pension'. — Hotels Garnis. Hotel et Pension du Nord, Quantius-Str. 1, 
at the corner of the Poppelsdorfer Allee, near the station; Pension Lohr- 
mann, Evangelische-Kirch-Str. 3; Pension Anqlaise, EndenicBer Allee 2. 

Restaurants. -Perrin, Wenzelgasse 50; Clouth, Sandkaul'13; Breuer, 
Markt 13. — Cafe. HAM Kley, see above. — Beer: Voss, Wenzelgasse 54, 
also oyster-rooms; Kaiserhalle, near the station; Netlekoven, Neugasse 2; 
Beethovenhalle , Vierecks-Platz; Adtorf, Miinster-Platz. — Confectioner. 
"Laubinger, Markt 5. 

Newspapers and restaurant in the Lese- vnd Erholungs-Gesellschaft, 
opposite the University ; the Academic Reading-room contains upwards of 
300 newspapers and periodicals ; visitors are introduced to either of these 
by a member. 

Bathing Establishments on the Rhine, above the town, . with swim- 
ming and warm baths. There are also warm-baths at the Bonner Bade- 
anstalt, at the entrance of the Baumschuler Allee. 

Cabs. Per drive in the town, 1-2 pers. 60 pf., each additional pers. 
25 pf., box 10 pf. ; per hour 2 m., with two horses 2 m. 50 pf. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 21), Munster-Platz. 

English Church Service in the University Church at 11 a.m. and 6.30 
p.m. (4 p.m. in winter). — Scotch Presbyterian Church, Lenne-Str. ; services 
at 11 a.m. and 5 p.m. 

Chief Attractions. Exterior of the Minister (p. 74), Monument of 
Beethoven (p. 74) ; view from the Alte Zoll (p. 73) ; walk to Poppelsdorf 
(p. 74). 

Bonn, a town with 31,500 inhab. , the seat of a University 
founded in 1818, is pleasantly situated on the W. bank of the 
Rhine , at the N. entrance to the narrower and more picturesque 
part of the valley of the river. It has recently become a veTy pros- 
perous place , and a favourite residence of English and other vis- 
itors. The pleasant villas with their gardens on the Rhine, situated 

72 Route 12. BONN. Vniversity. 

on the Coblenzer Strasse above the town, the shady promenades of 
the Hofgarten, the Poppelsdorfer Allee, and the view from the Alte 
Zoll, all contribute to render the town very attractive, while the 
fine towers of the Miinster and the new Protestant church also en- 
hance the general effect. 

Bonn, the Bonna, or Castra Bonnensia of the Romans, frequently 
mentioned by Tacitus, and probably founded by Drusus, was one of the first 
Roman fortresses on the Rhine, and the head - quarters of several legions. 
The Roman Castrum, which was very extensive, stood near the end of the 
modern Steinweg or Heerweg, at the Wichelshof, to the N. of the town , as 
is proved by excavations made in 1818 and by recent investigations. In 
the middle ages Bonn was a place of little importance until 1267, when 
the Archbishop of Cologne transferred his residence and seat of govern- 
ment hither (comp. p. 25). The German kings, Frederick of Austria 
(1314) and Charles IV. (1346), were crowned in the Miinster. 

The Protestant tendencies of Hermann of Wied and Gebhard of 
Waldburg, Archbishops of Cologne in the 16th cent., principally mani- 
fested by the latter in his marriage with the nun Agnes of Mansfeld, for 
which he was declared an apostate and banished from his Electorate, brought 
Bonn into great trouble. In the Dutch War of Independence, in the 
Thirty Years' War, and especially in the Spanish War of Succession, Bonn 
suffered repeatedly from sieges. That of 1689 was conducted by Elector 
Frederick III. of Brandenburg (King Frederick I.) at the head of the Impe- 
rial and allied troops. Marlborough and other celebrated generals took 
part about the same time in the operations against the town. The walls 
were levelled in 1717, in accordance with the Peace of Rastatt. — Under 
the Electors of the 18th cent. Bonn was very prosperous, and one of 
them in 1777 founded an Academy , elevated to a University seven years 
later by Emperor Joseph II. On 7th Oct., 1794, the French marched into 
the town, and in 1797 the university was closed. 

Under the French Bonn suffered much, and its population decreased 
from 9500 to 7500, but since its recovery by the Prussians in 1815 and the 
foundation of the Friedrich-Wilhelm University, it has gradually revived. 

The University Buildings (PI. B, 4, 5), originally the electoral 
Palace, erected in 1717-1730, and partially rebuilt after a fire in 
1777, occupy the S. side of the town, and are the most exten- 
sive in Germany (600 yds. in length). They are well fitted up and 
contain the Lecture Rooms (with the exception of the agricul- 
tural and most of the medical), the Library (PI. 6) of 250,000 vols., 
adorned with busts of Niebuhr, Schlegel, Arndt, etc. , a valuable 
Collection of Coins (4000 Greek and Roman and 400 mediaeval), 
a Museum of Antiquities (see below) , and a Physical Cabinet. The 
Aula or hall (keys kept by the head-porter, under the arcades 
to the left ; 75 pf.) is adorned with frescoes emblematical of the 
four faculties, executed by Cornelius's pupils, Forster, Gotzenber- 
ger, and Hermann. The 'theology' was begun by Cornelius himself 
in 1824. The old chapel of the Electoral palace is now a Protestant 
place of worship. Church of England service is performed here on 

The 'Academical Museum of Art (entrance near PI. 6, in the Fran- 
ziskaner-Strasse ; attendant 75 pf. ; catalogue by Prof. R. Kekule 3 m.), a 
very meritorious collection of its kind, is constantly receiving additions. 
It contains upwards of 700 casts, statues, reliefs, etc., some of them ori- 
ginals, arranged chronologically. 

The 'Museum of Antiquities (custodian in the Franziskaner-Str., see 
above ; catalogue 2 m.) is an interesting collection of monuments and other 

Alte Zoll. BONN. 12. Route. 73 

objects, mainly of the Roman period, found in the Rhenish province and 
Westphalia, some of them being from the excavations at the Wichelshof 
(p. 72). The most interesting are the votive tablets to Mercuriiis Arvernus 
(Nos. 19, 20), to Hercules Saxanm (21-24), to the Germano-Celtic maternal 
deities (28-62), and to the Teutonic goddesses Alateivia (63) and Hludana 
(64, 67); Votive stone of a legate, with a metrical account of his official 
career ; 60-70. Mithras Reliefs ; *82. Tomb-relief of a centurion and his two 
freedmen, who fell at the battle of the Teutoburgian Forest (Vellum Va- 
rianum:); 98. Relief of a Roman standard-bearer; 225. Relief of the flight 
of Iphigeneia ; Fragments of a Roman wall with frescoes of the battles of 
the Amazons ; 204. Mosaic portrait of an Abbot of Laach ; smaller Roman 
and Franconian antiquities. 

Passing through the Coblenzer Thor, which intersects the E. 
wing of the university (PI. B, 4), and has its facade adorned ex- 
ternally with a figure of the Archangel Michael, we reach the newest 
quarter of the town, called the Coblenzer Strasse, which skirts the 
E. side of the Hofgarten, and consists of hotels, villas surrounded 
by gardens, and other handsome buildings. — No. 75 Fahrgasse, the 
second cross-street to the left, was the residence of the poet Arndt, 
and now contains a small Collection of Antiquities. 

Vestibule. Roman stone monuments. — Ground-Floor. Large col- 
lection of black Franconian goblets, with inscriptions, found in a grave 
at Meckenheim; gold ornaments from Waldalgesheim ; line enamels and 
engraved glass. — Upper Floor. Valuable collection of Roman glass; a 
Vas diatrelum; Etruscan bronze vessels, clasps, keys, etc. 

The extensive Hofgarten (PI. A, B, 4), with its fine old avenues, 
is a favourite promenade. On the W. side of the garden rises the 
*Protestant Church (PI. 18), a Gothic edifice of brick, erected by 
Dieckhof in 1866-71, with a lofty tower. — Opposite, in the Kaiser- 
Platz, is an Exhibition of Pictures. 

Close to the Coblenz Gate is the entrance to the Alte Zoll 
(PI. 1), an old bastion on the bank of the Rhine, commanding a 
fine *View of the river and its opposite bank, including Beuel, 
Bensberg, Siegburg, and the Seven Mts. In the centre is a Mon- 
ument (PL 3; B, 5) to the poet Ernst Moritz Arndt (b. 1769, d. 
1860), in bronze. The figure leans with the left hand on a trunk 
of oak , whilst the right is pointing towards the Rhine. The two 
French guns here, captured in the late war, were presented by 
Emperor William. An inclined plane descends from the Alte Zoll 
to the Rhine. 

The side of the old town next the Rhine is unattractive. At the 
lower end are several Clinical Establishments (PI. D, 6, 5) belonging 
to the university. A steam and other ferry-boats cross hence to 
the village of Beuel (railway-station, see p. 68), situated on the 
opposite bank. 

The central point of the business of the town is the triangular 
Market Place (PI. B, C, 4), to which the principal streets of the 
old town converge. In the centre of it rises a Fountain Column, 
erected by the citizens in 1777 in honour of the last but one 
of the Electors of Cologne. The Rathhaus, with its lofty flight of 
steps, was completed in 1782. 

74 Route 12. BONN. Poppelsdorfer Sehloss. 

The *Munster (PI. 12 ; B, 3), a cruciform church with two choirs, 
four small towers, and a lofty octagonal principal tower over the cross, 
is an imposing and picturesque example of the late-Romanesque 
style. It was formerly an archdeanery of St. Cassius and St. Flor- 
entius , and , like many Rhenish churches , traces its foundation 
to Constantine. The W. part of the crypt and the part of the 
church above it date, however, from the 11th, the end of the choir 
from the middle of the 12th, and the nave, transept, and chief 
tower from the 13th century. The building is at present undergoing 

The Interior is remarkable for its handsome proportions. It contains 
a bronze statue of St. Helena, the mother of Constantine, in the manner- 
ist style , cast at Rome in 1756 ; two bas-reliefs representing the Nativity 
and Baptism of Christ over the altars in the nave and transept to the 
right, well -executed Italian works of the 17th or 18th century. Near 
the chief portal is the Sarcophagus of Archbishop Engelbert von Falken- 
burg (d. 1274). The interesting old Crypt was recently restored. 

The ancient Chapter House adjoining the church is now the par- 
sonage. Cloisters, with pillars possessing beautiful capitals, of the 
12th century. 

The other churches, the Gothic Minoritenkirche (PI. 14 ; C, 4), 
with cloisters dating from the beginning of the 14th cent., the Je- 
suitenkirche (PI. 13; C, 4; Old Catholic), and the Stiftskirche (PI. 
16; D, 4) are unattractive. The Gothic Herz-Jesu-Kirche (PI. 17; 

A, 4), erected in 1862, contains good stained glass, designed by 

The bronze *Statue of Beethoven (PI. 4), in the MOnstbrplatz 
(PI. B, C, 3), executed by Hahnel of Dresden , was inaugurated in 
presence of Queen Victoria in 1845. The celebrated composer 
(1770-1827) was born in the Bonngasse, No. 20 (PI. 5; C, 4). His 
father was a tenor-singer, and his grandfather (a native of Ant- 
werp) band-master to the Elector. No. 7 Rheingasse, to which Beet- 
hoven's parents removed after his birth, also bears an inscription. 

The *Poppelsdorfer Allee (PI. A, 2), the principal promenade of 
the town, a quadruple avenue of beautiful horse-chestnuts, ] /2 M. 
long, and flanked with handsome villas and gardens, leads from the 
Kaiser-Platz, adjoining the Hofgarten and the University, towards 
the W. to the Poppelsdorfer Sehloss. At the end next the town it 
is crossed by the railway. To the right is the Railway Station (PI. 

B, 3). Farther on, to the left, a little back from the avenue, is the 
handsome Observatory (PI. 23; A, 2) with its seven turrets, erected 
in 1839-46 under the superintendence of Prof. Argelander (d. 1875). 

The Poppelsdorfer Sehloss (PI. A, 1) , formerly a residence of 
the Electors, ereeted in 1715-46, but presented to the university 
by Frederick William III., now contains the * Natural History Col- 

The collection of minerals and fossils, originated by the indefatigable 
Prof. Nbggerath and arranged by Prof. G. vom Rath, is particularly worthy 
of inspection, as the specimens illustrate the geology of the Seven Mts. 
(R. 13) and Eifel (R. 26). It was enriched in 1875 by the purchase (for 

Kreuzberg. BONN. 12. Route. 75 

144,000 m.) of the collection of Dr. Krantz. The ' GrottensaaV , fitted up 
In the time of the Electors, contains mining-models and also reliefs of the 
Rhine, Seven Mts., *c, which may he purchased. Custodian's lodge to 
the left of the entrance (fee 75 pf., for a party l'/2-2 m.). 

The Botanical Garden adjoining the palace (open Tues. and 
Frid. 3-7; at other times fee as above) is well kept and contains a 
palm-house and extensive hot-houses. 

To the N. of the Poppelsdorfer Schloss rises the Chemical 
Laboratory (PI. A, 1), a palatial building, designed by the architect 
Dieckhoff and the Berlin chemist Hofmann, one of the most exten- 
sive and best organised in the world, completed in 1868. The en- 
trance-hall contains medallion-reliefs of celebrated chemists. — 
Behind the laboratory is the handsome Anatomy Building (PI. 2 ; 
A, B, 1), designed by Neumann, and completed in 1872. Opposite, 
on the W., is the new Physiological Institute. — In the vicinity are 
the extensive buildings of the Agricultural Academy, fitted up in 
1847, comprising lecture-rooms, collections, a laboratory, and the 
residence of the director. 

Above Poppelsdorf, »/a M - trom the Schloss, rises the "Kreuzberg 
(400 ft. above the sea-level), crowned with a conspicuous' white church. 
It originally belonged to a monastery erected by Elector Ferdinand of 
Bavaria in 1627, and contains the 'Holy Steps'' of Italian marble (in the 
chapel behind the altar), constructed under Elector Clement Augustus 
(d. 1761). These steps, 28 in number, must be ascended only on the 
knees, and are an imitation of the Scala Santa at the Lateran. Beautiful 
view from the tower. 

Kessenich, a village with pleasant country-houses, about l'/s M. from 
Bonn, is reached by a road diverging from the middle of the Poppelsdorf 
Avenue to the left. On the slope of the Vorgebirge (p. 67), immediately 
above it, rises the Rosenburg, a small chateau with pretty grounds. The 
margin of the Kessenicher Schlucht (Casselsruhe), a gorge higher up, com- 
mands a charming "View of Godesberg , the Seven Mts. , etc. Another 
favourite point of view is the Dollendor/er Hohe, a few minutes walk 
farther in the direction of Godesberg, and about l l /a M. from Bonn. Foot- 
paths lead along the lower hills to Godesberg (p. 66). Another pleasant 
walk may be taken to Endenich, where there is an asylum for the insane, 
situated '/3 M. to the W. of Poppelsdorf. 

The "Cemetery (PI. D, 2, 3), >/* M. from the Sternthor, is the resting- 
place of many eminent men, chiefly professors at the university, and is 
also worthy of a visit on account of its handsome monuments, including 
one in memory of the campaign of 1870-71 (in bronze). 

By the wall on the right, Monument of Niebuhr (d. 1831), erected by 
Fred. William IV. to his 'teacher and friend' ; in front a relief in marble 
by Rauch, representing Niebuhr and his wife, being a copy of an ancient 
Roman tomb-relief preserved in the hall of the busts at the Vatican. Farther 
along the same walk, on the right, the monuments of Ernst von Schiller 
(d. 1841), the second son, and Charlotte von Lengefeld (d. 1826), widow of 
the poet. Near the circular space is the monument of the brothers Bois- 
serie , the famous connoisseurs of art (Melchior d. 1851, Sulpice d. 1854), 
a relief in marble with a head of Christ, by Rauch. The "Chapel in the 
middle of the cemetery, a beautiful Romanesque structure, built at Ra- 
mersdorf (p. 55) about the year 1200, was transferred thence to its present 
site in 1847. It contains stained glass presented by the Boisserees. Near 
the chapel are the graves of Schumann (d. 1856), the composer, with a 
"Monument by Donndorf, erected in 1880, of Argelander (d. 1875), the astro- 
nomer, and Karl Simrock (d. 1876), the poet. The monument of the poet 
Arndt (d. 1860), is close to the E. wall of the cemetery. Beside it is that 
of Baron Bunsen (d. 1860), with a marble medallion. 

13. The Seven Mountains (Siebengebirge). 

One day suffices to explore the most interesting points in this district, 
unless the visit be for geological purposes. Konigswinter (a station on the 
Right Rhenish railway, and connected through Mehlem, on the opposite 
bank, with the Left Renish Railway ; also a steamboat-station) is the usual 
starting-point , but Honnef or Dollendorf, stations on the Right Rhenish 
line, may in some cases be more convenient. From Konigswinter to the 
Drachenfels '/ 4 hr. ; thence to the Great Oelberg l 3 /4 hr. •, and to Heisier- 
bach l'/4 hr. more; back to Konigswinter in 3 /t hr., or to Nieder-Dollen- 
dorf in '/;> hr. — From Honnef to the LBwenburg l>/4 hr. ; thence to 
the Great Oelberg H/4 hr., and via Heisterbach to Konigswinter as above. 
In this case the Drachenfels is ascended last, from Konigswinter. — From 
Nieder-Dollendorf the excursion is the same as the first mentioned, but 
in the reverse direction. 

The most satisfactory way of visiting the Seven Mountains is, of course, 
on foot, but the whole tour from Konigswinter to Heisterbach and the Mar- 
garethenhof, and thence either to the Drachenfels or by the Lowenburger 
Hof to Honnef may now be accomplished by carriage, thanks to the ex- 
cellent roads constructed by a praise-worthy society founded in 1873 for 
the purpose of facilitating access to the fine scenery of this district. Num- 
erous finger-posts have also been erected, and the services of a guide may 
be dispensed with. — The heights given in the following description are 
calculated from the level of the sea; the approximate height above the 
Rhine is obtained by subtracting 160 ft. Geologists who understand Ger- 
man should purchase Dr. v. Dechen's 'Geognostischer Fuhrer in das Sie- 
bengebirge', with map, 7 m., sold by Cohen at Bonn. 

Carriages, Horses, and Donkeys at Konigswinter, see below. 

The*Seven Mountains, which form the N.W. termination of the 
Westerwald district, extend 3 M. inland from the Rhine, and from 
N. to S. about 9 M. , Konigswinter being the central point on the W- 
They consist of a group of peaks, cones, and long, rounded ridges, 
some of which are covered with forest and luxuriant herbage. They are 
all of volcanic character and consist partly of trachyte (Drachenfels, 
Wolkenburg, Lohrberg), and partly of basalt , a more recent forma- 
tion {Oelberg, Nonnenstromberg, Petersberg), while the Lowenburg 
alone is of dolerite. These seven peaks, from which the mountains 
derive their name , are seen simultaneously only in the neighbour- 
hood of Cologne ; as Bonn is approached, the Lowenburg is hidden 
by the Nonnenstromberg. Besides these summits there are many 
others, such as the conical Hemmerich, of trachyte, which overtops 
the lower mountains of the S. side, the Rosenau, and the Stenzel- 
berg, which adjoins the Nonnenstromberg on the S. The view from 
the Drachenfels is the most picturesque, that from the Oelberg the 
most extensive. 

Konigswinter. — Hotels. Berlin Hotel, well spoken of; European 
Hotel ; both opposite the pier, of the first class, R. from 2'/z-3 m. ; "Hotel 
Rieffel, in the principal street, R. and B. 2 m. 50 pf. ; Dusseldorfeb Hof, 
a small house on the Rhine, lower down than the large hotels. — Kolner 
Hof, with terrace facing the river, above the steamboat-pier, '•pension' 
5 m., well spoken of; Bockhalle, in the main street, near the station, with 
restaurant ; Restaurant Klein (also a hotel). — Several Pensions. 

Cafe and Confectioner : Merlens, in the main street, below the Roman 
Catholic church. 

Carriages. From the station to the town, for 1 pers., one-horse 60, 
two-horse 70 pf., each pers. additional 20 or 25 pf., luggage 25 pf. ; to the 

&cogr a, p h. -Anslalt, "von 



: 50.000 

==p^ EiLgl. Mile 

"Wagner fcDe"bfs, Leipzig. 

KONIGSWINTER. 13. Route. 77 

Drachenfels 4 or 572 m., there and back within 3 hrs., 5 l /i or 7 ] /a m . ; Mar- 
garethenhof 5 l /z or 7 m. ; Heisterbach 3V2 or 5 m., there and hack 5 or 
7'/2 m. ; Lowenburg via Heisterbach 6 or 8 , by the new road 5 or 6'/2, 
there and back 71/2, 10, 6V2, or 8 m. ; Sonne/ 1 3 A or 2V2 m., there and 
back within 3 hrs. 3 or 4 m. ; drive through the Seven Mts. via. Heister- 
bach, Margarethenhof, and Honnef (5 hrs.), with two horses, 11 m. 

Donkeys and Horses. To the Drachenfels by the new road, donkey 
IV2, horse l 3 /4 m., by the old road IV4 or IV2 ni. ; Wolkenburg and Drachen- 2 or 2'/2 m. ; Drachenfels, Wolkenburg, and Hirschberg 2'/2 or 3 m. ; 
Heisterbach IV2 or 2 m. ; Lowenburg 2 l /z or 3 m. ; Oelberg 2V2 or 3 m. ; 
whole day 5 or 6 m.; after sunset l fe or 1 m. extra in all cases. 

Guides (including porterage of light articles). To the Drachenfels or 
Heisterbach l'/2 m. ; Lowenburg or Oelberg 2>/« m. ; whole day 3V2 m. 

Small Boats to Rolandseck and back, with 1 hour's stay, 4'/ 2 m. ; to 
Plittersdorf 2 m. — To Mehlem (a station on the Left Rhenish railway) 
by small boat, 20 pf. ; also a ferry-boat. 

Konigswinter (165 ft.), a thriving little modem town with 2500 
inhab., is the best starting-point for a visit to the Seven Mountains, 
at the foot of which it lies. It is consequently much thronged by 
tourists in summer. It possesses extensive stone-cutting yards, which 
prepared much of the stone used in building Cologne Cathedral. 
The railway-station lies at the lower end of the town , and beyond 
its precincts. A pleasant walk extends along the bank of the Rhine. 
At the upper end of the town is a Monument erected in commem- 
oration of the events of 1870-71. 

Ascent of thb Drachenfels (carriages in waiting at the sta- 
tion). The well-constructed new road crosses the railway and coin- 
cides for some distance with that to the Margarethenhof; it then 
turns to the right, skirts the Hirschberg (p. 81 ; to the left the new 
road to the Oelberg, p. 79), and ascends in a curve to the terrace. 
"Walkers turn to the left on the platform at the station (flnger-post), 
follow the direction of the railway, and cross the road 5 after 5 min. 
the path joins that from the Rhine (see below). Other pleasant paths 
ascend by the Saurenberg or through the pretty Nachtigallenthal, 
quitting the carriage-road where it turns to the left, 200 paces be- 
yond the railway. The way through the Nachtigallenthal is that to 
the left; after 5 min. it crosses a bridge to the right. At the Kuck- 
stein, on the top of the hill, it unites with the Saurenberg path. 

The traveller arriving by Steamboat passes between the two 
chief hotels, crosses the railway, and soon reaches the donkey- 
station at the foot of the hill. The ascent thence is by a bridle- 
path on the side of the rock next to the Rhine, and partly through 
wood leading in 8/4 hr. to the terrace near the top. Several cabarets 
by the wayside : (10 min.) Zur schbnen Aussicht, and a little beyond 
it Zum Kuekstein (620 ft.), a little below which our path is joined 
by that over the Saurenberg, and a little above by that through 
the Nachtigallenthal (recommended to those returning to the 
railway-station). — A fourth route for walkers passes the group of 
rocks called the Grossvaterstuhl, and ascends the 'Winkelstrasse', 
450 paces to the N. of the church of Konigswinter, joining the old 
bridle-path near the Burghof (662 ft.). 

78 Route 13. DRACHENFELS. The Seven 

The Terrace (968 ft.; *Inn, R. from 2m., B. 1 m., D. 34m., also 
'pension'), a levelled rocky plateau about 100 ft. below the sum- 
mit, is embellished with a Gothic Obelisk commemorating the pa- 
triotic spirit of the Rhinelanders in the years 1813-15, designed by 
Zwirner and erected in 1857. The carriage-road reaches the terrace 
to the E., below the 'Logirhaus'. 

The castle of *Drachenfels (1066 ft, J, or 'dragon's rock', 908 ft. 
above the Rhine, which is reached in a few minutes from the plateau 
just mentioned, was erected by Arnold, Archbishop of Cologne, at 
the beginning of the 12th cent. , bestowed by him on the Cassius 
Monastery at Bonn in 1149, and held as a fief from the latter by the 
counts of the castle. Henry, Count of Drachenfels (d. 1348), fur- 
nished the chapter of the cathedral of Cologne with the stone for its 
construction from a quarry which still bears the name of Dombruch, 
or cathedral quarry. The wine yielded by the vineyards on its slopes 
is known as Drachenblut , or dragon's blood. In the Thirty Years' 
War the half-ruined castle was occupied by the Swedes , but was 
besieged and taken from them by Duke Ferdinand of Bavaria, 
Elector of Cologne, who completed its destruction. 

The Cavern among the vineyards , visible from the Rhine about 
half-way up the hill , is said once to have housed the dragon , slain 
by Siegfried, the hero from the Low Countries, who, having bathed 
himself in its blood, became invulnerable. 

*View. The summit commands one of the noblest prospects on 
the Rhine; to the E. are seen several of the seven peaks, S.E. the 
basaltic heights at the back of Honnef, among them the MindeTberg 
(p. 59), and the Hemmerich (p. 76), gradually sloping down to the 
Rhine. Immediately below lie Rhondorf , Honnef, Rheinbreitbach, 
Unkel, and Erpel ; on the left bank Remagen and the Gothic church 
on the Apollinarisberg , in the background the heights of the Eifel 
with the ruin of Olbriick (p. 88), in the vicinity Oberwinter, the 
islands of Grafenwerth and Nonnenwerth, and the arched ruin of 
Rolandseck. Farther to the right the Kreuzberg, Bonn, and even 
Cologne are visible. The scene forcibly recalls to the spectator the 
beautiful lines of Byron : — 

'The castled crag of Drachenfels 
Frowns o'er the wide and winding Rhine, 
Whose breast of waters broadly swells 
Between the banks which bear the vine; 
And hills all rich with blossom'd trees, 
And fields which promise corn and wine 
And scatter'd cities crowning these. 
Whose far white walls along them shine, 
Have strew'd a scene which I should see 
With double joy wert thou with me,' 

From the Drachenfels to the Great Oblberg (l 3 /4 hr.). The 
new carriage-road, which affords a series of charming views, di- 
verges from the Drachenfels road in the saddle between the Wolken- 
burg and the Hirschberg (594 ft. ; see p. 81), about 1 M. from the 

Mountains. OELBERG. 13. Route. 79 

Diachenfels, and then leads in windings by the Schallerberg, Geis- 
berg, and Lohrberg to the Margarethenhof (see below). 

The road just described will also repay the pedestrian. Those, 
however, who prefer footpaths follow the road from the terrace to 
the second bend only, where a finger-post on the right, beside two 
benches, points out the way to Rhondorf and Honnef, while beyond 
it another indicates that to the Wolkenburg and the Lowenburg. 
Here they take the latter path, and in 10 minutes reach the summit 
of the Wolkenburg (1075 ft.). The ancient stronghold of that name, 
which was assigned by the Archbishop Arnold I. as a place of refuge 
to the Jews banished from Cologne in the 12th cent., has long since 
been demolished to make way for the extensive quarries of trachyte 
which have been worked here for centuries. Several benches on the 
top, especially those on the N. side, command fine views. The path 
now descends in windings, the direction being indicated by way- 
posts. The traveller cannot lose his way if he proceeds towards the 
E. in the direction of a conspicuous little cottage at the foot of the 
Geisberg Q/4, hr.), where the above-mentioned road is rejoined. A 
few bends of the road farther on may also be cut off, but with no 
particular advantage. The road to the Lowenburg (p. 81) diverges 
to the right near the Margarethenhof. 

The Margarethenhof (1096 ft.) is a good inn on the highest part 
of the road from Konigswinter to Ittenbach, at the foot of the cone 
of the Oelberg. On a cross near the inn is a relief of St. Margaretha 
and the dragon. 

The Road to Konigswinter (41/2 M.) just mentioned leads through the 
valley of the Mittelbach. About half-way, two broad paths diverge to 
the left to the quarries of the O/enkavlen - Berg, which yield a trachyte 
conglomerate known as oven-stone. 

Just beyond the Margarethenhof is a stone guide-post, indicat- 
ing the footpath to the top of the Oelberg, which leads between 
the two carriage-roads. Farther on the path follows the road, which 
leads to the basalt quarries (see below), for some distance, and then 
diverges again to the left. The summit of the Oelberg is reached 
in 1 /^ hour. 

The *Great Oelberg (1522 ft. ; Restaurant, plain) is a basaltie 
mountain which has been upheaved through the trachyte. The 
prospect from the summit is the most extensive on the lower Rhine ; 
the picturesque foreground differs in many respects from that seen 
from the Drachenfels. The whole wooded tract of the Seven Mts. 
lies like a map before the spectator ; the Rhine glitters between the 
valleys which intersect its banks, and its course may be traced as far 
as Cologne; in the distance to the S. the Taunus, and N.E. the 
heights near Diisseldorf. The basalt quarries on the E. side of the 
Oelberg are now the most important in the Seven Mountains, and 
are interesting for the curious displacement of the basaltic columns, 
which are visible to a height of 100 ft. 

In descending, a few minutes' walk from the top, we reach a. 

80 Route 13. PETERSBERG. 

finger-post on the path by which we ascended, indicating the way 
to Konigswinter and Heisterbach. After 10 min. this path joins 
the Heisterbach carriage-road, from which, farther on, the foot- 
paths to Konigswinter and the Petersberg diverge to the left, and 
one to Heisterbach to the right. To the left rise the Rosenau 
(1063 ft.) and Nonnenstromberg (1105 ft.) ; to the right, the Sten- 
zelberg (945 ft.), with extensive trachyte quarries. 

In 50 min. after leaving the top of the Oelberg we reach the 
' Heisterbacher Mantel', a beautiful valley in which are situated the 
remains of the venerable Cistercian Abbey of ^Heisterbach (475 ft.). 
The gate still bears the arms of the abbey, a Heister (young beech) 
and a Bach (brook) ; at the side stand St. Benedict and St. Bernard 
as guardians. Of the once magnificent abbey-chuTch , erected in 
the transition-style in 1202-33, the extremity of the choir, with 
its slender basaltic pillars , is alone extant, forming a singularly 
picturesque ruin. The abbey itself was sold and almost entirely 
removed in the year 1806. Some of the finest old German pictures 
in the Pinakothek at Munich were brought from Heisterbach. Re- 
freshments at the farm-buildings. The abbey-lands are now the 
property of Count zur Lippe. 

The road passing Heisterbach terminates at Dollendorf (railway- 
station, p. 68), IV2 M. distant. 

From Heisterbach to Konigswinter.. The well-trodden path 
leads from the gate of the abbey to the left, and then along the N. and 
W. slopes of the Petersberg (1096 ft.), on the summit of which are 
a chapel commanding a fine view and a good restaurant. It traverses 
the wood and finally vineyards , and reaches Konigswinter in 40 
minutes. [In the reverse direction, we follow the Drachenfels road 
to a point 40 paces beyond the railway-crossing, where a finger- 
post on the left indicates the way to Heisterbach.] On the N.E. 
side of the Petersberg is a basalt quarry, the stones from which are 
conveyed to the (2/4 M.) road near Dollendorf by means of a wire- 
rope railway. 

The ascent of the Petersberg from Heisterbach takes half-an-hour. On 
passing through the old gate of the convent we turn to the right and 
then ascend along the wall, Numerous guide-posts make it impossible to 
miss the way. 

The Lowenburg is usually ascended from Honnef or Rhondorf. 
From Honnef a new carriage-road ascends through the wooded 
Schmelzerthal or Asbacher-Thal to the top in 2 hours. Walkers fol- 
low the 'Bergstrasse' leading to the N. past the church ; after 5 min. 
a finger-post to the left by a garden-wall indicates the way ; by an- 
other finger-post, 2 min. farther, we turn to the right and then go 
straight on in the same direction, reaching the top in li/ 4 hour. The 
path is more interesting in the reverse direction owing to the fine 
views of the Rhine which it commands. 

From Rhondorf (p. 68 ; railway-stat.) a broad bridle-path as- 
cends through the narrow valley flanked on the N. by the heights 

LOWENBURG. 73. Route. 81 

of the Wolkenburg , the Pulverhahn , Schallerberg (1007 ft.) , and 
Geisberg (1080 ft.), and on the S, by the broad Breiberg (1043 ft. ; 
flnger-post to the right ; view from the top), and reaches the Lo- 
wenburger Hof in i 1 /^ hr. — The Lowenburger Hof (1180 ft.) is a 
forester's house with a restaurant, whence the top is attained after 
a somewhat steep ascent of 15-20 minutes. 

The *Lowenburgf (1505 ft.), an extensive ruined castle on a 
wooded peak of dolerite, visible from the Rhine, and now embel- 
lished with pleasure- grounds, was once the scene of the conferences 
of Hermann , Elector of Cologne and Count of Wied, with the re- 
formers Melanchthon and Bucer, before he became a convert to Pro- 
testantism in 1541 (p. 72). Here, too, in the troublous times of 
1583, Elector Gebhard resided with his wife, the beautiful Countess 
Agnes von Mansfeld , whom he had abducted from the convent of 
Gerresheim. The summit commands an admirable view. 

From the Lowenburger Hof a road, forming the continuation 
of the road from Honnef, leads towards the N. along the E. slope of 
the Lohrberg (1443 ft.). After 10 min. a finger-post on the left in- 
dicates the path to the summit of the Lohrberg, which may be 
reached in 10 min. (tower with view). The road reaches the Marga- 
rethenhof (comp. p. 79) in 25 min. more. 

The Hirschberg (836 ft.), crowned with a belvedere, commands 
a beautiful view of the Rhine and the valley enclosed by the Seven 
Mts. The footpath diverges from the road in the saddle between 
the Hirschberg and the Wolkenburg, about 200 paces before the 
point where the Dracheiifels and Oelberg roads separate, and reaches 
the summit in ^ hour. 

14. Valley of the Ahr. 

Comp. Map p. 56. 

The Ahr rises at Blankenheim (p. 181) in the Eifel, traverses a wind- 
ing, picturesque, and generally narrow valley, 54 M. long, and falls into 
the Rhine below Sinzig. The river is always rapid and often overflows 
its banks in rainy weather. 

The full-flavoured, dark -red wines produced by the vineyards of the 
Ahr, which in good seasons yield upwards of 600,000 gallons (the best 
are those of Walportheim , Ahrweiler, and Bodendorf), are still termed 
' Ahrbleichert\ although the name signifies 'pale red wine of the Ahr'. It 
was formerly customary, after pressing the grapes, to draw off the juice 
immediately, before the setting in of fermentation. The wine thus pre- 
pared was of a pink colour. The French plan of allowing fermentation to 
begin before the separation of the juice from the skins has however long 
been in vogue , and the dark-red colour is the result. At the principal 
places in the Ahr valley the Winzerverein, or Vintage Club, has established 
good taverns, where the wine is supplied in its native purity. 

Millions of '■RUmpchtri' (cyprinus phoxinus), small fish 1-2 in. in 
length, are caught in the Ahr, boiled in salt-water, and packed in willow- 
bark for exportation. They are dressed with vinegar and oil, and esteem- 
ed a great delicacy. 

From Rbmasbn to Ahrweiler , 8 M., branch-railway in 36- 
46 min. (fares 1 m. 10, 80, 60 pf.). 

82 Route 14. NEUENAHR. Ahr Valley. 

Remagen, see p. 57. — The train describes a circuit round the 
Victoria-Berg and enters the fruitful and well-cultivated district at 
the mouth of the Ahr, known as the 'Goldene Meil'. 3 M, Boden- 
dorf, a village about l 1 /^ M. from Sinzig (p. 65), the church of 
which is ciescried to the left. Farther on we obtain a view to the 
left of the wooded hills on the right bank of the Ahr. Along the 
river grow numerous willows, which are used for basket-making 
and other purposes. 

The train now skirts the *Landskron (912 ft.), a lofty basaltic 
hill, which may be ascended in Ya hr. either from Lohrsdorf (at its 
S.E.-base, IV2 M. from Bodendorf) or from Heppingen (to the W., 
iy 2 M. from Neuenahr). 

The castle on the summit is said to have been founded in 1205 by 
Emp. Philip of Hohenstaufen, when on his way to be crowned at Aix-la- 
Chapelle, for the purpose of keeping in check the hostile Archbishop 
Bruno of Cologne. It was destroyed by the French in 1677 and again in 
1682 by Elector William of Cologne. The richly endowed Chapel on the 
S.W. side of the summit has been spared; a basaltic grotto serves as a 
sacristy. Near it is a quantity of massive basalt, overlying columnar ba- 
salt. The view embraces the Ahrthal from Ahrweiler to the Rhine, the 
higher peaks of the Seven Mts., to the S. a portion of the Eifel with the 
castle of Olbriick, and to the W. the ruin of Tomberg near Meckenheim. 

At the W. base of the Landskron are the Heppinger- and the 
Landskroner-ftlineralquelle , two refreshing springs , impregnated 
with carbonic acid gas. The Apollinarisbrunnen, a similar spring, 
is situated a little farther up the valley > its water is now well 
known in England, and is also exported to America, Holland, and 
India. About 50,000 bottles are filled daily, and 750,000 are dis- 
patched every month to America alone. 

On the right bank of the Ahr, 2 M. from Neuenahr, lies Hei- 
mersheim, the small, but handsome church of which, with its fine 
octagonal tower over the centre of the transept, closely resembles 
that of Sinzig. Choir richly adorned. Stained glass of the ear.y- 
Gothic period. 

6 M. Neuenahr. — Hotels. On the right bank of the Ahr: Cur- 
haus, with 150 apartments, post and telegraph-ofiice, baths in a building 
on the E. side; Concordia; Victoria; Heimes. etc. On the left bank of 
the Ahr, near the station : Hotel i>e Hollands ; Krone ; Germania, these 
three well spoken of; Flora; Traube; Rheinischer Hof; Walburgis- 
stift, unpretending, 'pens.' 4'/« m. Private apartments may also be pro- 

Cafes. Bellevue, Berg Neuenahr, with gardens. 

Carriages. From the station to the village, 1 pers. 60, each additional 
pers. 30 pt. To Walporzheim, etc., same charges as at Ahrweiler. 

Neuenahr, a flourishing modern watering-place, containing 1600 
inhab. and visited by 3000 patients yearly, consists of two formerly 
separate villages, Wadenheim, on the left bank of the Ahr, and Beul, 
on the right. The railway-station, the post-office, and the new 
Protestant church lie on the left bank, while the Curhaus and the 
Komau Catholic church are on the opposite side of the river. The 
water of the rive copious thermal springs (86-104° Fahr.), resem- 
bling: that of Ems. is a weak solution of carbonate of soda, with an 

Ahr Valley. AHRWEILER. 14. Route. 83 

insignificant admixture of carbonate of magnesia and carbonate of 
lime, and strongly impregnated with carbonic acid. The most im- 
portant of all is the Grosse Sprudel, discovered in 1861. It occasion- 
ally rises in a thick jet, 8-10 ft. in height. The springs are beneficial 
in cases of chronic catarrh, derangement of the pulmonary and diges- 
tive organs, enlargement of the liver, and uric acid diathesis. The 
climate of Neuenahr is admirably suited for persons with weak lungs. 
Pleasant walks surround the Curhaus and extend along the stream. 
A road near the Victoria Hotel and a footpath at the Roman Catholic 
church ascend to the top of the wooded basaltic hill which is crown- 
ed with the scanty ruins of the Castle of Neuenahr, built by Otto 
von Are about 1226. The Are family became extinct in 1353, and 
the castle then came into the hands of the Knights of Rodesberg, 
who afterwards assumed the title Count of Neuen-Are. It was de- 
stroyed in 1371 by Archbishop Siegfried of Cologne with the help 
of the inhabitants of Ahrweiler. The small tower at the top com- 
mands a fine view. 

Beyond Neuenahr the train passes Hemmessem, and then reaches — 

8 M. Ahrweiler. — Hotels. Krone; Stern; Deitsches Haos. — 
Kreutzberg'e Restaurant. 

Carriage Tariff. From the station to the town, 1 pers. 60, each ad- 
ditional pers. 30 pf. ; to the Calvarienberg 1 m., each addit. pers. 40 pf. ; 
to Walporzheim, Marienthal, or Neuenahr, one-horse (for 1-3 pers.) l'/s, 
two-horse (4-5 pers.) Wjitn.; to Altenahr 5 or 7 m., there and back within 
seven hours 7 or 10, spending the whole day 10 or 13, passing the night 
there 14 or 18 m. ; to Adenau 12 or 15, there and hack 15 or 18 m. ; to the 
Laacher See 13 or 16 m., there and back 17 or 22 m, 

Ahrweiler (340 ft.), the terminus of the railway, is a thriving 
little town with 4000inhab., surrounded by old walls, and carrying 
on an active trade in wine. In the middle ages it belonged to the 
Electorate of Cologne, and was repeatedly besieged during the feud 
between the chapter of the cathedral, to which it adhered, and the 
deposed archbishops. In 1646 and 1680 the town was besieged by 
the French, by whom in 1689 it was entirely burned with the ex- 
ception of ten houses. The Gothic Church of St. Lawrence, founded 
in 1245, dates partly from the 14th and the end of the 15th cen- 
tury. Fine view from the Calvarienberg, a rocky height l fe M. to 
theS., on the right bank of the Ahr, crowned with a Franciscan 
monastery, dating from 1678, but occupied since 1838 by a girls' 
school managed by Ursuline nuns. 

Ahrweiler lies near the entrance to the narrower part of the Ahr 
Valley, which is one of the most picturesque districts on the Rhine 
and especially well suited for walkers (to Altenahr 7^2 M.). The 
contraction of the valley begins at Walporzheim (*St. Peter, with 
garden, good wine), 3 /i M. from Ahrweiler, a place mentioned un- 
der the name of Walpredeshoven in a document of 893, and long 
celebrated for its wine. 

The road now enters a rocky ravine, flanked by jagged and riven 
cliffs of slate ; on the left rushes the Ahr, on the right rises an 


84 Route U. LOCHMUHLE. Ahr Valley. 

almost perpendicular black wall of slate-rock, from which a single 
ridge called the 'Bunte KuK projects. At the top is a small belve- 
dere (Refreshments), which commands an admirable view, espe- 
cially by evening-light, and may be reached either from Ahrweiler 
or Walporzheim. To the right of the road, are the ruins of the nun- 
nery of Marienthal (l^M.), near the hamlet of that name. 

Beyond (^M.) Dernau (*Brenig, plain) a footpath, destitute of 
shade, but preferable to the dusty high-road, diverges and follows 
the bank of the Ahr, passing (but not crossing) an old stone bridge, 
and traversing a more open part of the valley, to (l^M.) Rech, 
where the valley again contracts. The Ahr winds through a wild, 
rocky district. The road follows the course of the stream, rounding 
the precipitous Saffenburg, to (II/4 M.) Mayschoss and the (}{% M.) 
Lochmuhle (see below). 

The Kraus, l'/2 hr. to the S. of Dernau, the highest mountain in the 
vicinity, commands an extensive prospect, reaching as far as Cologne. 

The pedestrian may prefer the following route from Rech to the 
Lochmuhle, which is not longer than the above (l 3 /4 M.). Near 
the bridge (on the right bank), a path ascends to the right through 
the vineyards (closed from the end of August tili the end of the 
vintage) to the top of the hill, on which stand the fragments of 
the Saffenburg (846 ft.), the view from which is picturesque, 
although limited. The castle was captured by the French in 1702 
and destroyed by the Imperial troops in 1704. On the W. side of 
the Saffenburg the path descends rapidly to the road at the bridge 
of Mayschoss, near the Lochmuhle. 

The Lochmuhle (*iwi, R., B., & S. 3^2 m-) lies at the en- 
trance of a deep cutting through the projecting grauwacke rocks, in 
which an oblique vein of basalt, 2^2 ft- thick, is perceptible. The 
valley is narrow, and the Toad is partly hewn in the rock, and 
partly supported by masonry on the brink of the stream. 

The road next passes the hamlets of Laach and Reimerzhofen, 
at the latter of which, 1 M. from the Lochmuhle, pedestrians should 
ascend a path through the vineyards to the right (see below). The 
road remains in the valley and soon reaches the Durchbruch, a tunnel 
about 70 yds. long, constructed in 1830-33, by means of which the 
circuit of II/2 M. described by the valley is cut off. At the end of 
the tunnel, 3/ 4 M. from Reimerzhofen and 2 M. from the Lochmuhle, 
lies the ancient village of Altenahr (*Caspari; *Rheinischer Hof), 
situated amidst very picturesque scenery , and the finest point in 
the valley of the Ahr. The prettily situated Romanesque church 
has a Gothic choir. Pleasing view from the churchyard. 

It is, however, much preferable to quit the road at Reimerzhofen, 
and ascend the above-mentioned path to the right through vineyards 
(closed during the vintage) to the so-called * Weisse Kreuz ('white 
cross'; 1/4 hr.), visible from the road. It stands on a rocky ridge, 361 ft. 
above the stream, and commands a strikingly picturesque view, sur- 

Ahr Valley. CASTLE OF ALTENAHB. 14. Route. 85 

passing that from the castle of Altenahr, as the latter itself forms 
the foreground of the wild, rocky landscape. The path descends on 
the other side to Altenahr in 8 minutes. 

The *Castle of Altenahr (892 ft. ahove the sea-level; 371 ft. 
above the village), the ruins of which are perched like an eagle's 
nest on a hold, jagged cliff, rising immediately above the village, 
was once the seat of the powerful Counts of the Are and afterwards 
of the Counts of Hochstaden, of whose elder branch Conrad, Arch- 
bishop of Cologne, the founder of the cathedral of Cologne in 1248, 
was the last scion. The castle, which is said to have existed as 
eaily as the 10th cent. , was considerably strengthened by the 
Electors of Cologne in the 14th and 15th; it fell into the hands of 
the French in 1672 and again in 1690, and was finally destroyed in 
consequence of the Peace of Utrecht (1714). On one occasion when 
the castle was captured, the chivalrous Count von ATe is said to 
have thrown himself down the precipice adjoining the principal 
tower to avoid being taken prisoner. Admission 30, for a single 
visitor 50 pf. (custodian generally at the ruin in summer). 

Another excellent point of view is the *Horn, above Altenahr : 
to Altenburg, 3/ 4 M., thence to the pavilion with a guide, an ascent 
of 3 /4 hr. 

The scenery of the Ahrthal is most striking when approached by the 
Euskirchen road (comp. p. 181). 

There are also several picturesque points in the valley of the Ahr 
above Altenahr (diligence daily to Adenau, Kelberg, Uelmen, Cochem, etc.). 
One of the best views is obtained from the bridge over the Ahr : to the 
left are the rugged rocks of the Teufeltkanzel (Devil's Pulpit); then the 
grand mass of rocks known as the Alle Burg (old castle), with the ham- 
let of Altenburg; on a bold eminence near Kreuzberg rises a picturesque 
chateau. Another fine point of view is the hill beyond the village of 
Piltzfeld, about 3'/s M. from Altenahr. About >/2 M. farther on is Srilck 
(Nachtsheim), at the entrance to the picturesque rocky Ketselinger Thai, 
through which a carriage-road leads to (8V2 M.) Kaltenborn (Langenfeld ; 
hence to the Hohe Acht i /-i hr.), etc. The road through the Ahrthal next 
passes Hbrmingen and Lien , and reaches (4 M.) Dumpelfeld (see below). 
— Our road here quits the Ahr and leads to (4'/2 M.) — 

I2V2M. (from Altenahr) Adenau (960 ft.; * Halber Mond ; Krone; Lome), 
the principal village of the district, with 1400 inhab., near which rise two 
basaltic peaks, the highest points in the Eifel. The nearer of these is the 
Niirburg (2181 ft.), IV2 hr. to the S., surmounted by a ruined castle men- 
tioned as early as 943, with a lofty tower commanding a beautiful pano- 
rama (ascent from Quiddelbach, on the Kelberg road, 3 M. from Adenau, 
turning to the left beyond the village, 20 min ; key of the tower at the 
inn). The "Hohe Acht (2410 ft.), 2 hrs. to the E., commands an even 
more extensive view over the Eifel as far as the mountains of the Rhine, 
and even the cathedral of Cologne. At the top is a small refuge-hut. Guide 
from Adenau l-l'/2 m. 

On the Ahr, which the road quits at Diimpel/eld (see above), there 
are two other fine points : Schuld, 3 M. to the W. of Dumpelfeld, and the 
ruined castle of Aremberg, the ancestral seat of the Dukes of Aremberg, 
near Antweiler (Neubusch). Antweiler lies 6 M. to the W. of Adenau. 
Diligence from Adenau to (IS 1 /* M.) Blankenheim (p. 181) once daily in 
4>/s hrs. (fare 3 m.). The new road through the valley is nearly completed. 


15. From Andernach to Mayen. Brohlthal. Laacher 


Comp. Map, p. 56. 

The Laacher See may be visited either from Medermendig (1 hr.) or 
from Brohl (3 hrs.). Distances: from Brohl to Tonnisstein 3'/2 M., Was- 
senach 2>/2, Abbey of Laach 3, Niedermendig 3 M. 

Carriage Tariff. From Andernach via Niedermendig, Laach, and Ton- 
nisstein to Brohl 19>/2 m. ; to Laach Abbey in 2 hrs., thence to Brohl in 
2 hrs. more. — From Brohl to Tonnisstein, one-horse 3, two-horse 5, there 
and back 5 or 8 m. ; to Laach 8 or 11, there and back 10 or 13>/2 m. ; per 
day 11 or 16 m. — From Niedermendig (Job. Honer) to Laach 4 or 6 ; Ton- 
nisstein 7 or 9 ; Brohl 10 or 15 m. Omhibds from Niedermendig to Laach 1 m. 

From Andeknach to Maybn, 14 M., branch-railway in 1 hr. 
(fares 2, 1%, 1 m. ; to Niedermendig in 3 / 4 hr., 1 m. 20, 90, 60 pf.). 

Andernach, see p. 61. 4 M. Plaidt ; the village (360 ft. ; Zillien) 
lies a little to the S. of the station. In the vicinity are extensive 
trass-mines (comp. p. 87). 

The valley of the Nette, a stream which joins the Rhine opposite Neu- 
wied (p. 62), contains a number of picturesque points. From the station 
of Plaidt, leaving the village to the right, we reach in 1/4 hr. the "Rausche- 
miihle, where the Nette is precipitated over blocks of lava, forming a 
series of small cascades. The rich vegetation enhances the beauty of the 
scene. Tastefully kept walks (to which visitors are admitted) unite the 
principal points of view. Good restaurant. — The valley of the Nette here 
contracts and runs towards the S. On a rock rising abruptly from the 
Nette, IV2 M. farther up, stands the ruin of "'Wernerseck (560 ft.), with a 
well-preserved tower. The regular, barren streaks of lava on the upper 
slopes of the valley, the lower parts of which are covered with vegetation, 
form a peculiar feature of the scenery. Those who do not intend to return 
hence to Plaidt may proceed direct from Wernerseck between the Korrets- 
berg and Plaidter Hummerich to (2 M.) Krvfl (see below). 

The hills which are now visible on both sides of the line are all 
extinct volcanoes : to the right are the Nickenicher Weinberg and 
the Krufter Ofen (1538 ft. ; with a fine view of the Laacher See, 
1 M. distant) ; to the left, the Plaidter Hummerich (968 ft.), with 
its saddle-like summit, and the Korretsberg (984ft.). — 6 M. Kruft 
(Werle). Farther on, to the left, rises the Tonchesberg. In the 
distance, also to the left, in the plain, is the Frauenkirche, or church 
of St. Oenovefa, where according to the legend the saint was found 
by her husband Siegfried, Count Palatine of Hohensimmern. The 
church contains monuments of both. Numerous mineral springs 
bubble up on the road-side, near the brook which crosses the road, 
the water of which is now bottled and exported. 

9'/2 M. Niedermendig (Schmitz), a village with 2300 inhab., 
famous for the extensive *Quarries of Basaltic Lava in its neigh- 
bourhood. The subterranean strata, occupying an area 3 M. in 
length and l!/ 2 M. in breadth, extend to the Krufter Ofen (see 
above), but the lava-stream, which was probably ejected by the 
Hochstein (1772 ft., to the W.), is thickest at Niedermendig. The 
quarries, which are chiefly under ground , and were probably once 
worked by the Romans, are almost all connected, and communicate 
with the surface of the earth by means of wide shafts. The roof is 

MAYEN. 75. Route. 87 

supported by massive pillars left for the purpose. The descent is 
by narrow flights of steps. A guide (1 m.) precedes visitors -with a 
torch ; the inspection occupies an hour. The temperature in these 
mines is so low that even in summer masses of ice are seen in all 
directions. The hardness and durability of the lava adapt it ad- 
mirably for millstones, as well as for paving and building purposes. 
The deserted galleries are used as beer-cellars, to which the beer of 
Niedermendig is chiefly indebted for its reputation. — Omnibuses 
and carriages meet all the trains to convey travellers to the (3 M.) 
Laacher See (p. 88). The second half of the Toute, after the in- 
tervening hills have been crossed, affords a charming view of the 
lake and the fine abbey-church. 

The train continues to wind its way among hills. — l^/a M. 
Cottenheim (May"). To the Tight is the Mayener Bellenberg, beyond 
which rises the Ettringer Bellenberg (see below"). 

14 M. Mayen (780 ft. ; *Kohlhaas, in the market-place), a dis- 
trict-town with 6800 inhab., possesses a late-Gothic church and a 
castle built in 1280 and still partly preserved. To the N. of the 
station are several lava-quarries, but nearer the surface than those 
already mentioned, and some of them partially open. 

The lava-bed in which they are worked is the outlet of the ancient 
volcano of Ettringer-Bellenberg (1407 ft.), l>/ 2 M. to the N. of Mayen. The 
E. side of the crater commands a fine view of the fertile plain between 
Mayen and Andernach, and of the Rhine Valley. A more extensive view 
is enjoyed from the Hochsimmer (1883 ft.), ascended from Mayen in I1/2 hour. 

About 3 M. to the N.W. of Mayen, beyond St. Johann, is situated the 
well-preserved turretted chateau of 'Biirresheim, on a hill partially sur- 
rounded by the Nette. It is mentioned in history as early as the 12th 
cent., and now belongs to a Count Renesse-Breitbach. — About 3>/2 M. to 
the S.W. of Mayen is Monreal (Kircher), charmingly situated in the Eltz- 
thal, with two ruined castles, the larger and more modern of which dates 
from 1229. — A pleasant round may be made from Mayen as follows : to 
the Hochsimmer, i'/iz hr. ; St. Johann and Biirresheim, '/4 hr. ; then across 
a bridge below Biirresheim and through the first wooded valley to Ciir- 
renberg, 3 /* nI \ ; thence by Beudelsterz to Monreal, 1 hr. ; back to Mayen, 
l>/4 hr. 

From Brobx to the Laacher Sbb, 9 M. (carriage, see p. 86). 

Brokl (p. 61 ; 184 ft. above the sea) lies at the mouth of the 
Brohlthal, a deep winding valley, enclosed by wooded moun- 
tains, and enlivened with numerous mills and houses. An object 
of great interest is the extensive stratum of Tufa, 50-100 ft. in 
thickness , of which the floor of the valley consists , and above 
which rise slopes of Devonian slate (p. xviii). This tufa is an 
important article of commerce, and is extensively excavated from 
quarries and mines on both sides of the valley. When pounded 
('trass') and mixed with lime it possesses the invaluable property 
of hardening under water, and is largely exported to Holland for 
the construction of dykes. Numerous springs strongly impregnated 
with carbonic acid gas, near the Laacher See, and especially in the 
Brohlthal, still afford indication of slumbering volcanic agency. 

88 Route 15. LAACHER SEE. 

The road which ascends the valley, skirting the Brohlbach, is 
flanked on both sides with numerous tufa quarries, some of which 
are open, while others are driven like mining-shafts into the hill. 
After 2 M. , in the middle of the valley, rises the small castle of 
Schweppenburg (311 ft.), probably erected in the 16th century. 
The garden contains a Roman altar found here. 

The Heilbkunner Thal, which diverges here to the S. ; contains the 
Heilbrunnen (384 ft.), a mineral spring of saltish, hut refreshing taste, sim- 
ilar to the Kreuzbrunnen of Marienbad. 

About i l li M. from Schweppenburg, a road diverges to the left 
through a side-valley to the Laacher See ; the main road to the right 
leads to Olbriick (see below). By the former we soon reach Bad Ton- 
nisstein (410 ft.), the water of which, strongly impregnated with 
carbonic acid, resembling that of Selters, was collected in a tank as 
early as 1700. Passing travellers find good accommodation during 
the season at the Curhaus (R. , L. , & A. 2 m. , B. 80 pf. ; table 
d'hote at 1 p.m.). 

The road through the Brohl Valley leads on to (1 M.) Burgbrohl (480 ft. ; 
"Bell), picturesquely situated, with an old castle, once the seat of a fa- 
mily of that name. The road next passes (3 M.) Nieder-Zissen, at the foot 
of the Bausenberg, which rises to the N. of the village. The summit of 
this hill forms the most perfectly defined crater of those in the vicinity 
of the Laacher See; the inner margin consists of precipitous slag-rocks, 
80 ft. in height, opening towards the N.W. The hollow is occupied by 
a farm. 

The next places are (1V4 M.) Ober-Zissen, (1 M.) Ham, and (1 M.) the 
castle of ^Olbriick (1552 ft. ; now the property of Herr von Ekespare), one 
of the highest points in this district, with an extensive view of the vol- 
canic peaks of the Eifel, the hills towards the Khine (with Cologne) and 
the Seven Mts. The peak on which it stands consists of clink-stone or 
phonolite, also a volcanic product. The castle was destroyed by the French 
in 1689. From Olbriick to the abbey of Laach, via, Engeln, 8 M. — From 
Nieder-Zissen (see above), a road leads past the volcanic peak ( 3 /4 hr.) of 
Herchenberg (1063 ft.), (25 min.) Ober-Liltzingen, and (25 min.) Nieder- 
Liitzingen, to (40 min.) the castle of Rheineck (p. 60), where we reach the 
Rhine, a walk of about l l fa M. in all. — From Nieder-Zissen to Neuenahr 
(p. 82), about 12 M. 

The road to the Laacher See diverges to the right below the Cur- 
haus, before the bridge is crossed, passes (y 3 M.) the ruins of the 
(1.) Carmelite monastery of Antoniusstein (hence the corruption 
'Tonnisstein'), again ascends to the right to (1% M.) Wassenach 
(915 ft.; poor inn), and then descends through wood towards the 
Laacher See. On the right rises the wooded Veitskopf (1381 ft.), a 
volcanic peak with a double crater opening on the W. , and a broad, 
abruptly inclined lava stream. The view hence of the lake sur- 
rounded by wooded hills is very striking. 

The *Laacher See (902 ft.) occupies a nearly circular basin, 
l 2 /3 M. in diameter, and 5 M. in circumference, and is about 
175 ft. deep in the middle. It is the largest of the crater-like tarns 
of the Eifel (p. 185), and, although not itself a crater, has doubtless 
been formed by volcanic action. The road skirts the W. bank of 
the lake. 

LAACH. 15. Route. 89 

The volcanic formations for which the Vorder-Eifel is remarkable 
occur here in very great variety, and the lake itself has obviously been 
the central point of the volcanic activity of this neighbourhood. It is 
surrounded by five craters : the Veitskopf (p. 88), the Laacherkopf (1508 ft.), 
the Laacher RotheUrg (1672 ft.), the Tellberg (1328 ft.), and the Krufter 
Of en (p. 86). Upwards of forty different streams of lava, the chrono- 
logical order of which has been established with more or less precision, 
have been counted in the environs of the lake. There also occur ex- 
tensive masses of tufa of various kinds , particularly in the valleys de- 
scending towards the Rhine, as at Plaidt and Kruft (where it is called 
Duckstein), and in the Brohlthal. The older theory, which Oeynhausen 
was one of the last to maintain , was that these deposits of tufa were 
emitted from the volcanoes in the form of mud ; but more recent investi- 
gations (by Humboldt, Noggerath, and Dechen) tend to show that the 
tufa, as well as the extensive beds of pumice-stone in this region (p. 64), 
was gradually formed by showers of volcanic matter. 

Oeynhausen's geognostic-orographic maps of the neighbourhood of the 
Laacher See (Berlin, 1847) and Dr. v. Dechen's geognostic guide to the 
Laacher See (Bonn, 1864) are recommended to scientific travellers. 

On the S.W. bank rises the Benedictine Abbey of *Laach, 
founded in 1093 by Count Palatine Henry II. , and secularised in 
1802, once one of the wealthiest and most celebrated in Germany. 
In 1863 it became the property of the Jesuits, who established a 
school here for pupils of the order, but were compelled to abandon 
it, in consequence of the law of 1872 excluding Jesuits from the 
Empire of Germany. The *Church (now the property of govern- 
ment), completed in 1156, with dome, five towers, and crypt, is a 
noble example of the Romanesque style, being most impressive 
externally (p. xxviii). The beautiful *Porch in front of the W. facade, 
restored in 1859, belongs to the close of the 12th century. The 
vaulting in the interior deviates from the usual style in having its 
longitudinal sections in the nave no broader than those in the 
aisles. The curious monument of the founder, a sarcophagus with 
a recumbent figure, beneath a hexagonal canopy supported by col- 
umns, dates from the end of the 13th century. The two front 
columns are monoliths of variegated 'calcsinter', found in the Ro- 
man aqueduct through the Eifel Mts. On the road-side, outside 
the monastery walls , is the Hotel Maria Laach (R. 2V 2 , D. 272) 
'pension' 5 m.), where the keys of the church may be obtained. 

On the E. side of the lake, nearly opposite the abbey, is another ex- 
tensive building, erected by the Jesuits. Near it, about 20 ft. above the 
water, is a i tnofelte\ a hollow 7 ft. in width, and 3-4 ft. in depth, whence 
a stream of carbonic acid gas (most preceptible in wet weather) constantly 
issues. The suffocating nature of the lower strata of the air in this hol- 
low may be tested by stooping down and attempting to breathe it. 

After an inundation in the 12th cent, had threatened the abbey lands 
with destruction, the Benedictines sank a shaft on the S. side of the lake, 
by which the superfluous water was conducted to the Nette. A similar 
shaft, constructed in 1845, lowered the level of the lake 20 ft. 

A pleasant excursion may be made from Laach via Bell to the top of 
the (f/2 hr.) Gansehals (1873 ft.), which commands an extensive view of 
the Laacher See, the Pellenz, the mountains of the Rhine and the Moselle, 
Olbriick and the Seven Mts. to the N., etc. From Bell to Niedermendig 
by Obermendig C'Spitzlay, plain), 1 hr. On the way interesting view to 
the right of the Ettringer Bellenberg (p. 87), the volcanic character of 
which is clearly discernible from this side. 

16. Coblenz and Ehrenbreitstein. 

Kailway Stations. Coblenz and Ehrenbreitstein (p. 96) together 
possess three railway-stations. 1. Station of the Rhenish Railway at Coblenz 
(PI. A, 2, 3) for the railway on the Left Bank of the Rhine, and for the 
trains to Ehrenbreitstein (comp. p. 68). — 2. Moselbahnhof (PI. A , 4, 5), 
at the foot of the Karthause, ty, M. from the town, for the Moselle railway 
(E. 25) and the Lahn railway (E. 27) ; the trains of the Left Bank also 
stop here. Cab from either of these stations into the town, 1-2 pers. 
75 pf., 3-4 pers. l'/j m., with two horses lm. or l'/ 2 m., box 10 pf. — 
3. Station of the Rhenish Railway at Ehrenbreitstein (PI. E, 2), for the rail- 
way of the Eight Bank; it is nearer to the Coblenz hotels situated on 
the Ehine than either of the other stations, but the hotel-omnibuses are 
not sent to meet the trains. Cab with one horse to Coblenz, 1-4 pers., 
l'/2 m. ; with two horses 2 m. ; bridge-toll 45-60 pf. extra. 

Hotels. On the Rhine: *Giant (PI. a; D, 2), "Bellevde (PI. b; D, 2), 
two houses of the first class and expensive. ,! Ankek (PI. c; 6,2), R., L., 
& A., from 2 m., B. 1 m., D. 3»/s m.; Traube (PI. g; D, 2), in the Ehein- 
Strasse, near the Ehine. — In the Town: "Hotel de Treves (PI. d; C, 3), 
Clemens-Platz , first-class. Hotel de Liege (PI. e ; B, 2) , not far from 
the station and the Moselle pier, E. and B. 2 m. 50 pf. ; Wildes Schwein 
(PI. f; B, 2), in the Plan; Berliner Hof, near the Rhenish station, un- 
pretending. — Pensions. Ernen (frequented by English visitors) and Beau- 
sijour, both beautifully situated on the Ehine Promenade. 

Cafes. * Trinkhalle (PI. C, 5) on the Ehine Promenade, military music 
on Thursday afternoons; Rhein- Pavilion , on the Ehine Wharf, in sum- 
mer only. Hubalek, opposite the post-office (PI. C, 3) ; Hermann, Gerichts- 
Str. 6. Beer in all. — Wine. Tillmann, Unter'm Stern, at the N. end of the 
Kornpfort-Str. (PI. C, 3), with restaurant, with a view of the Moselle ; Scheid, 
in the Fruchtmarkt; Casino (PI. 4), introduction by a member. — Beer. 
Dotzler, Gemiisegasse; Kratz, Miinz-Platz; Moos, near the Mainzer Thor. 
— Confectioners. Schaaf, Firmung-Str. ; Laibacher, Clemens-Str. 

Baths in the Ehine (PI. E, 2), attached to the bridge-of-boats (bath 
50 pf.). Swimming-bath (PI. E, 1,2) in the Ehine, a little below the bridge; 
single bath 50 pf. — Warm at Fischer's, Lohr-Str. 85, near the station, and 
at Hensler's, Castorhof. 

Post Office (PI. 30; C. 3), at the corner of the Clemens-Platz. 

Telegraph Office, Schloss-Str. 13. 

Carriages. (Stands on the Rhine, near the bridge-of-boats ; in the Schloss- 
Rondell, PI. C, 3, 4 ; and at the stations.) One-horse : per drive within the 
town , to Liitzel-Coblenz (PI. B , 1) , to the Eondel on the Mainzer 
Chaussee (PI. C, 6) , or to the foot of the Karthause (PI. A , 5) , or to or 
from the Coblenz stations, 1-2 pers. 75, 3-4 pers. 1 m. ; luggage, 10 pf. for 
each heavy package ; to Capellen (Stolzenfels), or Niederlahnstein, or Vallen- 
dar 3 m., there and back with stay of 2 hrs. 5 m.; to Pfaffendorf or the 
Laubbach Vfy m., there and back with stay of 2 hrs., 3'/2 m. ; Schone Aussichl 
on the Karthause (p. 94) 3 m., there and back, with stay of 2 hrs., 4V2 m. ; 
fort of Ehrenbreitstein, or to the Asterstein, or to Arenberg 4 m., and back 
with 2 hrs. stay, 5 m. ; Horchheim 2 1 /! or 31/2 m. ; by time, for the 1st hr. 
2'/2 m., each additional 1/2 hr. 1 m. 25 pf. — Two-horse carriages about one- 
half more. Bridge-toll (45-60 pf.) saved by taking a carriage in Ehren- 
breitstein for excursions on the right bank. Double fares from 10 p.m. 
to 6 a.m. — Carriages from the hotels are dearer. 

Porterage of luggage from the steamboat to the hotel, each article 40 pf. 

English Church Service in the English Chapel in the Palace. 

Principal Attractions. Walk from the Holzthor through the Rhine 
Promenade to the (1 M.) Eondell, return as far as the Schenkendorf 
monument, follow the glacis to the left as far as the Mainzer Thor, enter 
by this gate, cross the Railway Bridge, ascend the Asterstein (p. 97), or 
Ehrenbreitstein (p. 96), and finally return by the bridge-of-boats , a walk 
of 3-3'/2 hrs. in all. — To obtain a glimpse at the town itself: walk from 
the steamboat-pier down the Ehine to the confluence of the Moselle, turn 

St. Castor. COBLENZ, 16. Route. 91 

to the left, enter the gate and visit St. Castor's Church (see below), then, 
if time permit, proceed to the Moselle Bridge (p. 92). 

Coblenz, at the confluence of the Moselle and Rhine, is the cap- 
ital of the Rhenish Province of Prussia and the seat of the civil 
and military authorities. Pop. 30,567; garrison 5000, Ehrenbreit- 
stein not included (see p. 96). Coblenz carries on an important 
wine-trade and manufactures large quantities of champagne, most 
of which is exported to England and the British Colonies. The 
town is surrounded with a wall, and the neighbouring heights of 
Ehrenbreitstein, the Asterstein, Karthause, and Petersberg are all 
strongly fortified with outworks. Few towns on the Rhine can vie 
with Coblenz in beauty of situation , standing as it does at the 
junction of two of the most picturesque rivers in Europe, and com- 
manding charming views in every direction. 

No ancient writers mention a Roman town on the site of the present 
Coblenz, and no remains have been found to give colour to such a belief. 
It appears to have been originally only a posting-station ('Ad Confluentes') 
on the great Roman road, and was not made a 'castrum', or fortress, till 
the 5th century. In 1864, when the Moselle was unusually low, numerous 
remains of a Roman bridge-of-piles were discovered below the Moselle 
bridge, probably dating from the 5th century. 

Down to the establishment of the Rhenish Towns' Confederation, 
Coblenz was a place of little importance. In the Thirty Years' War it 
was alternately besieged and garrisoned by Swedish, French, and Impe- 
rial troops. In 1688, although the town was nearly destroyed by the 
French cannonade, Marshal Boufflers was compelled to retreat without 
effecting an entry. On the completion of the palace in 1786 Coblenz 
became the residence of the Elector of Treves, but a few years later 
(1794) it was taken by the French, who in 1798 made it the capital of 
the Department of the Rhine and Moselle. On 1st Jan., 1814, the French 
were compelled by the allies to evacuate the town, and the following 
year it became Prussian. 

The side of the town towards the Rhine consists of a row of 
large buildings : the palace, government-offices, hotels, and dwel- 
ling-houses, and lastly the venerable church of St. Castor and the 
simple Gothic Teutonic Lodge (PI. 7), now a magazine, at the angle 
between the Rhine and the Moselle. 

The *Church of St. Castor (PI. 18 ; D, 1, 2), founded in 836, dates 
in its present form chiefly from the end of the 12th cent. , and was 
consecrated in 1208. It is a Romanesque basilica with four towers, 
terminating in a semicircular apse adorned with a gallery of small 
columns, and presents a picturesque appearance from the Rhine ; 
but from the quay itself it is concealed by the ugly town-wall. The 
W. portal was restored in 1862 in the style of the rest of the building. 

The "Interior (closed in the middle of the day), 62 yds. long and 
23 yds. wide, is roofed with rich Gothic groined vaulting, which was 
substituted in 1498 for the originally flat ceiling. The Choir is richly 
decorated with gilding and paintings. On the arch is the Coronation of 
Mary; in the apse the Trinity with saints, both by Settegast (1849); to 
the right the Adoration of the Child by Qassen (1871). Under this is 
the Monument of Archbishop Werner (d. 1418) of Treves, in a Gothic sar- 
cophagus-niche. Opposite (N. side) is the much more important * Monu- 
ment of Archb. Kuno von Falkenttein (d. 1388 ; see p. 104), also in a Gothic 
sarcophagus-niche with fresco (Adoration of the Saviour, on the right 
St. John and St. Castor, on the left the archbishop kneeling, Mary, and 

92 Route 16. COBLENZ. Moselle Bridge. 

Peter), ascribed to the old master Wilhelm of Cologne (p. 25). The Tran- 
sept contains sixteen early German oil-paintings , executed about 1500. 
The N. Aisle, with frescoes by Kindler, contains a modern Monument of 
St. Siza, who according to tradition was a daughter of Louis the Pious. 

To the "W. of the church stands the Castor-Brunnen (PI. 6 ; 
D, 1), erected by the last French prefect in commemoration of the 
French oampaign against Russia, with the inscription : 'An 1812. 
MSmorable par la campagne contre les Busses. Sous le prefecturat 
de Jules Doazari. The Russian general St. Priest , who entered the 
town on 1st Jan. , 1814, with exquisite irony added the words : 
' Vu et approuve par nous Commandant Russe de laville de Coblence. 
Lei. jan. 1814\ 

Adjacent to the Castorplatz is the General-Commando (PI. 10), 
formerly the seat of the Counts of Leyen. During the French regime 
it was modernised. 

A few paces to the N. is the Schwanenthor (PL C, D, 1), passing 
through which we enter the narrow Moselstrasse, hounded by the 
town-wall on one side and by the mean-looking houses of the old 
town on the other. This leads us past the crane to the quay of the 
Moselle, whence a view of the bridge is obtained. To the left is the 
handsome jutting story of the Kaufhaus (see p. 93). We now pass 
under the bridge, and reach the Wolfsthor on the left. Enter- 
ing the town by this gate, and passing (r.) the Metternieher Hof, 
the birthplace of Prince Metternich, the Austrian Minister (b. 1773, 
d. 1859), we reach the *Moselle Bridge with its 14 arches, erected 
by Elector Baldwin about 1344, restored in 1440 (tower added in 
1832), which commands a line view of Ehrenbreitstein. Over it are 
conveyed the pipes which supply the town with water from the 
heights of Metternich, 2y 2 M. distant. A little farther up the river 
is the Railway Bridge. 

As the town is re-entered, the ancient Burg (PI. 3; B, 2), or 
Archiepiscopal Palace , erected in 1276 , stands on the left. The 
handsome staircase of the tower next the town dates from 1599. It 
was a favourite residence of Elector Lothar of Metternich, who here 
founded the Roman Catholic League in 1609, and is now a manu- 
factory of japanned tin-wares. 

The other churches are uninteresting. The Liebfrauenkirche 
(Church of Our Lady , PL 22) was founded in the 13th cent. , but 
not completed till 1431, and was restored in 1853. Gothic choir of 
1405, with modern stained glass. Handsome modern Gothic high- 
altar. Ancient tombstones in the "W. vestibule. — The Carmeliten- 
kirche (PL 21 ; D, 2), erected in 1673, and thoroughly restored in 
1853, is fitted up as a garrison-church. The choir contains a large 
picture by Anschuez, representing the Virgin with SS. Maurice, 
George, Barbara, and Joseph, the patron-saints of infantry, cavalry, 
artillery, and engineers. — The (Prot.) Florinskirche (PL 19) was 
built at the beginning of the 12th cent., hut has been frequently 
altered : the choir was added after 1356. 

Palace. COBLENZ. 16. Route. 93 

In the Florinsmarkt , in the comer next the Florinskirche, is 
the Kaufhaus (Merchants' Hall, PI. 16), with its octagonal corner- 
turrets and elegant jutting story (towards the Moselle, p. 92), erected 
in 1479 as a town-hall, and used as such till 1805. It was seriously 
injured during the siege of 1688, and restored in a tasteless fashion. 
A bearded figure below the clock , the cognisance of the town of 
Coblenz, rolls its eyes at every stroke of the pendulum, and opens 
its mouth at every full hour. Several old houses with oriel-win- 
dows, such as the 'Vier Thiirme' at the corner of the Lohr-Strasse 
and the Alte Graben (PI. B,2), are also interesting. 

A striking contrast to the narrow and winding streets of the 
quarter containing the buildings above described is afforded by the 
spacious and regular Neustadt, the S. part of the town, with its 
large open squares planted with lime trees, the whole of which has 
sprung up since the last quarter of the 18th century. 

The centre of the Clemens-Platz (PI. C, 3) is embellished by 
the Clemensbrunnen, a fountain-obelisk 65 ft. in height, fed by 
the water-pipes above mentioned. — Opposite is the Theatre (PI. 
37), built at the end of last century, and containing a small Picture 
Gallery (Sun. 11-1). — The road to the E., passing the Festungs- 
bauhof (PI. 9) , leads to the Holzthor (p. 94). Adjacent are the 
Begierunysgebaude (PI. 32), or government-offices, and the new 
Courts of Justice (PI. 8; Dicasterialgebaude), two large buildings in 
the German Renaissance style. 

The Palace (PI. 34; D, 4), a large building of no architectural 
merit, with a lofty Ionic portico, was erected by Clemens Wenceslaus 
(p. 162), last Elector of Treves, in 1778-86, and occupied by him 
till 1794. The French converted it into a hospital and a barrack. It 
was afterwards restored by the Prussian government, and fitted up as 
a palace in 1845. The N. wing (on the left as the visitor approaches) 
contains the Palace Chapel, in. the Renaissance style, used as the 
Protestant church of the garrison. Over the altar is a large copy of 
Leonardo da Vinci's 'Last Supper'. Adjoining it is the English Chapel, 
which was liberally dedicated to the use of the English residents 
by the Princess of Prussia, now the Empress of Germany (chaplain 
supported by voluntary contributions). The upper apartments, to 
which a broad staircase ascends, are occupied in summer by the Em- 
press (visitors ring for the castellan in the lower corridor of the N. 
wing, near the entrance to the chapel; fee 1 m., more for a party). 

The Electoral Hall contains portraits of the last Electors of 
Treves, from Richard v. Greiffenklau (1511-31) to Clemens Wenceslaus 
(1768-1802); an album with portraits of distinguished persons connected 
with the town of Coblenz from 1792 to 1866, &c. ; and the writing-table of 
Frederick the Great. In the large Festsaal are busts of the royal fam- 
ily ; that of the empress was modelled by the crown-princess Victoria. — 
Several of the other apartments contain specimens of work done by 
the empress, her daughter the grand-duchess of Baden, and her daughter- 
in-law the crown-princess; also portraits of the royal family, Gobelins 
tapestry presented by Louis XVI. to Frederick the Great, several modern 
pictures bv Deschwanden, Settegast, &c, and gifts presented by the Rhenish 

94 Route 16. COBLENZ. Railway Bridges. 

towns on the occasion (1854) of the 'silver wedding-day' (25th) of the pre- 
sent emperor. All these rooms afford fine views of the Rhine, the hills of 
Pfaft'endorf, and Ehrenbreitstein. 

The handsome S. gates, the Mainzer-Thor (PL C, 4) and Lbhr- 
Thor (PI. A, B, 3) , serve as barracks. The glacis to the left, out- 
side the Mainzer Thor, leads in 5 min. to the Rhine Promenade 
(see below). Near the Mainzer Thor, within the town, is the approach 
to the *Bhenish Kailway Bridge (PL D, E, 4,5) over the Rhine, 
built in 1862-64, an elegant structure of three iron arches, each with 
a span of 106 yds. , resting on massive stone buttresses , and com- 
manding a beautiful view. A walk across this bridge and back by 
the bridge-of-boats is strongly recommended ; and the AsteTstein 
may also be ascended (p. 97). 

At the Holz- Thor (PL D, 3) begins the beautiful *Bhine Pro- 
menade (PL C, 5, 6), extending along the river nearly as far as 
the Laubbach (see below). These grounds (Rhein-Anlagen), which 
were tastefully laid out under the auspices of the Empress Augusta, 
should be visited for the sake of the charming views they command. 
To the left, above the railway-bridge, at the end of the glacis (Y 4 M. 
from the Mainzer Thor, see above), rises a lofty Column, with an 
inscription commemorating the construction of the bridge. On the 
right is a bust of the poet Max von Schenkendorf (PL 33; D, 4), 
who died at Coblenz in 1817. Farther from the town a number of 
villas and summer-houses extend along the bank of the river. 
Among them is a cafe called the Trinkhalle (PL C, 5 ; p. 90). The 
grounds terminate opposite the island of Oberwerth (p. 98), IV2M. 
from the Holzthor, at the point where the Berlin and Metz railway 
crosses the arm of the river between the island and the mainland 
by an embankment. 

The *Bailway Bridge ('■Staatsbahn-Brucke'), which spans the 
wider arm of the river, between Oberwerth and the E. bank, was 
constructed by Altenloh in 1877-79, and is 1300 ft. long. It con- 
sists of three brick arches, each 80 ft. in span, and of two light and 
elegant iron arches, each with a span of 350 ft. Except at night and 
during very foggy or stormy weather it is open to pedestrians, who 
enjoy from it an admirable *View in all directions. The bridge 
reaches the E. bank at the lower end of Horchheim (p. 98) , l fe M. 
below the station of the Right Rhenish railway at the upper end 
(p. 191), and I1/2 M. above the bridge-of-boats at Coblenz. 

Beyond the embankment at the upper end of the Promenade (see above) 
a pleasant path leads along the river to the C/2 M.) mouth of a small 
valley, in which lies the hydropathic establishment of Laubbach (now clos- 
ed), 2 M. from the Mainzer Thor by the high-road (carr., seep. 90). — An- 
other footpath, turning to the left at the entrance to the valley and 
again to the left beyond the buildings, leads to the C/4 hr.) '"Rittersturz, 
a height surmounted by a summer-house and commanding a beautiful view 
of Coblenz and Ehrenbreitstein (refreshments). Beyond the hut the path 
is continued till it joins the path ascending to the Kiihkopf from the valley 
above the hydropathic establishment (see below). 

The fortifications on the Karthause (528 ft.), a lofty plateau, 

Environs. C0BLEN2. 16. Route. 95 

lying between the Rhine and the Moselle, consist of Fort Alexander 
on the summit, and lower down Fort Constantine (PI. A, 5), which 
occupies the site of an ancient Carthusian monastery. The road to 
it passes the Staatsbahnhof (p. 90) and crosses the railway by a 
viaduct ; it then ascends the hill between the two forts and leads to 
the Hunsriicken. Charming view about half-way up ; in the fore- 
ground the rich plain of the Rhine and the island of Oberwerth ; 
in the background a semicircle of picturesque hills with the castles 
of Stolzenfels and Lahneck. This plateau, f/2 M. from Coblenz, 
employed as a military drilling ground, was occupied by an encamp- 
ment of 10,000 French prisoners of war in 1870-71. 

On the brink of the Karthause facing the Moselle , 150 paces S. 
of the military rifle - practice ground , is a small enclosed plat- 
form with seats ('SchoneAussicht), which affords a striking glimpse 
of the valley of the Moselle. The road to the N. along the brow 
of the hill, skirting the burial-place of the French prisoners who 
died in 1870-71, leads to a broad road planted with poplars, which, 
continuing nearly on the same level , and affording a succession of 
fine views , skirts Fort Alexander, passes above the picturesque 
Cemetery (PI. A, 5), where repose the remains of Max v. Schenken- 
dorf(j>. 94), and. joins the main road near Fort Constantine. This 
entire round is 4^2 M. in length. — The road descending to the left, 
*/t M. to thaN. of the Schone Aussicht, leads to Moselweis (p. 170). 
The Kiiflkopf (1230 ft. above the sea-level), the pine-clad N. outpost 
of the range of hills rising to the S. of the Karthause, commands an im- 
posing and peculiar view, embracing the Rhine and Moselle, the volcanic, 
peaks of the Vorder-Eifel (1.), and the hills enclosing the valley of the 
Rhine. The Kiihkopf is reached by several different routes. From the 
Karthause the broad Hunsriicken road ascends past a forester's house, to 
(l l /2 M.) a tree with a bench round it, where a finger-post indicates the 
way to the (20 min.) hut on the summit. About 3 /« 21. beyond the sign- 
post a carriage-road diverges to the right from the Hunsriicken road, 
and leads to the top in '/< hr. more. — The shortest route leads by the 
Rittersturz (p. 94), and can scarcely be missed; it ascends to the sign- 
post above mentioned in 3 /* br. — The most beautiful return-route for 
pedestrians descends to Gapellen, affording fine views of the Rhine and the 
Lahn, and passes the Auguttahoke and Stolzenfels (1 hr.). 

Beyond the Moselle Bridge rises the Petersberg, a slight emi- 
nence crowned by Fort Franz. At the E. base of the fort, l / 2 M. 
from the Moselle bridge (see Map of Environs), rises a blunted 
pyramid of lava to the memory of the French general Marceau, who 
fell at Altenkirchen in 1796, with a long French inscription ('soldat 
& 18 ans, general a 22 ans 1 ). His monument and remains were 
originally on the hill, but on the construction of the fortifications 
by Fred. "William III. were removed to their present site. Byron's 
well-known lines — 

'By Coblenz, on a gentle rise of ground, 

There is a small and simple pyramid, 

Crowning the summit of the verdant mound; 

Beneath its base are hero's ashes hid, 

Onr enemy, — but let not that forbid 

Honour to Marceau !' &e. 


refer to the monument in its original position. The French sol- 
diers who died in the prisoners' camp on the Petersberg in 1870-71 
are interred on the slopes behind the monument. 

Ehrenbreitstein and Asterstein. 

Cards of admission to Ehrenbreitstein (50 pf. each, proceeds destined 
for charitable purposes) may be procured in summer (1st Ap. - iilst Oct.) 
nt the office of the second commandant (formerly the Court of Law, PI. 40, 
E 2; entrance in the Hof-Str.). Visitors are received at the top and con- 
ducted over the fortress by a sergeant (50 pf. to 1 m.). Two hours suffice 
for the walk from Coblenz to the summit and back. 

View from the Asterstein (p. 9T) similar to that from Ehrenbreitstein. 
No permission necessary. 

A Bridge-of-Boais ([PI. D,E,2), about 400 yds. in length, connects 
Coblenz with Thai Ehrenbreitstein (Hotel zum Kbnig von Preussen), 
a small town with 3000 inhab., prettily situated in a valley between 
the heights crowned with the fortresses of Ehrenbreitstein and Aster- 
stein. Along the river runs the unsightly embankment of the Right 
Rhenish Railway (to Vallendar, Bendorf, etc. ; see pp. 69, 71). 

The road to the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein passes the office ot 
the sub - commandant (PI. 38; see above), the railway - station 
(PI. E, 2), and a handsome Renaissance building (PI. 39), erected 
by the Electors in 1747 as a residence for the governors, now 
used as a provision-magazine. Beyond the next gate the road di- 
verges to the right and ascends the hill in windings. The steps 
which ascend the Took direct from the Rhine, 575 in number, are 
now disused. 

Opposite the influx of the Moselle rises the majestic fortress of 
^Ehrenbreitstein, sometimes called the Gibraltar of the Rhine, sit- 
uated on a precipitous rock, 387 ft. above the Rhine, and 573 ft. 
above the sea, inaccessible on three sides, and connected with the 
neighbouring heights on the N. side only. The massive fortifica- 
tions, constructed in 1816-26 under the superintendence of General 
v. Aster, were long considered a marvel of military engineering. The 
* View from the top is one of the finest on the Rhine. It embraces 
the fertile valley of the Rhine from Stolzenfels to Andernach, and 
the numerous volcanic peaks of the Maifeld and the Eifel (p. 80). 
Far below are the Rhine and Moselle, and between them the trian- 
gular town of Coblenz. 

Whether this important military point was fortified by the Romans is 
uncertain. The Castle of Ehrenbreitstein is said to have been presented 
by the Frankish king Dagobert to the archbishops of Treves in 636, and 
their possession was confirmed by Emp. Henry II. in 1018. As it afforded 
them an excellent asylum in troublous times, they repeatedly strengthened 
and extended it, and about the middle of the 12th cent, their comman- 
dant added the ffillinstein, or Helfenstein, a castle on the lower S. pro- 
jection of the rock, which last name exists down to the present day. 

In the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries the castle was gradually converted 
into an extensive and powerful stronghold; and so important was it con- 
sidered, that its commandant had to swear allegiance to the emperor as 
well as to the princes of the country. The fortress has only thrice suc- 
cumbed to an enemy. On the first of these occasions it fell into the 

ASTERSTEIN. 16. Route 97 

hrads of the French in 1631 through the treachery of Elector Philip Chrii- 
topher. In 1637 the Imperial general Johann von Werth invested it with 
his troops , and the garrison was forced to capitulate through hunger. 
During the war of the French Revolution, Ehrenbreitstein was unsuccess- 
fully besieged four times, but on 27th Jan. 1799 it was surrendered by the gal- 
lant Col. Faber after all the provisions had been exhausted. In consequence 
of the Peace of Luneville the fortifications were dismantled. In accordance 
with the provisions of the second Peace of Paris, 15 million fr. were 
paid by the French to Prussia for the restoration of the works, but the 
sum expended on them has amounted to upwards of 24 million marks 

*Fort Asterstein, situated on the Pfaffendorfer Hohe, to the S. 
of Ehrenhreitstein , completes the fortifications of this bank of the 
Rhine. A projecting terrace on the N.W. side of the fort bears an 
Obelisk (PI. F, 4; fine view) to the memory of the soldiers of the 
8th army-corps who fell in the campaign of 1866. The Louisenthurm 
on the W. slope of the hill derives its name from the Grand-Duchess 
Louisa of Baden , daughter of the Emperor of Germany , who spent 
some of her early years at Coblenz. — The hill on which the obe- 
lisk stands may be reached in 20 min. from the bridge-of-boats. 
After crossing the latter we proceed in a straight direction to the 
end of the Kirch-Strasse (see PI. F, 2), and follow the road to the 
right. Where the latter turns to the left, a shorter route ascends 
by the steps to the right, crosses the road which leads up from the 
'Promenade' (PI. F, 3), and again ascends by steps. Half-way up, 
the Cafe Rheinlust, and beyond it the Louisenthurm (6ee above) are 
passed. We then follow the road to the summit. 

The following route is recommended to the traveller approaching 
from the railway -bridge. After crossing the bridge turn to the right, 
following the road to Pfaffendorf, and here take the road to the left, 
past the church, ascend the course of the brook, pass to the left under 
the railway, and gradually ascend the hill. On the height (•/« hr. from 
Pfaffendorf church) this road is quitted by a new road intersecting the for- 
tifications of the Glockenberg to the left (see Plan), and afterwards skirt- 
ing the brow of the hill and commanding a fine view of Coblenz. In 
12 min. more the Obelisk (see above) is reached. 

The post-road which ascends the valley at the back of the town of 
Ehrenbreitstein leads by Niederberg to (2 M.) Arenberg (Zum Rbthen Sahn), 
a village with a large new pilgrimage-church, the stations connected with 
which command a beautiful view. The road diverging to the right beyond 
Arenberg passes a forester's house and leads to (4'/2 M.) Ems (p. 191). 

Coblenz and Ehrenbreitstein were visited in 1774 by Goethe, who 
resided in the last house in Ehrenbreitstein on the left before entering the 
fortress , at that time the residence of the Chancellor de la Roche. The 
poet describes his visit in the 3rd part of his 'Fiction and Truth.' 

17. The Rhine from Coblenz to Mayence. 

Steamboat in 7>/2 (down in 43/4) hrs. ; piers at Oberlahnstein, Boppard, 
St. Goar, Bingen, Rudesheim, Eltville, and Biebrich; small-boat stations 
Capellen, Spay, Camp, Hirzenach, St. Goarshausen, Oberwesel, Caub, Bach- 
arach, Lorch, Niederheimbach, Geisenheim, Oestrich, and Walluf. An 
omnibus runs from Biebrich to Wiesbaden in connection with every boat 
in '/2 hr., fare 1 m. — From Coblenz to Mayence both banks of the river 
are Prussian. 

Distances: Coblenz to Capellen 4, Rhense 2, Niederspay (opposite 
Braubach) 1V«, Boppard l l /v, Salzig 3, Hirzenach 2V4, St. Goar S»/4, Ober- 

Baedekek's Rhine. 8th Edit. 7 

98 Route 77. CAPELLEN. From Coblenz 

wesel 51/2, Caub 3, Bacharach I1/2, Rheindiebach 1V», Lorch CNiederheim- 
bach) 3/4, Rheinstein 3*/,, Bingen 3, Geisenheim 3, Oestrich 3, EHVille 4, 
Walltif 3, Biebrich 2, Mayence 4, total distance 58 M. — Railway on 
the Left Bank see R. 19 ; on the Right Bank by Oberlahnstein and Riidesheim 
to Wiesbaden in 2 3 /4-3'/2hrs., see R. 20. 

Beyond the bridge-of-boats the steamer passes the palace on the 
right, and then passes under the Rhenish Railway Bridge. On the 
right extend the beautiful promenades of the W. bank, opposite 
which is the picturesque village of Pfaffendorf (Thomm), with its 
slender church-spire. 

On the right, a little farther on, lies the island of Oberwerth, 
which is connected with the W. bank by an embankment and with 
the E. by the handsome Railway Bridge mentioned at p. 94, below 
which the steamer passes. The buildings on the island, now pri- 
vate property, belonged to a nunnery suppressed by the French in 
1788. Beautiful retrospect as the vessel passes the upper end of 
the island. 

The vineyards ot (I. ^Korchheim (Holler) produce good red wine; 
the plain between this village and the mouth of the Lahn is remark- 
ably fertile. (1.) Hiederlaimstein {Hermann, Bender, at the sta- 
tion ; Bungartz, Noll, Doucque, well spoken of, all with gardens, the 
last above the Lahn bridge ), on the right bank of the Lahn, is the 
junction of the Railway of the Right Bank, the line to Coblenz, and 
the Lahn railway (RR. 20, 27). Below it, at the mouth of the 
Lahn, stands the solitary late-Romanesque Church of St. John, par- 
tially destroyed during the Thirty Years' War, but rescued from to- 
tal ruin in 1857. The village is said once to have extended as far 
as this point, when this venerable building was its parish-church. 
The Lahn is crossed near its mouth by an unsightly railway-bridge, 
and by another for the traffic of the road. 

r. Capellen (*Stohenfels, *Bellevue, both with gardens ; Fey ; 
Miiller's Restaurant ; carriages to Coblenz, see p. 90 ; boat to Cob- 
lenz 3 m. ; donkey to Stolzenfels 80 pf., there and back 1 m. 
20 pf. ; steamer to Oberlahnstein every hour, 20 or 10 pf.), a vil- 
lage consisting of a single row of houses facing the railway-em- 
bankment and the river, lies at the foot of the wooded hill which 
hears the royal chateau of Stolzenfels. The chateau is approached 
by a winding road of easy ascent (}/ t hr.), crossing a viaduct, and 
passing two Roman mile-stones. Beyond the Klause (now stabling), 
a drawbridge is crossed and the castle entered. 

The *Castle of StoIzenfelB (310 ft. above the Rhine), with a 
pentagonal tower 110 ft. high, was greatly strengthened, if not en- 
tirely built, by Arnold von Isenburg, Archbishop of Treves, in 1250, 
and was frequently a residence of the archbishops. Down to 1689, 
when it was destroyed by the French, it was garrisoned by the Elec- 
tors of Treves. In 1823 the ruin was presented by the town of 
Coblenz to Fred. William IV., when crown-prince, who caused it to 
be restored in accordance with the designs of Scldrikel, Stiller, and 

to Mayence. STOLZENFELS. 17. Route. 99 

Pertius. The chateau it now the property of the Emperor of Gerr 
many. , ....... 

The Ihikbiok is open, daily. In summer the number. of visitors is 
usually very large, and the custodian performs his functions as showman 
very rapidly (fee 50 pf., more for a party). 

We first enter the Gothic Ghapsl with its two' towers. It is decorated 
with; *Frescoes on a .gold ground by E. Z>eyer, representing, the, Crear 
tion, Fall, First Sacrifices, Ac. — On the external wsJI, above the gar- 
den-hall, is a fresco by Latimky: the Imp. 'Bupert' and* hitf"nejAew the 
Count of HohenzoUern visiting the Archbishop of Treves bit fltolaenfels, 
20th Aug., 1400., — In the Wihteb Gakden is, a browse statue of Sieg- 
fried, bj Harlwig., — Adjoining the entrance . flight 'of steps is. an anient 
sculptured chimney-piece with reliefs", bearing the arms of Cologne. — 
The walls of the Kraiire Bittbwaal are embellished with six 'Frescoes, 
by, Professor StiUc^ of Dijsseldorf, illustrative of the principal attributes 
of chivalry: 1. Faith: Godfrey 'de Bouillon at the Poly Sepulchre- after 
the conquest \tt 'Jerusalem ; 2. 'Justice V' Budolph'bf Hapsburg sitting in 
judgment- on> the robber knights; 3. Poetry: Minstrels accompanying King 
Philip of Swabiaand his queen Irene on a .nle^sura excursion on the 
Rhine; 4. Love: The Emp. Frederick II. welcoming his bride Isabella of 
England; 5. Loyalty: Hermann Von Siebeneichen , sacrificing his life to 
save the Emp. Fred. Barbarossa; 6. Bravery: The biiaa. King John of Bo- 
hemia at the battle of Cr^cy, — , The Gbosse Rittkbsaal contains a valu- 
able collection of goblets, armour, and, weapons. — In the lFspek Books 
a Winged picture -of the tradition of Toggenbu*g-by Bayer; Gutenbergj at 
three ^diflerent periods, by Herbig; a copy of the Dombild of Cologne 
(pi 30) by Bfskmhamp ; pictures on a gold ground by BeMeloff, represent- 
ing the altar of the order of the swan at Ansbach; about SO small. pic- 
tures by old masters, DUrer, Holbein, Van Dyck, Rembrandt, and others, an 
ancient Byzantine' cross, antique furniture, and other curiosities. 

' The *^ Vurw, which is, enjoyed to greatest perfection from the 
small S.W. tower (entrance to the right in the wort), is scarcely 
equalled by any other on the Rhine. 

• To the 6, rises the castle of itarkiburg, with Braiftmeh and Rhent be- 
low. In front of us is the castle of Lahneck, looking down on the grey 
towers and" walls of Oberlahntlein. On the other side of the Lahn is .Mt- 
t&erlahnsteia, and farther up the Lahn valley rises the Allerheiligenbergi 
with its pilgrimage-chapel. At the confluence of the Lahn and Bhine stands 
the Bomanesque Church of St. John. Farther down the Bhine is the is- 
land of Oberwerth, which is traversed by the new Bailway Bridge ; beyond 
it, the three arches of the old railway bridge. In the background the 
fortress of Ehrtnbreitttem, is one of the most conspicuous objects ; oppo- 
site to it is Fort Conttemiine, and between them Coble**; farther distant 
the heights of Vallendar. 

Two bridle-paths, diverging to the right from the Stolaenfels, road 
(one at the viaduct mentioned at n. 98 and the other, above the castle), 
lead to the *Augustah5he , a turf-hut commanding a magnificent view of 
Stolzenfels and the Bhine (there and back 174 hr.; donkey 2 ml)/ 

I. OberlalUMteiii (200 ft. ; *E6tcl WelUr, *H8tel Lahneck, tooth 
with garden and view, also 'pension'; *Rhein. Hlof; Deutsche* Rous ; 
Stadt Koln} steamboat hourly to Capellen, 20 or 10 pf.), a very 
ancient town with about 5000 inhab. , formerly belonging to the 
Electors of Mayence, and mentioned in a charter as early as 890v 
is surrounded with well-preserved walls, towers, and fosses, wbfci£ 
notwithstanding the sad havoc committed by the railway, still affow 
some idea of the appearance of a fortified town of the middle of the 
14th century. The 'handsome 8eMo»g M&rtimhwg at the upper end. 
of the town, containing an interesting court, once a residence of the 


100 Route 17. KONIGSSTUHL. From Coblenz 

Electors of Mayence, dates from 1394; the new part was built in 
1712. The Protestant Church, at the lower end of the town, was built 
by Zais in 1872-75. Two engine-works and foundries and several 
other manufactories bear witness to the rapid progress of Oberlahn- 
stein since the completion of the railways. It is also a busy depot 
of the iron-ores yielded by the mines on the Lahn (comp. p. 198), 
and possesses a large new harbour. 

On a rooky eminence behind Oberlahnstein rises the picturesque 
oastle of *Lahneck, mentioned for the first time in 1224, having 
probably been built by Archbishop Gerhard of Mayence. Accord- 
ing to an unfounded tradition , it was once in possession of the 
Knights Templar. The castle, which was destroyed by the French 
in 1688, has been recently restored with considerable taste. The 
pentagonal pinnacled tower commands a charming view, for which 
the morning light is most favourable. Gothic chapel. On seeing the 
ruin in 1774 Goethe composed his exquisite 'Geistes Gruss'. The 
castle may be reached either from Oberlahnstein (direct route, desti- 
tute of shade), or from the side next the Lahn, by a path beginning 
opposite the upper end of Niederlahnstein (p. 98). The view from 
the adjacent Mooshiitte is even finer than that from the castle. 

About 1^4 M. above Capellen, between the high-road and the 
Rhine , is the Konigsstuhl ('king's seat'), partially concealed by 
walnut-trees from the steamboat -passenger. It was originally 
erected in 1376 by theEmp. Charles IV., but at the end of last 
century had fallen to decay. In 1843 it was rebuilt, partly out 
of the old materials, by a patriotic society at Coblenz. The struc- 
ture is octagonal in shape, somewhat resembling a pulpit, 22 ft. in 
diameter, and 18 ft. in height. The Electors held their meetings 
on the stone seat on the top. The situation was chosen from its 
proximity to the dominions of the four Rhenish Electors , Braubach 
belonging to the Palatinate, Rhens to Cologne, Stolzenfels to Treves, 
and Lahnstein to Mayence. Here many emperors were elected, 
decrees issued, and treaties concluded. Near the Konigsstuhl is the 
Bhenser Mineralquelle, a mineral spring rising in the bed of the 
Rhine , which was known in the 18th cent, and re-discovered in 
1857 ; the water resembles that of Selters and is used as a table- 
beverage as well as medicinally. 

On the fertile bank of the Rhine opposite the Konigsstuhl, a 
small white chapel, near the S. gate of Oberlahnstein , is visible 
among the trees , where , on 20th Aug., 1400, the Rhenish Electors 
deprived the Bohemian king Wenzel of the imperial crown. On the 
following day they crossed to the Konigsstuhl , and elected Count 
Palatine Rupert HI. emperor in his stead. Adjacent is the Victoria- 
brunnen, a mineral spring. 

Above the Konigsstuhl ( 3 / 4 M.) lies the small town of (r.)Rhens 
[Konigsstuhl, with garden), once belonging to the Electorate of Co- 
logne, and still surrounded by the walls and fosses constructed in 

to Mayenee, BRAUBACH. 17. Route. 101 

1370 by 4«chW«fc*p Frederick III. of .Ckdognei: A footpath, to (l'hr.) 
Bopfwrdi ascends to the right at the way-poatj outside the S. gate 
(contp. p. 102). Oa the bank of the river, 1 M. above Eien» r is a 
cotton-Mill with a tall chimney. Beyond lt f BUTrmjpded by fruit- 
trees, is the small village of (r.) Brey. ,,, 

1. Sranbach(*JBAeinwcfierffo/ ? , 'pens.'SYg-im. ; Nas^mer Sofi; 
*Deutaches Maw, with beer -garden, near the station, K. 1 m. 
20 pf„), an ancient town with 1700 inhab., invested with munici- 
pal privileges by the Emp. Rudolph in 1276, the once picturesque 
appearance of which has been marred by the railway. It is com- 
manded by the imposing castle of *Marksbttrg (Restaurant), ori- 
ginally called the Braubaeher SeMoss, 485 ft. above the river, 
4hB bn]# old fortress. on the Rhine which has escaped destruction. 
In 1437 Count Philip of Katzenellenbogen founded a chapel in the 
castle and dedicated it to St. Mark, after whom the castle has since 
been named. It belonged to JSessen-DarmBtadt from 1651 to 1603, 
and was then used hy the government of Nassau as a state-prison 
down to 1866. The summit affords a pleasing survey of the grassy 
dales at the back, and a portion of the Rhine. Two routes ascend to 
the - fortress: to the JSF. a footpath, shorter but- steeper than the 
other, beginning opposite the ttld church (25 min.); to the S. the 
road, leading, at first to the left through the town in the diraetwS 
of Nast&tfcen, then lift the right past, this; wetejH.ChafelofSi.iMattin 
(existing in 1242), and lastly round the M. *We ef the Mil (35 nmn»)» 

Th« Pachsxopf. In the t fresh- i ?gre?n, vaUay behind; the town. ;«n* 
closed by beautiful wooded mils, a" road , gradually ascends to , a_/i •/* M.) 
finger-post, where a road to the left leads to Aaclaenhausen. WSJ How- 
ever, take tae-TStid to the rights and 14 the (2 H.) top of the hill'travoMie 
the , gfh«j-wopd, t9 c ^e right in the direction of the two barren summits, 
the second of which is the higher. In v« hr. more we reach the "Dachskopf, 
aliMsttriMiMe'Wfth a ^trigonometrical signal for surveyors, commanding an 
extensive view of the Shine as far aa a point below Andernacb, the Blfel, 
the .Taunns, the Seven Mts., Ac. A good road descends thence to (5 M.) 
JScmm '(p. 103).- Those who are not. disposed for so long a walk will be 
rewaraeS'by penetrating about 1*^ M. into the valley behind the Marks- 
burg. ,,The contrast is very striking when 'the valley Of the Rhine is 
quitted by the narrow rock-hewn/ fcraek passing the chapel of St. Martin, 
parallel to the Rhine , and also leading to the castle.. . 

To Ska. From Braubach a road leads over the hills to the fl'/s M.) 
SatHS) of <Emb (p. 181), passing QoldtehmUfs Foundry and (8K.) the Obtr* 
taMtteifer Fprsthavf (refreshments), 1 II. from Fracht (p. 199). Fine view 
of Dauaenau and the valley of the Lahn in descending. /, 

l f>6 Welkicb. The -fire* valley above Braubach contains the IWftttoMer 
Bnumm (see below) ;:!tihe< second to traversed by a path which ascends itka 
hill, commanding a fine view, and leads to Welmiclt fjyi.Mj.), passing the 
village of Pra&, and emerging from the wild and rocky ravine at the 
biek'df WelmicK hear the 'Mouse* (p. 104). a - 

i Above Braubach are the ^r.) villages ■ of -NUiitn-p^ an* OfctiMpay 
(EiwfafSssei - )! connected *by an avenue of walnut-trees. On 1 the 
promontory to -the right etanda a half-ruined chapel, thei only T*l*e 
of the village of tffete*»pftyi ' The pleasant vsAley en <Aie 'Opposite 
bank contains th0MMkMMm<Bvmfien, : h chatyheate spring'itmito 
to those ** Schwalbaeh ; the bath-house is visible from the steamer. 

102 Route 17. BOPPARD. From Coblenz 

On the wooded height above (1. j Osterspay (Miiller's Inn) stands 
the chateau of Liebenec.k, one of the prettiest spots on the Rhine. 

Fkom Liebeneck to Camp (p. 103), the shortest route is by a path 
traversing the lofty table-land beyond the chateau, and commanding a strik- 
ing view from its S. margin. 

On the hill to the right, a little above Osterspay, stands the 
Jacobsberger Hof, a farm-house 523 ft. above the Rhine, whence a 
cart-road leads to Rhens, 3 M. distant, cutting off the circuit of 
6 M. formed by the river. The vineyards on the slopes of the left 
bank, known as the Bopparder Hamm, produce excellent wine. 
Then, on the left, the village of Filzen, with a modtrn church. 

r. Boppard. — Hotels. Spiegel, R. 2'/ 2 , D. 2 l /2, B. 1 m. ; "Rhein- 
Hotel, R. and A. 3 m., B. 1 m., D. 3 m., 'pens.' 6 m. ; Hirsch, cheaper, 
good wine ; these three on the Rhine ; "Closmann , in the town , with 
gai-den. — Hentzlers Restaurant, also a pension, in the upper part of the 

Hydropathic Establishments. Mabienbep.s (see below), 'pens'. S m. 
per day; Mohlbad, at the lower end of the town. 

Boppard (210 ft.), the ancient Bondobrica, founded by the Celts, 
was afterwards fortified by the Romans and used as a depot for their 
'slingers' ('Balistarii Bondobricae'). In the 12th cent. Boppard was 
a free imperial town, but in 1312 Emp. Henry VII. ceded it, along 
with Oberwesel, to his brother Elector Baldwin of Treves. The 
latter, who could not make himself master of the town till 1318, 
built the castle, which is still preserved. All efforts of the inhabi- 
tants to regain their independence proved henceforth unavailing. 
This pleasant little town, above which rises the handsome old nun- 
nery of Marienberg, has of late attracted numerous visitors owing 
to the beauty and healthiness of its situation. Many of the pictur- 
esque old houses with their quaint, wooden beams have unfor- 
tunately been displaced by modern buildings, while numerous 
villas have sprung up in the environs. Pop. 5300. 

The wall enclosing the interior of the town, in the form of a 
rectangle 1050 ft. in length by 490 ft. in width, is constructed of 
Roman concrete ('opus spicatum'), and probably dates from the 
reign of Valentinian I. (A.D. 364-375). When complete it was 
10 ft. thick and 26 ft. high, and was strengthened with towers at 
the angles and 24 semicircular towers along its sides ; it is still in 
tolerable preservation. The outer and more extensive wall is mediae- 
val. Boppard, like St. Goar and Bacharach, once boasted of a Lodge 
of the Knights Templar, fragments of which with round-arched win- 
dows lie at the upper end of the town. Knights Templar of Boppard 
are mentioned among the crusaders at the siege of Ptolemais (1191). 

The handsome Pfarrhirche, in the late-Romanesque style, built 
about 1200, with its two square towers adjacent to the choir, is 
remarkable for its peculiar pointed barrel- vaulting. — The Carme- 
literkirche, in the pointed style, contains the monument of a Coun- 
tess von Eltz (d. 1500), with a good marble relief representing the 
Trinity, partaking both of the Renaissance and of the Gothic style, 

to Mayenee. BORNHOFEN. 11. Route. 103 

and carved stalls of the 15th century. Several old mural paintings 
were discovered during the restoration of the church. — The Pro- 
testant Church, built in 1851, is said to have been designed by Fred- 
erick William IV. — The old monastery of St. Martin, at the upper 
end of the town, is now a reformatory for Protestant children. — 
The suppressed Franciscan Monastery with its church has been con- 
verted by government into a seminary for Roman Catholic teachers. 
The Marienberg (Mons Beatae Mariae Virginis), a large building 
which rises at the back of the town, 100 ft. above the Rhine, for- 
merly a Benedictine nunnery , is now a hydropathic establishment. 

Below Boppard, near the Miihlbad (p. 102), opens the MilhUhal , a 
valley enclosed by wooded hills and affording a number of picturesque 
walks. One of the finest points is the -Alte Burg (960 ft.), a hill at the mouth 
of the valley (reached by ascending to the right) , which commands a 
beautiful view. Near it is the 'Vierseenplatz', or 'place of the four lakes', 
whence four apparently unconnected parts of the Rhine are visible. Far- 
ther up the valley, beyond the Pension Hentzler (p. 102), is the Bopparder 
Stadtwald, a magnificent forest of oaks and beeches, the most interesting 
points in which are indicated by way -posts, and made accessible by 
paths constructed by a society in Boppard. 

The finest excursion from Boppard is to the < Fleckertshbhe (1673 ft. 
above the sea, 1485 ft. above the Rhine), 5 M. distant, l>/« M. to the left 
of the road to the Hunsriicken, which must be left at the pine-wood, soon 
after passing the mile-stone marked '7,4'. The very extensive view com- 
prises the Seven Mts., Eifel, Hochwald, Idar and Taunus, and Monrepos 
(p. 64). From the E. side of the summit, on which there is a landmark, 
a small part of the Rhine is visible near Bornhofen (see below). A few 
min. walk below the summit are several poor cottages, in the highest of 
which good water may be procured. The path descending to (1 hr.) Salzig 
(p. 104) through meadows and woods cannot be missed. The traveller 
may avail himself of the diligence from Boppard to Simmern (9 a.m. ; see 
p. 152) as far as the point where the road to the Fleckertshohe diverges. 
— A direct footpath ascends to the summit, leading through pleasant 
woods the greater part of the way, in l'/j hr., but cannot easily be found 
without a guide. 

Fbom Boppabd to the Moselle (9 M. ; carr. 20 m.). The road leads 
through Buchholz (1265 ft.), to which a guide (1 m.) should be taken. 
About l'/a M. beyond Herschwiesen, a path to the left descends to the Ehren- 
burg (p. 171) ; thence through the Ehrenburger Thai to Brodenbach (p. 171). 

Above Boppard, on the left, lies Camp (Kauih, on the railway ; 
Anker, on the Rhine, with 'pension'), so called from the remains 
of a supposed Roman intrenchment on the hill , which however 
more probably dates from the Thirty Years' War. The village is 
healthily situated and frequently visited as a summer residence. 
(Path over the hills to Liebeneck, see p. 102.) A road shaded with 
walnut-trees leads along the bank from Camp to the ( 3 / 4 M.) con- 
vent of — 

1. Bornhofen {Oasthof zum Marienberg, with 'pension'), with a 
Gothic Church erected in 1435 , a great resort of pilgrims. On a 
bold rocky eminence above the convent stand the twin castles of — 

Sterrenberg and Liebenstein, better known as The Brothers, con- 
nected by a sharp chine of rock. The legend of these castles may 
thus be briefly told : — 

Conrad and Heinrich, sons of the knight Bayer von Boppard, the lord 
of Liebenstein, were enamoured of their foster-sister, the beautiful Hilde- 

104 Route 17. ST. GOAR. From Coblenz 

garde. Heinrich with rare generosity tore himself away and joined the 
crusades, leaving his brother Conrad to win the prize. That his son and 
the fair bride might still be near him , the old knight built the castle of 
Sterrenberg for their reception, but his death occurring before its com- 
pletion, the nuptials were postponed. Meanwhile Conrad's heart grew cold 
towards Hildegarde. Hearing of the valiant deeds of his absent brother, 
his soul burned to share his honours, and wearied of an inactive life, he 
joined the crusades. Hildegarde now passed her days in the lonely castle 
of Liebenstein, brooding over her sad lot, not doubting the affection of 
Conrad, but weeping over the uncertainty of his return. Suddenly Conrad 
returned to Sterrenberg with a lovely Grecian bride, and the outraged Hilde- 
garde , stunned by the blow, shut herself up in the loneliest chamber of 
her dreary abode, and refused to see any one but her attendant. Late 
one evening a stranger knight demanded the hospitality of the castle. He 
proved to be the chivalrous Heinrich, who , hearing of his brother's per- 
fidy, resolved to avenge his foster-sister's wrongs. He accordingly chal- 
lenged Conrad to single combat, but before the brothers' swords had cross- 
ed, Hildegarde's figure interposed between them and insisted on a recon- 
ciliation, to which they reluctantly consented. Hildegarde then retired to 
the convent of Bornhofen , at the base of the rock on which the castles 
stand. Conrad's Grecian bride soon proved faithless , and he , overcome 
with shame and remorse, threw himself on his generous brother's breast, 
exclaiming that no consolation was now left him but his friendship. Thus 
their estrangement ended, and the brothers thenceforth lived together in 
harmony and retirement at Liebenstein , while Sterrenberg was for ever 

Sterrenberg was held as early as the 12th cent, as a fief of the 
empire by the knights of Boland, and in 1317 came into the pos- 
session of the Electors of Treves. The date of its abandonment is 
unknown. It lies on the extreme brink of the rock, separated from 
Liebenstein by a massive wall. The ruins are interesting and com- 
mand a fine view of the rocky ravines beneath (restaurant). 

r. Salzig (Schloss Liebenstein), so called from its weak saline 
spring , lies in the midst of a vast orchard , whence ship-loads of 
cherries are annually exported to the Lower Rhine , Holland , and 
England. Farther up (1.) lies the village of Nieder-Kestert (Stern), 
in a fertile situation. 

r. Hirzenach (Comes) ; at the upper end of the village is a 
small Gothic synagogue. A handsome building, once a deanery, 
and the church, built about 1170, formerly belonged to the Abbey 
of Siegburg. 

1. Ehrenthal is a small village inhabited by miners who work 
the lead-mines in the vicinity. 

1. Welmich (Adler ; Deutscher Kaiser), picturesquely situated, 
with a small Gothic church , is commanded by the ruins of the 
Thurnberg, or Deurenburg. This stronghold, begun by Archbishop 
Boemund of Treves, and completed in 1363 by his successor Kuno von 
Falkenstein, was derisively called the *Mouse (Maus) by the Counts 
of Katzenellenbogen, in contradistinction to their 'Cat' (p. 106). 
Ascent fatiguing, but there is a fine view from the summit, 
especially towards St. Goar. The interior contains a few points of 
architectural interest. (Path over the hills to Braubach, see p. 101.) 

r. St. Soar (*Schneider , at the lower end of the town ; *Rhein- 

to Mayenee. RHEINFELS. 17. Route. 105 

feU, with restaurant, opposite the pier; Lowe; Zum kalten Keller; 
steam-ferryboat to St. Goarshausen, lOpf. ; comp. the Map, p. 102), 
a town with 1250 inhab., the handsomest of the smaller Rhenish 
towns, and deriving a look of additional importance from the ex- 
tensive ruins of Rheinfels , owes its name and origin to a chapel 
founded in the time of Siegbert, King of Austrasia (570), by St. Goar, 
who preached the gospel here , and whose aid was afterwards fre- 
quently invoked by pious boatmen when in distress. Down to 
1794 it was the capital of the Lower County of Katzenellenbogen, 
which lay chiefly on the opposite bank of the river, and extended 
as far as the Lahn. (The upper county lay to the S. of the Main, 
p. 221.) 

The Protestant Church, built about 1468 , contains monuments 
of the Landgrave Philip (d. 1583) and his countess. A flaw in the 
altar is said to have been made by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, 
who, indignant at the damage done to the church by the Spaniards, 
violently struck the altar with his sword. The crypt on the E. side 
once contained the bones of St. Goar. — The Roman Catholic church 
is adorned with an old stone efflgy of the saint with an inscription. 

A curious old custom , the 'Hanseln* , or Initiation , which prevailed 
here till the beginning of the steamboat-traffic in 1827 , is said to have 
dated from the time of Charlemagne. Every traveller who visited the 
town for the first time was attached to a ring in the wall Of the Custom- 
house, and obliged to submit to the water or the wine -ordeal. If the 
former was selected, a good ducking was the result; the pleasanter alter- 
native consisted in drinking a goblet of wine to the memory of Charle- 
magne, the sovereign of England, the reigning prince, and the members 
of the society which enforced obedience to the custom. The traveller 
was then crowned and invested with the rights of a citizen and member 
of the society, and finally had to present a donation to the poor and 
enter his name in the 'Hanselbuch'. 

The castle of *Eheinfels, rising at the back of the town, 377 ft. 
above the Rhine (1/4 hr. from the pier), is the most imposing ruin 
on the river. It was founded in 1245 by Count Dietherlll. of Katzen- 
ellenbogen, a friend of the Emp. Frederick II., and a new Rhine-toll 
was established here. Ten years later a confederation of twenty-six 
Rhenish towns (p. 138), dissatisfied with the newly imposed burden, 
attacked the castle, but after a siege of fifteen months were com- 
pelled to withdraw. In 1692 it was bravely and successfully defended 
by the Hessian General von Gorz against the French General Count 
Tallard with an army of 24,000 men. In 1758 the castle was sur- 
prised and taken by the French, who kept a garrison in it till 1763. 
Thirty years later it was basely deserted by the Hessian commandant, 
and fell, with its valuable stores , into the hands of the French re- 
volutionary army (2nd Nov., 1794). Three years afterwards it was 
blown up, and in 1812 it was sold for the paltry sum of 100 1. The 
ruin now belongs to the Emperor of Germany, who purchased it in 
1843. The interior contains little that is worthy of note ; view limit- 
ed. The custodian is generally at or near the castle (fee l/g-1 m., 
more for a party). 

106 Route 17. ST. GOARSHAUSEN. From Coblenz 

The "Spitzenstein, a hill to the S.W., crowned with a refuge-hut, 
and commanding a magnificent view from Caub to Oberwesel, may be 
ascended from St. Goar in l'/< hr., via Biebernheim. Pleasant descent by 
Niederburg to Oberwesel (p. 108). 

1. St. Goarshausen (715 ft.; *Adler, carriage to Reichenberg 
and Patersberg 6-8m. ; Lamm, D. 2m., 'pens.' 4y 2 m.; ZumHohen- 
zoller; Nassauer Hof; Rheinischer Hof; screw-steamer to St. Goar, 
10 pf.), a small town with 1400 inhab., chiefly consisting of a 
single row of new houses, is a pleasant place for a stay of a few 
days. The upper part of the town is so confined between the river 
and the hill that a bulwark of masonry , on which two watch- 
towers are situated, had to be built at an early period to protect 
the town against inundations. Before the construction of the new 
bulwarks the old wall formed the only path of communication be- 
tween the houses when the river was high. The new Protestant 
church in the round-arch style was completed in 1863. There is 
a good school for boys here. Comp. the Map, p. 102. 

Above St. Goarshausen, about halfway up the hill, rises the 
castle of Neu-Katzenellenbogen, commonly called the Cat (Katz), 
erected in 1393 by Count Johann of Katzenellenbogen, whose family 
became extinct in 1470. It then belonged to the Hessian princes, 
and was occupied by a Hessian garrison down to 1804, when it was 
destroyed by the French. A few rooms have been restored. (Guide 
with keys from the Rheinischer Hof at St. Goarshausen, 50-75 pf.) 

The 'Schweizerthal , or 'Swiss Valley', extending about 2 M. inland 
from the foot of the Katz at the back of St. Goarshausen (reached by 
proceeding to the left at the upper end of the village, and passing below 
the railway), contains picturesque rocks, miniature waterfalls, and pleas- 
ant shady walks. To the left in the background, on the brink of the vine- 
clad slope, stands the village of Patersberg (800 ft.) , to which a steep 
path ascends in i/ 2 hr. from St. Goarshausen; thence to Reichenberg (see 
below) about 2 l /a M. more. — Those who wish to visit the Lurlei from the 
Schweizerthal follow the cart-road in the valley for about 1/2 M. (the 'Pro- 
menadenweg' not recommended), and at a projecting rock surmounted by 
a pavilion ascend the Huhnerberg by a steep footpath, and part of the way 
by steps , to the ' ManncherC (view of the Schweizerthal). Then cross the 
hill to (25 min.) a point commanding a "View of the basin of St. Goar. 
From this point follow the cart-road on the height in a straight direction, 
soon entering low wood ; after '/« hr. the footpath to the Lurlei (not 
easily recognised from this side) descends to the right, and the rock itself 
is reached in y< hr. more. A steep path (see p. 107) descends from the 
Lurlei to the Rhine in 7 min. ; thence by the road to St. Goarshausen 
1 M. (the whole excursion from St. Goarshausen to the Huhnerberg, 
Lurlei, and back occupying about 2 hrs.). 

*Excubsion to Reichenberg, 3'/2 M. inland from St. Goarshausen. 
The road (diligence-route to Nastatten) leads through the Haselbachthal, 
a valley which opens a little below St. Goarshausen (where a carriage 
may be hired for the excursion). Walkers ascend through the Swiss 
Valley to Patersberg (see above), from which Reichenberg is 2 M. distant. 
A shady footpath, provided with numerous benches, diverges to the right 
from the road through the Haselbachthal just at the entrance to the 
valley, follows the windings of the road, and rejoins it near the Reichenberg. 
A pleasant way back is by the road through the Haselbachthal, and past 
the Offenthaler Hof on the hill about I1/2 M. to the S. of Reichenberg ; 
then through the upper part of the Swiss Valley to the Lurlei. (Through 
this part of the valley there is no direct path to St. Goarshausen, but on 

to Mayence. LURLEI. 17. Route. 107 

the opposite side of the valley a narrow path descends thither from the 
point where the Lurlei path begins ) 

The castle of "Reichenberg , erected in 1284 by Count Wilhelm I. of 
Katzenellenbogen, and during the Hessian supremacy the residence of the 
governor of the lower county, was at length sold in 1818 for the sake of 
the building materials. Fortunately, however, it escaped demolition, and 
is still a grand and picturesque edifice with a lofty tower, and in better 
preservation than most of the other Rhenish castles. The approach to 
the Court (see also p. xxxi) is striking. Here on the left we observe the 
chief entrance to the castle flanked with two columns of granite. The 
vaulted chambers of the ground-floor in the Interior are well preserved. 
A memorial tablet has been placed here in honour of the archivist Habel, 
who devoted himself with most praiseworthy industry to the preservation 
of this and several other Nassovian castles. The castle has been restored, 
and is now the property of Baron Oettingen (guide, 60-75 pf). A number 
of the rooms are decorated with old weapons, armour, domestic uten- 
sils, etc. The old Chapel consisted of three stories, but the dividing 
beams have been broken away ; the Romanesque columns, however, placed 
one above the other, which bear the lofty pointed vaulting, are still pre- 
served. The Tower, which is ascended by wooden steps, commands a 
view of the neighbourhood. A second tower to the E., connected with 
he other by a lofty retaining wall, is half destroyed. The village of Rei- 
chenberg at the foot of the castle is a very poor place. 

Immediately above St. Goar, and nearly in the middle of the 
stream, lies the 'Banfe', a sunken ledge of rock running out from 
the W. bank, over which the water rushes and seethes in rapids 
and miniature whirlpools (Gewirre) , which are dangerous to small 
boats if not skilfully managed. The channel on the E. side is the 

On the left rise the imposing rocks of the *Lurlei, 433 ft. above 
the Rhine. On the N. side of the precipice a steep path leads to 
the summit. Ascent 20 min. ; view limited. The well-known legend 
of the nymph who had her dwelling on the rock, and, like the sirens 
of old, enticed sailors and fishermen to their destruction in the rapids 
at the foot of the precipice , has long been a favourite theme with 
the poet and the painter. Heine's beautiful ballad (1823) is still 
deservedly popular. According to Marner, a poet of the 13th cent., 
the Nibelungen treasure lies hidden beneath the 'Lurlenberg'. 

The famous echo is not audible from the steamer, and can only be 
successfully awakened by pedestrians in the quiet of early morning or 
late evening. To the traveller descendig the river the edge of the Lurlei 
rocks presents the appearance of a human profile, supposed to resemble 
that of Napoleon I. The Lurlei is penetrated by a railway tunnel (p. 127), 
while three others cut off the rocky angles on the opposite bank (p. 125). 

In this rocky basin is carried on the once very lucrative salmon- 
fishery of St. Goar. The cool, shady depths and sandy bottom of the 
river at this point appear peculiarly suited to the habits of the fish. They 
are captured in nets only. The yield, formerly 8000 lbs. per annum, has 
dwindled to barely 1000 lbs., most of the fish having been frightened away 
by the noisy steamboat and railway traffic. The Rhine salmon are highly 
esteemed, and realise 2-3s. per pound and upwards. This is the narrow- 
est and deepest (76 ft.) part of the river. 

Opposite the Rossstein, a rocky point to the left, which the 
railway penetrates by a tunnel , a ridge of rocks , known as the 
'Seven Virgins', is visible when the river is low. It is said that these 
rugged masses were once seven fair maidens of the Schonburg, who 

108 Route 17. OBERWESEL. From Cohlenz 

were condemned by the river-god for their prudery to this meta- 

r. Oberwesel [*Rheinischer Uof , on the Rhine, not far from the 
station, R. l'^rn-i B. 75 pf., 'pension' 5 m.; Villa Nova, h6tel 
garni & 'pension', 5-6 m. per day), an ancient town with 2600 in- 
hab. , named Vosavia in Peutinger's map of Roman roads (p. xxiv), 
and once a town of the empire, was afterwards ceded by Henry VII. 
(1308-14) to his brother Archbishop Baldwin of Treves, whereupon 
it degenerated into a mere country-town of the electorate of that 
name. Its churches, its walls, and its pinnacled towers (like those 
at Bacharach, p. 110), over which frown the ruins of the Schon- 
burg, render Oberwesel one of the most picturesque spots on the 

At the S. end of the town rises the conspicuous *Frauenkirche, 
or Church of Our Lady, a fine Gothic edifice, erected in 1307-31. 
The narrow and lofty choir and nave rise high above the aisles. 

Interior. The Rood-loft, of the 14th cent., which separates the choir 
from the nave, deserves particular inspection. The ancient wood-carvings 
of the high-altar , coeval with the foundation , and two pictures said to 
have been painted by Canon Lutern in 1504, are also interesting. The 
lower part of an altar-piece in the N. chapel represents the landing of 
the 11,000 virgins (p. 42); on the N. wall is a series of small pictures 
representing the End of the World and the Last Judgment. The N. 
chapel contains monuments of knights and counts of Schonburg, in the 
Renaissance style. By the W. wall is the late Gothic monument of 
Canon Lutern (d. 1505). On the pillars are Mural Paintings of the Gothic 
period, which have recently been discovered under the whitewash. 

The Gothic Chapel on the town-wall, on the side next the Rhine, 
is dedicated to St. Werner (p. 111). The Town Hall, in the mediae- 
val style, with red sandstone pinnacles, was erected in 1849. The 
handsome round Ochsenthurm, at the lower end of the town, with its 
lofty pinnacles, formerly belonged to the fortifications of the town. 

Upon the hill lies the late-Gothic St. Martinskirche , with its 
castle-like tower with turrets at the corners. The S. aisle con- 
tains , under a modern canopy , a coloured and gilt figure of the 
Virgin, of Gothic workmanship. 

The rocky ravines which run inland from Oberwesel yield ex- 
cellent wines, the most esteemed of which is that of the Engeholl 
valley, near the Schonburg. 

Above Oberwesel rise the extensive and picturesque ruins of 
(r.) *Schonburg, with its four huge towers, erected about the 12th 
cent., the cradle of a once mighty race which became extinct in 
1713. In 1615 it was the birthplace of Count Frederick Hermann 
of Schonburg , better known as Marshal Schomberg , who fought 
under the Prince of Orange , and in 1668 , when in the French 
service , compelled the Spaniards to acknowledge the House of 
Braganza. On the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, he was obliged 
to quit the French service, and under the Elector of Brandenburg 
became minister of state, and governor of Prussia; he finally passed 
over to England with the Prince of Orange , and fell at the memor- 

to Mayence. CAUB. 17. Route. 109 

able battle of the Boyne in 1690. In the Thirty Years' War the 
castle fell into the hands of the Swedes , and in 1689 was sacked 
by the French. The ruins, now belonging to Baron Laffert, deserve 
a visit for their own sake as well as for the view. 

1. Caub (705 ft.; Zum Oriinen Wald, well spoken of; Adler; 
wine at *Erlenbach , s, in the tower), an ancient town with 2000 in- 
hab., still surrounded with mediaeval fortifications, and a wine- 
growing place of some note, is chiefly important on account of its 
productive subterranean slate-quarries. The slates ('leyen') are 
split in a large building on the spot. A landslip, which had been 
long feared, took place on the night of 10th March, 1876, and de- 
stroyed several houses , burying 25 persons in the ruins. In 1878 
another landslip occurred, on a smaller scale and fortunately doing 
no injury; but all danger of a recurrence of similar disasters has 
now been obviated by the withdrawal of the water collected in the 
interior of the hill. A walk over the scene of the slip is in- 
teresting, and may he combined with a visit to the ruins of Gu- 
tenfels, the key of which is obtained at one of the hotels (climb of 
20 min.). 

At the back of the town rises the picturesque castle of Gutenfels, 
with its lofty square pinnacled tower, named Cube in the middle 
ages, which was sold together with the little town of Caub by the 
barons of Falkenstein to the Palatinate in 1277. The building was 
not destroyed until 1807. The English Earl of Cornwall, who was 
elected King of Germany in 1257, is said to have become enamour- 
ed here of the beautiful Countess Beatrix of Falkenstein, whom he 
married on the death of his first wife in 1269. In 1504 the castle 
was unsuccessfully besieged for six weeks by the Landgrave of Hes- 
sen, an event recorded in a metrical inscription on a slab of stone 
built into a wall at Caub. In 1508 it was strengthened and received 
its present name ; and in 1647 it was taken by the Hessians under 
General Mortaigne. An attendant is generally to be found at the 
castle in summer. 

The pavilion on the Adolphshbhe, a hill to the S. of Caub which 
may be reached in '/4 hr. , commands an extensive view. — The ascent 
nf the valley as far as the Sauerburg (p. 112) is recommended. 

Above Caub on a ledge of rock in the middle of the Rhine, rises 
the *Pfalz, or Pfalzgrafenstein , a small hexagonal building, well 
preserved externally and internally. It has a pentagonal tower covered 
with an unsightly roof , numerous turrets and jutting corners, loop- 
holes in every direction, and one entrance only, situated about 6 ft. 
above the rock , and reached by means of a ladder. The sharp 8. 
(upper) angle of the building with its stanchions and grappling-irons 
serves to break the force of the floating ice in winter. On this side is 
seen the lion of the Palatinate as hearer of the escutcheon of the 
ancient lords of the castle. To the right of the entrance is a tablet 
commemorating the passage of the Rhine on 1st Jan. 1814, 

110 Route 17. BACHARACH. From Coblenx 

The Interior (keys kept by a boatman at Caub, who ferries visitors 
to the building; fee 50-75 pf.) is unattractive. The small Court is sur- 
rounded with vaults. The Tower commands a good view of the river in 
every direction. The Well is said to be quite independent of the river 
for its supply of water. The different chambers in the interior were 
last inhabited by invalid soldiers of the Elector Palatine . whose duty 
was to signal to the custom-house at Caub the approach of laden vessels. 
As early as the 13th cent, a watch-tower was erected here for the pur- 
pose of levying toll on passing boats. For the same purpose King 
Lewis the Bavarian (1314-47) erected the present stronghold, which has 
since been restored, but his exactions were so heavy that Pope John XXII. 
in a bull of 1326 commanded the Archbishop of Treves to destroy the 
castle. According to an early tradition, the origin of which is involved 
in obscurity, the Countesses Palatine were in the habit of repairing to 
the castle to await their accouchements in a small chamber which is 
still pointed out to the curious. 

At this point , early on New Year's Day, 1814, a Prussian corps 
under York , and a division of Russian troops under Langeron, 
effected the passage of the Rhine under the direction of Bliicher. 
A small monument in sandstone on the road on the W. bank, a 
little above the Pfalz , commemorates this event , informing us 
that the marshal was on his way to effect the 'regeneration of 
Prussia and the German Fatherland'. 

r. Bacharach (*H6tel Wasum , at the station , with a garden, 
R. and B. 3m., also a 'pension'; Zum Blilcherthal, in the town), a 
town with 1700inhab., lies picturesquely at the entrance to the 
narrow Steeger Thai, and is commanded by the castle of Stahleck, 
at the foot of which stands the beautiful ruin of St. Werner's 
church. The old town-walls, a great part of which is still well 
preserved, descending from the castle and enclosing the town, 
with towers at intervals of 100-150 paces, afford a good example 
of mediaeval fortifications. The town itself was also formerly noted 
for its picturesque mediaeval appearance , but a destructive Are in 
1872 has left but few of the curious old timber and clay houses. 

Bacharach , called Ara Bacchi in the middle ages , was noted 
for its wine at an early period , and down to the 16th cent, was 
one of the greatest wine-marts on the river. Pope Pius II. (^Eneas 
Sylvius) caused a cask of 'Bacharach wine' to be brought to Rome 
annually, and the town of Nuremberg obtained its freedom in return 
for a yearly tribute to the Emp. Wenzel of four tuns of the same wine. 

At the point where - the road through the Steeger Thai diverges 
from the main street of the town rises the Church of St. Peter, or 
Templars' Church, a late-Romanesque edifice of elegant proportions, 
with a round choir towards the main street, two round E. towers, 
and a square W. toweT. Under this last is a fine early-Gothic porch, 
and on the N. side there is a rich portal. The church has been 
restored since the damage done by the fire of 1872. 

On a slight eminence (path on the S. side of the church of St. 
Peter) stands the *Church of St. Werner, erected in 1293 in the 
finest Gothic style in the form of a trefoil, partially restored in the 
15th cent., but now a ruin, one-third of the original building 

to Mayenee. STAHLECK. 17. Route, Ill 

having been destroyed. It was erected to commemorate the canoni- 
sation of St. Werner, a boy who, according to tradition, was murdered 
by Jews in 1286, and whose body was landed here after having 
miraculously floated up the stream from Oberwesel. Within the 
precincts of the church is a burial-ground. Above the chapel 
(10 min. walk) rises the castle of Stahleck (see below). 

The Steeger-Thal at the back of the town , sometimes called the 
Bliicher-Thal from the fact that Bliicher after his passage of the Rhine 
on 1st Jan. 1814 pursued a body of French troops through this valley 
towards the Hunsriick, affords a pleasant walk. After >/2 M. we take the 
road diverging to the right, and l>/2 M. farther reach Steeg, which yields 
an excellent red wine. Above the village rises the ruined castle of 
Slahlberg, which like those of Stahleck and Fiirstenberg (see below) once 
belonged to the Counts Palatine. 

From Bacharach by Strombeeg to Kreuznach (20'/2 M. : Bacharach to 
the Rheinboller Foundry 8, Stromberg 5, Kreuznach 7'/2 M.). From Bacha- 
rach through the valley of Steeg to Steeg (1 M.), see above. At the 
tower C/j M.) with the small pond, we select the middle of the three 
paths, which cuts off the long windings of the high road. At the last 
sharp bend of the road in the Steeger Thai (l'/2 M. from the tower) the 
footpath ascends to the right and enters the wood; the road is after- 
wards regained, and followed for a short way ; the footpath then re-enters 
the wood, and finally crosses the meadows to (3V2 M.) Distelbach (thus far 
a guide is desirable, although not indispensable). Beyond the village we 
follow the same direction (S.W.), and cross the meadows to the (l'/a M.) 
BheinbSller Foundry (-Inn) , an extensive establishment picturesquely sit- 
uated 1115 ft. above the sea-level. The road leads hence through the 
beautiful wooded ravine of the Giildenbach. On the slope to the right rises 
the modern chateau of GarUburg. Farther on is the Sahler Hiltte, another 
extensive foundry. Immediately before (5 M.) Stromberg (* Fustenburg ; 
Hirsch ; carr. to Kreuznach 12 m.) is reached, the ruined castle of OoldenfeU 
rises on the height to the right ; and beyond the village, almost contiguous 
to it, are the extensive ruins of the Fustenburg. Beyond Stromberg the 
scenery soon becomes uninteresting ; (2'/4 M.) Schweppenhausen ; (2 l /4 M.) 
Windesheim. At the point (3 M.) where the road begins to descend into 
the Nahethal , called the 'Hungrige Wolf (714 ft.), l>/ 2 M. from Kreuz- 
nach, a magnificent and extensive prospect is enjoyed. — If we follow 
the high - road through the Steeger Thai instead of the above-mentioned 
footpath, we first reach the village of Rheinbollen, and then the Foundry, 
l'/2. M. farther (a route longer by 2'/2 M.) ; diligence from Bacharach to 
Rheinbollen (9 M.) twice daily, in 2 hrs. 

Above Bacharach rises the once strongly fortified castle of 
Stahleck, the extensive ruins of which extend down to the valley, 
erected about the year 1156, and the principal residence of the 
Counts Palatine down to 1253. The French besieged and took 
the castle and town eight times in 1620-40, and finally destroyed 
the former in 1689. The ruins are surrounded with pleasure- 
grounds, which command a picturesque but limited view. Nearly 
opposite the castle lies the village of Lorchhausen, with a modern 
Gothic church. 

On a rocky eminence on the right, near the village of Rhein- 
diebath, rise the handsome ruins of Fiirstenberg, made over to the 
Palatinate in 1243 as a fief of Cologne. In 1292 , when Adolph of 
Nassau was on his way to be crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle , the 
vassals of the robber-knight of the castle had the audacity forcibly to 
detain the vessel of the king for the purpose of levying toll. In 

112 Route 17. LORCH. From Coblenz 

1321 the castle was taken by the Emp. Lewis from his opponei 
Frederick, and presented to his consort Margaret of Holland. In 162 
it fell into the hands of the Swedes, and in 1689 was destroyed t 
the French. 

The brook which falls into the Rhine here was anciently the bou: 
dary between the dominions of the archbishops of Mayence and Treve 
Farther up the valley are the villages of Oberdiebach and Manubac, 
famous for their wine. 

Opposite the Fiirstenhurg , on the right bank of the Wispet 
which falls into the Rhine here, stands the ruined castle of No] 
lingen, or Nollich, mentioned in 1110, 581 ft. above the Rhine 
The rugged cliff on its W. slope is called the 'Devil's Ladder', c 
which a legend records that a knight of Lorch with the assistant 
of mountain sprites once scaled it on horseback, and thus gained th 
hand of his lady-love. 

1. Lorch (*Schwan, with a garden on the Rhine, good wine an 
cuisine, R. and B. 2 m., D. 2^2 rn., 'pension' from 5 m. , generall 
full in summer; *Krone), a small town with 2000 inhab., forming 
long street on the bank of the river, the Roman Laureacum (? 
mentioned in a charter as early as 832, was in the middle ages 
favourite residence of noble families, who founded a school hei 
for the exclusive education of their sons. The lofty Gothic Churc 
of St. Martin, of the 13-15th cent., which possesses the finest bell 
in this district, was entirely restored in 1876-80. The high-alts 
with rich late-Gothic carving of 1483, a fine late-Gothic font of 1464 
and several monuments of knightly families of the Rheingau, espe 
cially that of Joh. Hilchen, companion in arms of Sickingen, meri 
inspection. The inscription on the latter records that Hilchen distin 
guished himself against the Turks, and as field-marshal in 1542-4 
against the French. His house, a handsome Renaissance buildin 
of 1546, adorned with sculpturing, is situated on the Rhine abou 
the middle of the village. 

Through the "Wisperthal to Schlangenbad and Schwalbach, a beautifv 
walk of about 20 M. ; from Lorch to the Kammerberger Miihle 6, Zauket 
miihle 2>/4 , Geroldstein 2'/4 , Niedergladbach 3 , Bausen 3 , Schlangenba 
(p. 128) 3 M., or from Geroldstein by Langenseifen to Schwalbach (p. 12! 
IOV2 M. — The Wisperthal is unenviably known for the keen 'Wisperwind 
which blows through it towards the Rhine. 

In the valley of the Saner, which unites with the Wisper 3 /4 M. aboi 
Lorch, is the Sauerburg, 4'/4 M. from Lorch or Caub, once in the po 
session of the Sickingen family, and destroyed by the French in 1689. Tt 
last direct descendant of Franz von Sickingen died in great poverty in tl 
neighbouring farmhouse in 1836. In the churchyard at Sauerthal is 
cross with the Sickingen arms and an inscription, erected by a friend 1 
German history'. 

The E. bank of the river from Lorch to Assniannshausen is un 
interesting. The hills rise abruptly from the water, their lowt 
slopes being covered with vineyards and their summits with wood 
At the mouth of a ravine on this bank are the vineyards whic 
yield the Bodenthaler wine. 

r. Niederheimbach (rail. stat. ; Schiffchen ; Pfalzer Hof), a Ion 

to Mayenee. BHEINSTEIN. 17. Route. 113 

village, commanded by the massive tower of Hohneek, or Heimburg, 
a castle of the 13th and 14th cent., recently restored, next comes in 
view. Travellers ascending the river and intending to visit the 
Morgenbachthal, the Rheinstein (1 hr.J, Assmannshausen, and the 
Niederwald (comp. p. 122) had better disembark here. Extensive 
retrospect as far as Bacharach. Ascent of the Salzkopf, see p. 125. 

The valley of the Rhine now slightly contracts. On the right 
rises the slender tower of *Sooneck, commanding the entrance to a 
ravine. The castle, built by Archbishop Willigis of Mayenee 
about 1015, was destroyed by King Rudolph as a robbers' strong- 
hold , but rebuilt in the 14th century. The ruin, which has been 
restored since 1834, now belongs to the German emperor. 

r. Trechtlingshausen (rail. stat. ; Stern). On an eminence beyond 
the village rises the Reichemtein, or Falkenburg, destroyed by the 
French in 1689. In 1252 this marauders' castle was destroyed by the 
confederation of Rhenish towns, but restored in 1261 by its owner, 
Philip von Hohenfels, who resumed his lawless calling. Rudolph of 
Hapsburg afterwards besieged and dismantled it, and relentlessly 
consigned to the gallows the robbers whom he found in possession. 
Its present owner has caused the ruin to be restored. 

At the foot of the hill is the entrance to the "Morgenbachthal, which 
to a distance of about 1 M. is one of the most romantic lateral valleys of 
the Rhine. Just above the mill a path to the left ascends in % hr. to the 
Swiss House mentioned below. — From Trechtlingshausen to the SaUkopf 
by the Jagerhaus, see p. 125. 

On the right we next observe the venerable Clemenskapelle, 
a small late-Romanesque edifice , lately restored by the Prin- 
cess Frederick of Prussia. The history of the church is unknown, 
but it is on record that it was once visited by Emp. Maximilian 1. 
It is supposed to have been built by the knights of Waldeck to en- 
sure the souls' peace of the robber-knights slain or hanged by Ru- 
dolph of Hapsburg. The choir-stalls in the interior are late-Gothic. 

A little above the church , on the same bank , rises the pictur- 
esque castle of * Rheinstein, 262 ft. above the Rhine. It was 
formerly called the Faitzberg, Vautsberg, or Voigtsberg. Its origin is 
unknown, but it is mentioned as early as 1279, and after 1348 was 
frequently a residence of Kuno von Falkenstein , Archbishop of 
Treves, Bince whose time it has disappeared from the pages of 
history. In 1825-29 Prince Frederick of Prussia caused the castle 
to be restored in the mediaeval style, and he was afterwards (d. 1863) 
interred in the chapel on the S. side. Rheinstein is a very inter- 
esting example of a mediaeval castle, of which the massive pinnacled 
towers called the 'Bergfriede', the 'Herrenhaus', or 'Palas', and the 
substantial 'Schildmauer' on the side exposed to attack are well 
represented. A "Collection of armour and antiquities is shown in 
the interior. The view from the castle as well as from the Swiss 
House on the height towards the S. is limited (adm. 1 m., a party 
50 pf. each, for 20 or more visitors 30 pf. each). 

114 Route 17. ASSMANNSHAUSEN. From Coblenz 

1. Assmannshausen. — Hotels. 'Krone, 'pens'. 6 m., good wine 
"Anker, 'pens'. 5 l /na., Beutershan, Germania, all on the Rhine; Nie 
derwald, in the village, second-class. — "Curhaus, on the Rhine, R. fron 
2'/j m., board 5 m., baths 2-3 m. Bath physician, Dr. Mahr. 

Assmannshausen (262 ft.), a village with 960 inhab., is cele- 
brated for its full-bodied and high-flavoured red wine, the bettei 
vintages of which are preferred by some connoisseurs to Burgundy 
and realise high prices. A warm alkaline spring (90°) here, con- 
taining lithia, which was known as far back as the Roman period, 
has recently again come into vogue for baths. Assmannshausen ia 
the best starting-point for an excursion to the Niederwald (se« 
p. 122), and affords opportunity for many other pleasant walks and 

Beyond Assmannshausen the steamboat reaches the Binger Loch 
a rapid caused by the narrowness of the rocky channel , the widen- 
ing of which has been the work of ages , from the Roman period 
down to 1830-32, when the last blasting operations took place 
The completion of the work is commemorated by a monument or 
the W. bank. The passage is now free from danger, but in descend- 
ing the larger rafts require to be piloted with extreme caution. 

Above the rapids rises the tower of (1.) Ehrenfels, erected about 
1210 by Philipp von Bolanden , governor of the Rheingau, the fre- 
quent residence of the archbishops of Mayence in the 15th cent., 
much damaged by the Swedes in 1635 , and finally destroyed b) 
the French in 1689. The two towers are connected by a lofty wall 
on the side exposed to attack, facing the hill. 

The steep slopes of the Riidesheimer Berg yield the excellent 
wine of that name , and terrace rises above terrace to secure th( 
soil from falling. The hill is completely covered with walls anc 
arches , the careful preservation of which conveys an idea of th< 
value of the vines. According to tradition , Charlemagne observed 
from his palace at Ingelheim that the snow always melted first or 
the Riidesheimer Berg , and therefore caused vines to be brought 
from Orleans and planted here. 

Opposite the castle, on a quartz-rock in the middle of the Rhine, 
is situated the Mouse Tower, which is popularly said to derive iti 
name from the well-known legend of the cruel Archbishop Hatto ol 
Mayence. Having caused a number of poor people, whom he com- 
pared to mice bent on devouring the corn, to be burned in a ban 
during a famine, he was immediately attacked by mice, which tor- 
mented him day and night. He then sought refuge on this island, 
but was followed by his persecutors, and soon devoured alive. The 
tower, however, was in reality erected in the middle ages as a 
watch-tower, and the name is derived from the old German 'mwsen', 
to spy. In 1856 the ruins were again converted into a kind of watch- 
tower, for making signals to steamers, which in descending the river 
are required to slacken speed here when other vessels are coming 
up the stream. 

to May met. BINGEN. 17 . Route. 115 

The valley of the Rhine now suddenly expands, and the district 
of the Rheingau, which was once in all probability a lake, is enter- 
ed. Below (r.) Bingen the Nahe unites with the Rhine. Bridges 
over the Nahe, and stations of the Rhenish and Rhine -Nahe lines 
at Bingerbruck, see p. 125. The steamers do not touch at Binger- 
bruck. Nearly opposite Bingen, near the E. bank, is the l Miihl- 
stein', a quartz-rock in the Rhine marked with a black cross, in 
which the heart of the Rhenish historian Vogt (d. 1836) was de- 
posited by his own desire. 

r. Bingen. — Hotels. Hotel Victobia, nearest the station, and Weis- 
ses Ross, both on the Rhine; Bellevoe, also on the Rhine, R. & B. 3, 
D. 2 m.; Goldner Pflug, near the market-place. — Englischer Hof, 
Mainzer Strasse ; Kakpfen, on the Rhine ; Pariser Hof, Gaustrasse, near 
the Nahe; Deotsches Hads, R. I 1 /; m., and Distel, well spoken of, both 
on the Rhine, moderate ; Germania. — Hotel Hart-hank , see p. 116. — 
At Bingerbrilck: Hotel Germania, near the station, indifferent. — Cafe" 
Soherr, with restaurant, in the market-place ; Heilmann, confectioner with 
caK, on the Rhine. Good wine at the old Gatlhof turn Rupperttberg, '/» M. 
from Bingerbruck station, with a terrace and view. Beer at the Actien- 
brauerei, with a garden, in the town. 

Steam Ferry Boat ('Traject') from Bingen and Bingerbriick to Riidesheim 
(p. 116), making about 16 trips in each direction daily (fares 20, 10 pf.) ; 
on Sundays and holidays extra trips to Assmannshausen, Rheinstein, etc. 

Boats. To the Mausethurm, 1-2 pers. l'/g m., each additional pers. 
25 pf. ; to Rheinstein and Assmannshausen, see p. 122. 

Carriages. To the Rochuscapelle, one-horse, 1-2 pers. 3'/j, 3-4 pers. 
4 m.; two-horse 4 or 5 m. ; to the Scharlachkopf, one-horse 4 or 5 m., 
two-horse 5 or 6 m. ; to Rheinstein and back, one-horse 6 or 7 m., two- 
horse 7 or 8 m. 

Railway to Mayence and Coblenz, see R. 19; to Kreuznach and Saar- 
briicken, see R. 23. 

Bingen, a Hessian district town with 6500 inhab., situated at 
the confluence of the Nahe and Rhine, was known to the Romans, 
who erected a castle here, at the point whence their military roads 
to Cologne and Treves diverged. In the middle ages it was a 
free town of the empire and one of the earliest members of the 
confederation of Rhenish towns (p. 138). During the Thirty Years' 
War it was repeatedly captured, and in 1689 it was totally destroyed 
by the French. Bingen carries on a considerable wine-trade and a 
busy river and railway-traffic. The late-Gothic Pfarrkirche of the 
15th cent, with a Romanesque crypt of the 11th, has been modern- 
ised. The Gothic font is of the 15th century. The Rathhaus was 
restored in 1863 in the mediaeval style. 

Above the town, on the site of the ancient Roman fortress, rises 
the castle of *Klopp, which was destroyed by the French in 1689, 
but has been tastefully restored and extended. The towers afford a 
beautiful view. Bell at the door (fee). Roads and footpaths ascend 
to it both from the Rhine (diverging from the Rochus-Strasse beyond 
the Englischer Hof) and from the Nahe (diverging from the Schloss- 
Strasse beyond the Pariser Hof). 

The finest points in the neighbourhood of Bingen are the Rochus- 
capelle (E.) and the Scharlachkopf (S.E.), each about ifa nr - fr° m 

116 Route 17. RUDESHEIM. From Coblenz 

the town. In order to reach the Rochuscapelle we ascend the street 
at the back of the Englischer Hof , and pass the Cemetery, which 
contain^ monuments in memory of Napoleon's veterans and of the 
campaign of 18(0-71. Near the lower entrance is a tombstone 
with an epitaph in verse, beginning 'Wohl auch die stille Hius- 
lichkeit', and containing an equivoque which will amuse the visitor 
who understands German. The complimentary tenor of the in- 
scription as a whole is contradicted by that of the initial words 
when read by themselves. From the upper gate of the cemetery 
we reach the *H6tel Hartmann, with a terrace, commanding a fine 
view, in 1 / i hr. , and thence follow the road on the margin of the 
Rochusberg, which leads to the chapel in 5 min. more. 

The s Rochuscapelle , a chapel on the E. brow of the Rochus- 
berg, which descends abruptly to the Rhine , stands 341 ft. above 
the river, and commands a noble prospect. It was founded in 1666 
at the time of the plague, destroyed in 1795, and restored in 1814. 
The interior contains a representation of St. Roch leaving his dis- 
mantled palace , painted in commemoration of the restoration of 
the chapel, and presented by Goethe and others. At the festival of 
St. Roch (first Sunday after 16th Aug.), charmingly described by 
Goethe, thousands of persons congregate here and celebrate certain 
solemnities , to which open-air dances, music, and the ringing of 
glasses form a lively sequel. At the base of the Rochusberg is the 
imposing country-house of Prince William of Hessen-Philippsthal- 
Barchfeld, with a large veranda. 

From the Hotel Hartmann a good road leads along the N.W. 
brow of the hill to the Scharlachkopf, 1 M. to the S.W., the S. 
slopes of which, situated in the district of Bildesheim, yield the 
fiery Scharlachberger, the best of the Nahe wines. A fine view of the 
valley of the Nahe is obtained from a pavilion near the summit. 

The old Bridge over the Nahe, with its seven arches, Y2 M. 
from the mouth of the river, was constructed by Archbishop Willigis 
on the foundations of the old Roman bridge, and was afterwards 
repeatedly restored. Below the bridge is a plain Romanesque 
chapel, with a semicircular apse at the E. end, which may be 
entered, from a house on the right bank. The Nahe here forms the 
boundary between Hessen-Darmstadt and Prussia. The traveller 
proceeding to the Bingerbruck station may visit the 'Rondel' on his 
way, by following the Hunsriicken road to the left, past the first 
houses at the top of the hill (comp. p. 125). — Elisen-H'ohe and 
Salzkopf, see p. 125. 

On the E. bank, nearly opposite Bingen, lies Rudesheim, of 
wine-growing celebrity. 

1. RiideSlieim. — Hotels. *Darmstadter Hof, R. from 2-3, B. 1, D. 
2'/ 2 m., good winea; *Jdng, at the station, R. from l'^m. ; "Rbeinstein, R. 
from l'/ 2 , B. 1, D. 2'/2 m. ; Bellevoe; Hotel Krass ; Massmann ; Ehr- 
hard ; Traube, all on the Rhine. 

Restaurants at the station and the Rhtinhalle, opposite, with view. 

to Mayence. BCDESHEIM. 17. BouU. 117 

— Wine at the RUdetheimer Winzer Terein, Droaselgasge, at Jottph Mill- 
ler's, etc. 

Carriages, Horses, and Donkeys to the fflciderwald, aee p. 122; carr. . 
with two horses to Schloss Johannisberg 6, there and back 9 m., via 
Schloas Johanniaberg to Oeatrich 10 m. 

Steam Ferry Boat to Bingen, starting from Biidesheim at half-put 
every hour^ from the lower end of the town, fare 20 pf . ; to Bimgerbrkck, 
from- the station at Biidesheim in connection with the trains. Small boat 
from Biidesheim to Bingen or Bingerbriick, 1-3 persona 2 m. ; for each 
additional person 30 pf,, trunk 10 pi. See alao p. 122. 

Biidesheim (256 ft.), a district-town with 3600 inhab., most of 
whom live by the culture of the Tine, lies in a sunny situation at 
the S. base of the Niederwald (p. 122), at the point wheie the 
valley of the Rhine expands into the broad basin of the Bheingau. 
The celebrated wine of the place can boast the longest pedigree on 
the Rhine, though some of its brethren of the Rheingau are now 
considered superior. The best sorts are yielded by the vineyards be- 
hind the town, called the Minterhaus; the Rottland, close to the sta- 
tion, and those of the Berg extending below the town to Ehrenfels. 
The Gothic Roman Catholic Church, built in 1390-1400, has a 
vaulting of interesting construction and contains some ancient 
tombstones. The Protestant Church at the upper end of the town 
was built in 1855, A brisk river and railway-traffic is carried on 
here, and there is a spacious harbour above the town for the ac- 
commodation of vessels in winter (comp. Map, p. 124). 

At the lower end of the town, near the station, rises the Brom- 
serburg, or properly the Niederburg, the property of Count Ingel- 
heim, a massive rectangular structure, 108 ft. long, 70 ft. broad, and 
64 ft. high. The three vaulted stories belong to the 12th cent., when 
they were built with the remains of an earlier edifice. In the centre 
is a small well-like court (described by Goethe in 1814). The. castle 
was originally the seat pf the Knights of Biidesheim, who in 1282 
were compelled to become vassals of the Archbishop of Mayence as a 
punishment for brigandage. Down to the 14th cent, it was fre- 
quently occupied by the Archbishops of Mayence, who afterwards 
preferred the more modern Ehrenfels. Part of it was destroyed in 
1640. The interior has been restored and handsomely fitted up by 
the Counts of Ingelheim. Near the castle is the . Mammhti&ts der 
Brdmser, or ancestral residence of the Bromsers, a knightly family 
of Rudesheiin, and one of the most distinguished on the Rhine, 
which became extinct in the 17th century ; the building, with a 
tower and a turret at the side, is still well preserved, and is now 
used as a poor-house and asylum for children. The 'Vorderburg' , a 
fragment of an old square tower near the market-place, is the only 
relic of a castle belonging to the same family. 

The Oberburg, or Boosetiburg , an old tower of tapering form be- 
hind the Bromserburg, which for 300 years belonged to the Counts 
Boos , is now the property of a wine-merchant. ' 

Pleasant walk of l'/j hr. to the Kammerfortt, a forester's house (re- 
freshments), near whieh are the TwftUUUtrtob and the Jagtrltorn, two 

118 Route 17. JOHANNISBERG. From Coblenz 

good points of view. From the Kammerforst a broad track leada through the 
woods to Lorch. — From Rudesheim to the ruin of Ehrenfels (p. 114), Vshr. 

At Rudesheim begins the *Rheingau, a rich and beautiful 
district, whioh produces some of the most famous and costly wines 
in the world. The name is now applied to the tract on the E. (here 
N.) hank of the Rhine between Rudesheim and Niederwalluf, about 
12 M. in length and 5 M. in breadth. It formerly belonged to the 
Archbishopric of Mayence and extended down the river as far as 
Lorch. It was once completely enclosed by the 'Oebikk 1 , a densely 
interwoven and impenetrable belt of trees about 50 paces in width. 

A "Walk through the Rheingau may be taken as follows. From 
EHville to (2'/4 M.) Kiedrich (p. 117), and then past the large lunatic 
asylum of Eichberg to (3 M.) Eberbach: thence over the Bos and past 
the Steinberg to (274 M.) Hallgarten , and via Schloss Vollraths to (3 M.) 
Johannisberg ; then back to the Rhine at (l'/2 M.) Geisenheim. An ex- 
cursion should also be made from EHville to the Bubenhauser Sohe and 
Rauenthal (see p. 128). 

After passing Kempten and (rail, stat.) Oaulsheim, we reach — 

1. Geisenheim (* Frankfurter Ho f, R. & B. 2'/ 4 m., also 'pens.', 
good wine; Germania), a pleasant little town with 2900inhab., 
mentioned in history as early as the 8th century, and now boasting 
of a number of country-houses and handsome buildings. The late- 
Gothic Church, completed in 1510, has a conspicuous portal, and 
open towers of red sandstone added by Hoffmann in 1838. The 
Rathhaus was erected in 1856. At the E., or upper, entrance to the 
town is the residence of Count Schbnborn, and at the W. end is the 
villa of Consul von Lade, with an interesting garden and orchards. 
Near the station is the Pomological Institution, recently founded by 
government, which should be inspected by persons interested in 
the cultivation of fruit. The wine of Geisenheim, particularly the 
Rothenberger, is highly esteemed. 

On the hill behind Geisenheim , near Eibingen , rises the old nunnery 
of that name, founded in 1148, secularised in 1802, and used as an arsenal 
down to 1835. The church has since been restored to its sacred uses. 
Farther to the N.E. are the remains of the monastery of Nothgoltes (Agonia 
Domini), consecrated in 1390, now a farm. About 3 /i M. farther N. (2V4 M. 
from Rudesheim) is the monastery of Marienthal, now suppressed, pictur- 
esquely situated among woods. 

* Schloss Johannisberg , a conspicuous point in the landscape, 
picturesquely situated on a vine -clad eminence, 341 ft. above the 
Rhine, may be reached in y 2 hr. by a good road either from Geisen- 
heim or from Winkel (see below). The extensive chateau with its 
two wings was erected in 1757-59 by the Prince-Abbot of Fulda, 
on the site of an old Benedictine monastery founded by Arch- 
bishop Ruthard in 1106. The abbey-church was rebuilt in 1717- 
30. In 1802, on the suppression of the Abbey of Fulda (which pur- 
chased the 'Berg' from Mayence in 1716), the castle became the 
property of the Prince of Orange, in 1807 it was presented by Na- 
poleon to Marshal Kellermann, and in 1816 it was conferred by the 
Emp. of Austria as an imperial flef on Prince Clemens of Metter- 
nich, who did not fully recognise the sovereignty of the Duke of 

to Mayence. OESTRICH. 17. Saute. 119 

Nassau till 1851. His son, Prince Richard Metternich, is the pre- 
sent proprietor. The far-famed vineyards (comp. p. xxi), in area 
about 40 acres, yielding, in good years, an income of 8000J., are 
most carefully cultivated, and take the lead among the vineyards of 
the Rhine, although of late years there has been a great rivalry be- 
tween the wines of Johannisberg and Steinberg (p. 120). Visitors 
are not admitted to the interior of the chateau. (Good Johannis- 
berger at the restaurant, from 8 to 36 m. per bottle.) The Chapel of 
the chateau, consecrated in 1130, and now completely modernised, 
contains the tomb of the Rhenish historian Nicholas Vogt (d. 1836 ; 
comp. p. 115), the tutor of Prince Metternich. The balcony of the 
chateau commands a very striking view, but visitors are only ad- 
mitted when the family is absent. — On the Hanselberg, a hill 
lower down the Rhine, a little below Johannisberg, is the villa of 
Consul Bauer of Moscow. 

A few minutes' walk from the Schloss we reach Dorf Johannis- 
berg (*Mehrer, also a 'pension'), with an establishment for nervous 
patients, and beyond it Johannisberg im Orund (*Kauter), a village 
with an extensive machine-factory, whence we may now descend to 
the railway. Near the latter village, at the foot of the Schloss, lies 
the i Klause\ the remains of a nunnery founded by Rucholf, the 
brother-in-law of Archbishop Ruthard (see p. 118), and suppressed 
in 1452. 

1. Winkel (Rheingauer Hof, with garden ; Boring) and Mittel- 
heim (Ruthmann's Inn) together form one long street, so long that 
Goethe has described it as very trying to the patience. At the W. 
extremity is situated the country-house of Herr Brentano, mention- 
ed along with Goethe in Bettina von Arnim's 'Correspondence of a 
Child', where memorials of the poet are still preserved. 

At (1.) Oestrich (*Steinheimer, on the Rhine ; Kramer) the in- 
habitants of the Rheingau formerly swore fealty to the newly elected 
Archbishops of Mayence, who came here for the purpose , but were 
obliged first to confirm the privileges of the people. The village with 
its projecting crane, and Johannisberg in the background, forms a 
picturesque tableau. Near the railway stands the pretty villa of 
Herr von Stosch, the Prussian minister. 

On the slope behind Oestrich lies Hallgarten, in the midst of vine- 
yards •, near it is the well-preserved chateau of Vollraths, probably erected 
in 1362 by a member of the Oreiffenklau family , in whose possession it 
still is. Above Hallgarten rises the Hallgarter Zange (590 ft.), a beautiful 
point of view. 

Before reaching (1.) Hattenheim (Bess; beer at Noll's), a vil- 
lage with extensive cellars for the storage of wine, the road passes 
Schloss Reichartshausen, in a small park, 1 M. from Oestrich, the 
seat of the Countess Benkendorf. 

Between Hattenheim and Erbach lie the islands of Sandau, 
connected with the left bank, and Westfalisehe Au, or Rheinau. 
To the left of the road between these villages is the Marco- 

120 Route 17. ELTVILLE. From Coblenz 

brunnen ('boundary-well') , near -which are the vineyards yielding 
Marcobrunner, one of the most highly prized Rhenish wines, and 
chiefly belonging to Count Schonborn. 

1. Erbach. (*Engel; Wallfisch; Nassauer HofJ, mentioned in 
history as early as 980, is partially concealed from the steamboat- 
passenger by the island of Rheinau , iy 2 M. in length. At the W. 
end of the village is the chateau of Reinhartshausen , the property 
of the Princess Marianne of the Netherlands , containing a "Col- 
lection of pictures and sculptures; adm. from 1st May to 1st Oct. 
on week-days, 10-5 (1 m., for a charitable object). 

A broad path leads inland from Erbach to the (2^2 M.) once celebrated 
and richly endowed Cistercian Abbey of Eberbach, founded in 1116, erect- 
ed into an abbey by St. Bernard of Clairvaux in 1131 , and situated in 
one of those sequestered valleys which this order always selected for 
their monasteries. ('Bernardus valles, montes Benedictus amabat, oppida 
Franciscus, celebres Ignatius urbes.') 

The Abbey, secularised in 1803, and now used as a House of Cor- 
rection, was erected at various periods from the 12th to the 15th century. 
The Romanesque Abbey Church, consecrated in 1186, recently restored, 
contains a number of "Monuments, most of them of abbots of the 12th-18th 
century. The Gothic monument which encloses the tombs of Gerlach, 
Archbishop of Mayence (d. 1371), and Adolph II. of Nassau (d. 1474), 
particularly deserves inspection. The Refectory of the 13th cent., now 
occupied by wine-presses, the Gothic Chapter House of the close of the 
14th cent, (restored), the large Dormitory (partly altered), and a part of 
the cloisters which is still preserved are all deserving of notice. The 
vaults below these buildings are used as wine-cellars. The important 
wine-auctions which take place here every spring are attended by all the 
most noted Rhenish wine-merchants. 

Close to the abbey is the celebrated Steinberg vineyard, 60 acres in 
area, which was carefully cultivated by the industrious monks of Eber- 
bach from the 12th to the 19th century, and is now the property of 
government. The vines are tended with even greater care than those 
on the Johannisberg, and their produce is not less highly esteemed. The 
'Bog (an old word for 'hill'), an eminence close to the monastery, 875 ft. 
above the sea-level, commands a magnificent prospect, embracing the 
Steinberg vineyard. To the E. of the Eberbach valley , conspicuously 
situated on a hill, is the extensive Lunatic Asylum of Eichberg. 

1. Eltville (290 ft. ; *H6tel Reisenbach, in the town, Rheinbahn 
Hotel, at the station, belonging to the same landlord, R. l^-^m., 
B. 70 pf. ; restaurants at the Maimer Hof, Bahnhof-Str., and Crate's 
in the town; Burg Crass, see below), or Elfeld, with 2800 inhab., 
was once the capital of the Rheingau. The German king Giinther 
of Schwarzburg resigned his dignity here in 1349, when besieged 
and hard pressed by his opponent Charles IV. In the 14th and 
15th cent. Eltville was a residence of the Archbishops of Mayence, 
to which they often resorted to escape from civic broils. As early 
as 1465 a printing-press, established by Gutenberg himself after 
the unfortunate termination of his lawsuit with Fust, was in active 
operation here , twenty-five years only after the invention of the 
art. The handsome and lofty watch-tower, bearing the arms of the 
founder, with the adjoining castle-wall, is all that now remains of 
a castle erected in 1330 by Baldwin, Archbishop of Treves, at that 
time governor of Mayence. The church-tower belongs to the same 

to Mayence. BIEBRICH. 17. Route. 121 

date. The church contains a Renaissance monument. In and about 
the town are a number of villas and country-houses which give a 
handsome appearance to the place; that of Count El tz, in the 
Haupt-Strasse, in the German Renaissance style, is among the 
most Imposing. Omnibus and diligence to Schlangenbad and 
Schwalbaeh, see p. 128. 

A charming .excursion may be made from Eltville to the (*A hr.) 
'Mubmhittmr BShe and (1 hr.) Rauenfhal; comp. p. 128. 

About l s /4 M. to the N.W. , concealed amidst vine-clad hills, lies the 
large village of Kiedrich ("Engel; 'Krone), a great resort of pilgrims. The 
Gothic church of St. Valentine, and the ehapel of "St. Michael, erected 
in 1440 in the ornate late -Gothic style, restored in 1858, merit a visit. 
Near Kiedrich is the OrS/enberg, one Of the most celebrated Vineyards of 
the Rheingau; it is crowned by the castle of Seharfenstein, which was 
erected by the Archbishops of Mayence at the close of the 12th cent., 
dismantled by the Swedes in 1632, and finally by the French in 1682. — 
Kiedrich is l 1 /* M. from Eberbach (p. 120). 

Beyond Eltville several more villas are passed, the most conspi- 
cuous of which are Burg Crass, with a large garden-restaurant, Villa 
Rheinberg, and the Steinheimer Hof, the last belonging to the Duke 
of Nassau. The island opposite, called the EltviUer Au, is occupied 
by a large farm. The church-tower, of Rquenthal (p. 128) is visible 
on the hills in the background. 

On the opposite bank of the Rhine is Budenheim (p. 126). 

1. Niederwalluf (fSchwan, good wine , *Oartenfeld, both with 
gardens; *Zur Sehmen Aussieht, at the station), a place with 1000 
inhab., mentioned as early' as 770, lies at the upper extremity of 
the rich wine-district of the Rheingau (p. 118). The road from 
Niederwalluf to Schlangmbad and Sckwalbach unites at Neudorf 
with the high-road from Eltville (p. 128). 

1. Schierstein (*Drei Kronen; *8eibel), an old village, with a 
manufactory of sparkling wine and a large river-harbour constructed 
in 1858, stands in the midst of a vast orchard. About l J / 2 M. in- 
land is the ruin of Frauenstein with the village (Weisses Ross) of 
that name; on the hill, 5 min. to the E. of the latter stands the 
Nurnbetger Hof (refreshments) with extensive view. 

1. Biebrich. — Hotels. 'Eobopaischer Hof; "Bellevde, with a gar- 
den-restaurant; Kbonb ; all with gardens and terraees on the Rhine; Kas- 
sadek HOF, open in summer only. Beer at Wnth't, Kasernen-Str. 

Omnibus to Wiesbaden on the arrival of some of the steamboats, 
see p. 131. *» 

Railway Stations. That of the Taunus Railway (for Castel and frank- 
fort) lies on the Rhine ; that of the Railway of the Right Bank (Wiesbaden, 
the Rheingau) is at Dfosbach (p. 128), near the S.E. gate of the park. 

Steamboat to Mayence (p. 136), about every half-hour. 

Bie5n>k(280 ft.), which with Mosbach fp. 128) now forms one 
town of 80t)0 inhab., is a busy place, with iron, cloth, glass, and 
various other manufactories. Down to the Prussian occupation in 
1866 it was a summer-residence of the Duke of Nassau. At the 
upper end Of the town is a School for Non-commissioned Officers, 
built of red brick as a barrack in 1859, and at the lower the Palace 
of Duke Adolf of Nassau,- completed in 1706 in the Renaissance 

122 Route 18. N1EDERWALD. 

style. The extensive and well-kept garden and *Park abound with 
beautiful walks. The Moosburg, a miniature castle in the palace- 
garden, built in 1806 in the mediaeval style, occupies the site of 
the imperial palace of Biburk, where Louis the German resided in 
874 (fee 40 pf.). Near the pier is a Monument in commemoration 
of the war of 1870-71, by Hoffmann. — The Elisabethenhohe, near 
Curve (p. 215), a hill provided with benches, affords a fine view of 
Biebrich and the Rhine. 

Beyond Biebrich the steamboat passes between two islands , the 
Ingelheimer Au on the right and the Petersau on the left. On the 
latter, at his summer-residence , the Emp. Louis the Pious, son 
and successor of Charlemagne , expired in 840. His body was con- 
veyed to Metz and interred there. 

The steamboat-pier at Mayence is at the lower end of the town, 
below the bridge-of-boats, and '/ 2 M. from the railway -station, 
which is situated on the Rhine at the upper end. 

Mayence, see Route 22. 

18. The Niederwald. 

See Map, p. 124, 

Tariffs at Riidesheim and Assmannshausen. Donkey, Mule, or Horse 
with Guide from Rudesheim to the Temple on the Niederwald (or from 
Assmannshausen to the Jagdschloss) 1 m. 60, 1 m. 80 pf., or 2 m.; to all 
the points of view and the Schloss 2 m. 80, 3 m., or 3 m. 50 pf. ; to all 
the points of view, the Jagdschloss, and Assmannshausen (or vice versa, 
from Assmannshausen to Rudesheim) 3, 3'/2, or 4 m. — Guide alone, 3/4, 1, 
or l'/2 m. — Carriage with two horses from Rudesheim to the Niederwald 
and Schloss 6 , there and back 9 m., or descending to Assmannshausen 
11 m.; the same, returning along the Rhine, 13 m.; same excursion from 
Assmannshausen, and then by the Johannisberg to Rudesheim 17 m. 

Boat from Rudesheim to Rheinstein, waiting 2 hrs. at the castle, and 
to Assmannshausen, 5 m.; to Assmannshausen alone 3 m. — From Ass- 
mannshausen to Rheinstein 1 m. — From Bingen to Assmannshausen 1-6 
pers. 3 m., Rheinstein, with stay of 2 hrs., and Assmannshausen 5 m.; 
return fare one-half more. The boatmen are provided with badges ; two 
must always be in each boat; want of respect or attempts to overcharge 
are punishable. 

Flan. Assmannshausen (p. 114) , the best starting-point owing to the 
greater ease of the ascent and the more gradual and striking development 
of the views, may either be reached by railway (R. 20) or boat from 
Rudesheim, or by boat from Bingen. In the latter case the Rheinstein 
(p. 113) may be visited by the way, the boatmen waiting while the trav- 
eller visits the castle. (Or the Rheinstein may be reached from Bingen 
on foot in 1 hr.) From Assmannshausen on foot over the Niederwald to 
Rudesheim in 2 hrs. (guide unnecessary). Riders are advised to take their 
donkeys or horses only as far as the Schloss and there dismiss them, as 
the paths through the wood are level and shady, while the descent to 
Rudesheim is unpleasant for riders. The vineyard-paths are closed in 
September and October, and the traveller is then obliged to descend by 
a somewhat circuitous route. 

The * Niederwald (1083 ft.), a wooded hill, clothed with 
vineyards on its S. slopes, which are known as the 'Riidesheimer 
Berg', and rising from the Rhine at the point where the river quits 
the Rheingau and suddenly turns towards the N. , vies with the 

NIEDERWALD. 18. Route. 123 

Diachenfels as a point of attraction to excursionists, and commands 
a noble prospect in the direction of Mayence. 

Assmannahausen , see p. 11$. Leaving the Rhine, we follow 
the street leading through a gateway above the Anker Hotel and 
immediately afterwards passing the railway-station (p. 127) and 
then the church. At a small shrine, */« M. from Assinannshausen, 
the new bridle-path diverges to the right from the cart-road (which 
remains in the valley) , and ascends in windings through under- 
wood. In Ya hr. more we reach the Jagdschloss (Hotel and Pension, 
gpod wine, but expensive), a shooting-lodge, which with the whole 
of the Niederwald is the property of government. — The cart-road 
in the ravine, the vine-clad slopes of which yield the celebrated red 
wine of Assmannshausen, ascends gradually to (t/g hr.) Aulhmuen, 
a village inhabited by potters (near it the suppressed nunnery of 
Marimhausen, now a farm), turns to the right at the church, and 
reaches the Jagdschloss in 20 rain. more. 

Beyond the Jagdschloss we pass the 'Hotel & Pension' on the 
left, and in 10 min. reach the Zcniberhohle (hoy to open the Zauber- 
hdhle and Rossel, 25 pf.), or 'magic cave', a dark passage , at the 
end of which there is a semicircular chamber with three apertures 
commanding views, through clearings in the wood* of the Clemens- 
kapelle, the Falkenburg, and Rheinstein. 

Five min. walk farther is the *Rossel (1125 ft. above the sea, 
880 ft. above the river), an artificial ruin on the highest point of 
the Niederwald, commanding a beautiful prospect: to the W. the 
valley of the Nahe, with the DonnersbeTg and Soonwald in the back- 
ground; to the right the wooded heights of the Hunsriick. Far be- 
low, the Rhine rushes through the Bingerloch, past the ruin of 
Ehrenfels and the Mouse Tower. On the opposite bank lies Bingen 
with the castle of Klopp, sheltered by the Rochusberg. In the valley 
of the Nahe are numerous villages, extending nearly as far as Kreuz- 
nach, which, however, is not visible. On the right, in the im- 
mediate vicinity, rises Rheinstein, with the Swiss house; farther 
down stands the Clemenskapelle, beyond it the Falkenburg. From 
the Rossel to Riidesheim 1 Y4 hr. 

From the Rossel a path leads S.E. through a small plantation 
of pines to the (12 min.) AdotphthShe, exactly opposite the influx 
of the Nahe, and the (lO min.) Hermitage; the path next passes 
a stone seat , where we still keep to the right , and leads to the 
(10 min'.) 'Temple'. A few min. walk to the S. of the stone seat is 
a footpath leading to the right to a projecting spur of the hill , on 
which a "Rational Monument, by Prof. Schilling of Dresden, is being 
erected in commemoration of the restoration of the German empire. 
The foundation-stone of this imposing memorial was laid by 
Emp. William in 1877, and the handsome, architectural basis, 78 ft. 
high, and part of the sculptural ornamentation are already finished ; 
but the work will not be completed till the end of 1882. The figure 

124 Route 19. BOPPARD. From Coblenz 

of Germania is to be 33 ft. in height. The cost of the undertaking 
amounts to 1,100,000 m. The adjacent hut contains a good model 
of the monument (20 pf.). 

The *Temple (1050 ft. above the sea, 804 ft. above the Rhine), 
an open structure borne by columns, and covered with a dome, 
stands on the brow of the hill, and commands an admirable survey 
of the entire Rheingau, bounded on the S.E. by the Taunus Mts., on 
the S. by the Melibocus, and on the W- by the distant Donnersberg. 

From this point the road proceeds to the left, reaching a finger- 
post (5 min.), whence the path to the left leads to Riidesheim in 
y 2 hr. The steep path diverging to the right at the finger-post 
descends through vineyards, and leads to the station in about V4 nr -> 
and to the town in 5 min. more, but is closed before and during the 
vintage. Another steep and stony path descends immediately from 
the Temple, joining the other path about halfway down. Riides- 
heim, see p, 116. 

From RtoESHEiM to the Temple 45 min. ; thence to the Jagd- 
schloss 40 min. ; down to Assmannshausen 25 min., or by Aul- 
hausen 40 minutes. From the Riidesheim station we ascend by a 
path to the left on this side of the Bromserburg, but when the 
vineyards are closed we follow the cart-road which ascends from the 
church in the middle of the town. 

19. From Coblenz to Mayence. 

Railway on the Left Bank. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 102, 12i. 

Railway to Bingerbriick, 39 M., express in IV2-IV4 hr. (fares 5 m., 
3 m. 70, 2 m. 50 pf.). — From Bingerbriick to Mayence, 20 M., in '/V 
1 hr. (fares 2 m. 80, 1 m. 80, 1 m. 20 pf.). View to the left. 

Railway on the Bight Bank, see R. 20. Return-tickets, available for 1-2 
days, may be used on either bank as far as Bingerbriick and Riidesheim 
(see p. 65). — Steamboat, see R. 17. 

Coblenz, see R. 16. As far as Bingen the line generally runs 
close to the river, and passes the places more minutely described 
in R. 17. Many of the beauties of the scenery are of course lost to 
the railway-traveller. 

As Coblenz is quitted a view of the island of Oberwerth and the 
fortress of Ehrenbreitstein is obtained to the left. 3 3 / 4 M. Capelleri 
(steamb. stat.) lies at the foot of the castle of Stolzenfels (p. 98). 
Opposite are Oberlahnstein and the castle of Lahneck. After pass- 
ing the Konigsstuhl, which rises to the left, the line intersects the 
old village of Rhens. Farther up, on the opposite bank, is Brau- 
bach with the Marksburg, and beyond it the chateau of Liebeneck. 
Then — 

1272 M. Boppard (steamb. stat.; p. 102); 1572 M. Sahig (p. 
104). A little farther on are the castles of Sterrenberg and Lie- 
benstein and the convent of Bornhofen ; still farther up are Wel- 
mich and the Mouse. 

to Mayence. INGELHEIM. 19. Route. 125 

22 M. St. Goal (gteamb. stat. ; p. 104). The station lies on a 
height at the back of the town, pn the opposite bank is St. Goars- 
hausen with the Cat. To the left, farther on, we obtain a view 
of the Lurlei. Three tunnels, beyond which is (.26 M.) Oberwesel 
(ateamb. stat. ; p. 108). We next have a view on the left of Caub, 
the Pfalz, and the ruin of Gutenfels (p. 109), and then reach — 

30 M. Bacbaracb. (steamb. stat. ; p. 110); 32 M. Niederheim- 
hzeh (steauib. stat.; p. 112); 35 M. Trechtlingshausen (p. 113). On 
the opposite bank, Assmannshausen and Lorch successively come 
insight. At Bingerbriiok the wider part of the valley is entered. 

39 M. Bingerbrack (see p. 115) lies on the left (Prussian) bank 
of the Nahe, about % M. from Bingen, and nearly opposite the 
Mouse Tower (p. 114). Travellers bound for Kreuznach (p. 146), 
Saarbrucken, Treves, Metz, etc., change carriages here. — Steam- 
boat to Riidesheim (p. 116). Comp. Map, p. 124. 

On the road to the Hunsriicken, which ascends from the left bank of 
the Nahe to Weiler, is situated the liondel. iy« II. from the railway 
station, a spot which commands an excellent view of the Rhine and Nahe, 
with Bingen and the Klupp forming a picturesque foreground. Leaving 
the Bingerbrack station, we cross the rails of the Rhein-Nahe-Bahn (R, 23) 
and reach the high-road by a flight of steps. The Rondel, being a con- 
spicuous point planted with trees, is easily recognised. A little below it 
is a modern Gothic villa. 

The '.Elisenhihe (673 ft. above the Rhine), V* hr. from the Binger- 
brack station, commands a still finer view than the Rondel. A finger- 
post near a group of houses on the road above the station indicates the 
route. 'At* the top is a pavilion, erected in l-<78. The view embraces' the 
Sheingau, the Miederwald with its monument (opposite), and, down the 
Rhine, the Falkenburg (p. 113). A finger-post on the way to the Elisen- 
hbhe points out the puth to the Prituenkopf, another fine point of view. 

The Balzkopf (2004 ft.; to the W. of the Franzotenlopf, marked on 
the map at p. 234) commands an extensive view up and down the Rhine, 
embracing the Pfalz and Hunsruck (tower at the top). Refreshments at 
the adjacent forester's house of LauichhUtte. From Bingen the Salzkopf 
may be ascended in3hrs., via Heiiigkrmz; from TrtchtKngihavien (■$. 113) 
the ascent, through the Morgenbachthal and past the Jagerhaus, also takes 
3 hrs. j from Mederhtimbttch, via Oberkeimbach, it is accomplished in one 

The train now crosses the Nahe. To the left a view of the 
Niederwald and the ruined castle of Ehrenfels (p. 114). 

39V2 M. Bingen (steamb. stat.), see p. 115. The line now skirts 
the base of the Bochusberg (several villas to the right), unites with 
the line from Alzey (B. 35) and begins to diverge from the Bhine. 
42 M. Qaulsheim. M l fa M. Gau-Algesheim. A view of the Johan- 
nisberg to the left is sometimes obtained, but the country generally 
is flat and uninteresting. 

46 M. Ingelheinii station for the two villages of Nieder-Ingtl- 
heim (Hirsch) and Ober-Ingilheim (Lamm) , each 2 / 3 M. distant. 
Nieder - Ingelheim was once the site of a celebrated palace 
of Charlemagnd , described by ancient writers as an edifice of 
great magnificence ('domus alta centum peril xa columnis'), to 
adorn which mosaics, sculptures, and other works of art were 
sent from Eavenna by Pope Hadrian I. between 768 and 784. It 

126 Boutel9. HEIDESHEIM. 

was burned down in 1270, but was restored by Charles IV. in 1354. 
Few relics of the building are now extant (syenite columns of the 
fountain at the castle of Heidelberg, see p. 237). The Protestant 
St. Remigiuskirche was once the chapel of the palace, but as it has 
been repeatedly restored, nothing of the original is now left except 
some parts of the N. transept. The handsome Protestant Church 
of Ober-Ingelheim , recently restored, dates from the 13th century. 
It was at Ingelheim , on 30th Dec. 1105, that the convocation of 
the bishops of Mayence , Cologne , and Worms dethroned Emp. 
Henry IV., an event which is quaintly described by the old 
German historian Sebastian Miinster (1550). The red wine of 
Ingelheim is much esteemed. — The * Waldeck (590 ft. above the 
Rhine), about 1 M. beyond Ober-Ingelheim, with a pavilion and 
grounds, affords a charming view of the Rheingau. 

49V2 M. Heidesheim, where good wine is produced. At (53 M.) 
Budenheim and (55'/2 M.) Mombach (as also at "Weisenau, p. 243) 
there are numerous quarries of shell-limestone , consisting of 
myriads of litorinelli, which is largely exported to the Lower Rhine 
and Holland, and supplies numerous limekilns on the banks of 
the river. 

59 M. Mayence, see R. 22. 

20. From Coblenz to Wiesbaden. Schlangenbad and 

Railway on the Bight Sank. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 102, 124. 

59'/2 M. Railway to Niederlahnstein (3 M.) in 8-15 min. (fares 50, 40, 
30 pf.)i thence to Wiesbaden (59 M.) in 2>/2-3 hrs. (fares 7 m. 60, 5 m., 3 m. 
20 pf). Return-tickets, see p. 65. — Views to the right. 

Travellers bound for Castel or Frankfort (R. 29a) need not go via 
Wiesbaden, as there is a direct line from stat. Curve (p. 215) to stat. 
Mosbach (see below ; Map, p. 124). 

Journey from Cologne to Coblenz, see R. 10; from Deutz to 
Ehrenbreitstein, see R. 11 . Description of Coblenz, and Ehrenbreit- 
stein, see R. 16. 

Passengers who start from Coblenz cross the handsome new rail- 
way-bridge (p. 94) at the island of Oberwerth. The line from 
Ehrenbreitstein passes the old railway-bridge (which is now used 
only for local trains between Coblenz and Ehrenbreitstein), and 
tuns at the back of Pfaffendorf (p. 98), commanding a fine view the 
whole way. Opposite the island of Oberwerth it unites with the 
Coblenz line (see above). — 2^2 ML Horchheim (p. 98). 

4 M. Niederlahnstein (p. 98) , the junction of the Coblenz- 
Cologne and Moselle lines , the Ehrenbreitstein and Deutz line 
(R. 11), and the Lahn railway (R. 27). 

The line crosses the Lahn. View of Capellen and Stolzenfels 
to the right, and of the Lahnthal and Lahneck to the left. 

OBERLAHNSTEIN. 20. Route. 127 

4'/j M. Oberlahnstein (steamb. stat.). Opposite lies the village 
of Rhens, with the Konigsstuhl (p. 100). 

7 M. Braubaeh, with the Marksburg (p. 101). 11 M. Osterspay 
(p. 102). Passing the small village of Filzen, we now obtain a view 
of Boppard, beautifully situated on the opposite bank. 15 M. Camp 
(steamb. stat., p. 103), a little above which are the pilgrimage- 
church and convent of Bornhofen at the foot of the 'Brothers', as 
the ruined castles of Sterrenberg and Liebenstein are usually called 
(p. 103). 17y 2 M. Kestert (p. 104), beyond which the train passes 
the village of Welmich, with the 'Mouse' castle rising above it. Far- 
ther on are the extensive ruins of Rheinfels on the opposite bank. 

22 M. St. Goarshausen (steamb. stat.), with the ruined castle 
of the 'Cat' (p. 106). Opposite lies the picturesque little town of 
St. Goar. The train now passes through a tunnel under the Lurlei, 
and through another under the Rossstein. On the opposite bank lies 
Oberwesel, a picturesque little town, commanded by the Schonburg. 

29 M. Caub (steamb. stat., p. 109), above which rises the ruin 
of Gutenfels. In the middle of the Rhine is the curious old chateau 
of the Pfale. Higher up the river, on the opposite bank, lies the 
venerable town of BachaTach, overshadowed by the ruin of Stahleck; 
then the ruin of Fiirstenberg and the village of Rheindiebach. The 
train intersects the village of Lorchhausen. 

32^2 M. Larch (steamb. stat., p. 112). On the opposite bank, 
farther up, is Niederheimbach, commanded by the round tower of 
the Heimburg ; then the slender tower of the Sooneck, the ruin of 
Falkenburg, the Clemenskapelle, and the picturesque modernised 
castle of Rheinstein. 

37 M. Assmannshausen (steamb. stat., p. 114) is the usual start- 
ing-point for a visit to the Niederwald (p. 122). Opposite, a little 
higher up, is the mouth of the Nahe, immediately above which lies 
Bingen. The train passes below the ruin of Ehrenfels, opposite which 
lies the island with the Mouse Tower, where the stream is very rapid. 

40 M. Budesheim (steamb. stat., p. 116). On the left rises the 
Bromserburg. Ferry to Bingerbruck (junction for Kreuznach), situat- 
ed immediately below Bingen on the opposite bank, 20 or 10 pf. — 
Opposite rises the Rochusberg, with its chapel (p. 116). 

42^2 M. Geisenheim (steamb. stat., p. 118). On the hill to the 
left are the village and monastery of Eibingen. — 45 M. Oestrich- 
Winkel (steamb. stat., p. 119) ; the station is at Mittelheim, between 
these two places. To the left is Schloss Vollraths. From Winkel to 
Johannisberg an easy ascent of 35 minutes. 

47^2 M. Hattenheim. On the hill to the left is Hallgarten , a 
famous wine-producing place, immediately below which are the still 
more famous Steinberg, the Abbey of Eberbach, and the Eichberg 
Lunatic Asylum. To the right is Schloss Reichartshausen. To the 
right we also obtain a view of the green islands in the Rhine. — 
49 M. Erbach (p. 120). 

128 Route 20. SCHLANGENBAD. From Coblenz 

50 M. Eltville (st?amb. stat., p. 120); route to Schlangenbc 
and Schwalbach, see below. In the background rises the handsou 
tower of the Scharfenstein (p. 121). The train traverses vineyard 
and passes a number of country-houses. On the hill to the le 
rises the church-tower of Eauenthal (p. 121). 52 M. Niederwalit 
(steamb. stat., p. 121); 54^2 M. Schierstein (p. 121), where tl 
train begins to quit the river. 

56 M. Biebrich-Mosbach (steamb. stat., p. 121). The N. ei 
trance to the park is near the railway-station. On the opposite bar 
rise the towers of Mayence. Beyond Curve (p. 215) the train tun 
inland to the left, running parallel for some distance with the Tauni 
line, and soon reaches — 

59! /2 M. Wiesbaden, see p. 130. 

Schlangenbad and Schwalbach are most conveniently visit! 
from Eltville, Wiesbaden, or Dietz (p. 197). 

From Eltville to Schlangenbad 5 M. , to Schwalbach about 4Va I 
farther (in summer omnibus 4 times daily in connection with the train 
diligence twice daily in summer to Schlangenbad in l l /4 hr., fare bO p: 
and to Schwalbach in 2>A hrs.. fare 1 m. 50 pf.). Carriage from Eltville 
Schlangenbad with one horse 5-7 m., with two horses 8-9 m., to Schwalbac 
9 l /z m. or 15 m. ; return-fare, with 3 hrs. stay, one-half more. 

From Wiesbaden to Schwalbach diligence twice daily in2Vshrs., fai 
1 m. 90 pf. ; omnibus daily, fare 2 m. — From Mahnstdtten to Schwalbai 
diligence daily in 3 l /2 hrs. ; comp. p. 197. 

Eltville, see p. 120. The road from Eltville traverses the plai 
of the Sulzbach (to the left in the distance rises the lofty tower i 
Scharfenstein, near Kiedrich, p. 121), and gradually ascend 
skirting the foot of the Rauenthal vineyards, to (l 3 /4 M.) Neudo' 
(Krone), where it unites with the road from Niederwalluf ar 
Schierstein. It next passes the suppressed monastery of Tiefenth 
(now a mill), and leads through an attractive, shaded valley, ei 
livened by numerous mills, to (3 3 /4 M.) Schlangenbad. 

Pedestrians should select the somewhat longer route by Rauenths 
The high-road is quitted 1 M. from Eltville, and the vineyards ascend' 
by a footpath to the left; on reaching the summit of the plateau, tu: 
again slightly to the left; (25 min.) the "Bubenhduser Hbhe (846 ft.), coi 
manding a magnificent view of the entire Rheingau from Mayence as far 
below Johannisberg ; in the foreground lies the attractive town of Eltvill 
About 3 / 4 M. farther N. , on the summit of the hill, is situated Rauenth 
("Nassauer Hof, with garden; "Rheingauer Hof), a village with an ancie 
church , and celebrated for its wine. The carriage-road to it from Ne 
dorf (see above) ascends to the left at a direction-post , /t M. beyond tl 
village, leading to Rauenthal in i/« nr ' On the slope of the hill on tl 
N. side of Rauenthal a shady promenade leads to Schlangenbad in »/4 i 
Those who prefer the high-road descend to the right by a way-post abo 
1/4 SI. from the village. To the road »/* M -, to Schlangenbad ly 2 M. mor 

Schlangenbad. — Hotels. Nassauer Hof, R. from iy 2 , D. 3, B. 1 m 
Hotel Victoria ; Hotel Planz ; Germania ; Rheingaukr Hof, unpreten 
ing. There are also the Royal Bath Houses (R. 1-10 m.), and numeroi 
lodging-houses where breakfast only is supplied. 

Baths f/2 m. ; those at the new bath-house better, 2 m. — A Tax 
12 m. for the season is exacted froni a single patient, with 9 m. for eac 
additional member of a party. 

to Wiesbaden. SCHWALBACH. 20. Route. 1 29 

Carriages, two-horse 5 m., one-horse 3'/s m. per hour, after 11 p.m. 
7 and 5 m.— Donkey, per hour, 1 m. 20 pf. 

Schlangenbad (826 ft.) is charmingly situated in a richly wooded 
valley , refreshed by a constant , invigorating current of air. The 
water (84-90° Fahr.), which is only used externally , and is clear 
and free from odour, and smooth and oily to the touch, is most effi- 
cacious in skin complaints, convulsive affections, debility, and sim- 
ilar maladies ; the baths are principally visited by ladies. The old 
bath-house, or Curhaus, was erected in 1694 by the Landgrave Carl 
of Hessen-Cassel , then lord of the soil ; the spacious new Bath 
House was completed in 1868. The terrace is the chief rendezvous 
of visitors. A covered iron promenade connects the bath-house, 
thermal spring, Cursaal, reading-room, etc. The environs afford a 
great variety of well-shaded wood- walks (e.g. Wilhelmsfelsen, the 
Oraue Stein, etc.). 

The reader will find an interesting description of this locality 
in Sir Francis Head's 'Bubbles from the Brunnens of Nassau.' 

From Schlangenbad to Wiesbaden (7>/2 M. ; two-horse carr. there 
and back 15-18 m.). The carriage-road by (i'/ t M.) Georgenborn (1187 ft.) 
is the best route for pedestrians. From the highest point there is a 
magnificent prospect, extending from Frankfort as far as the confluence 
of the Main and Ehine, and from Worms to Bingen, with the Donnersberg 
in the background. To the Chausseehaus (p. 136) 2'/4M., thence via Claren- 
thal (p. 136) to (3'/2 M.) Wiesbaden by the old Wiesbaden and Schwalbach 

The high-road from Schlangenbad by Wambach to Schwalbach 
(4!/ 2 M.) rises considerably for 2i/ 2 M. , commanding a fine view 
from the culminating point, and then descends to (2 M.) Schwal- 
bach. Pedestrians may descend by a shady footpath, which is in- 
dicated by sign-posts. 

Schwalbach. — Hotels. "Alleesaal, "Hekzog von Nassau, in these 
two D. 4 m.; "Post, D. 3V2, R. from 2 m., B. 1 m. ; "Hotel Metropolk ; 
Taunus Hotel, Rdssischek Hof, "Wagneb, D. at the last three 2 m. — 
Some of the numerous Lodging-Houses are very comfortably fitted up. In 
July it is advisable to secure rooms in advance. 

Restaurants. Cursaal, D. 3 m.; Dille, Garlenlaube, D. 2 m. ; Weiden- 
hof, Marktplatz, D. l'/ 2 m. 

Beading Room open to the public. 

Baths in the Konigliches Badhaus (6 a.m. till l'/s p.m., 1 m. 80 pf. or 
2 m.). At the Sladt Coblenz, Engl. Hof, Linde, Zum Lindenbrunnen, etc., 
1 m. 20 to 1 m. 50 pf. per bath. Bath Tax 10 m. for 1 person. — Music in 
the morning and afternoon, at the Stahlbrunnen and Paulinenbrunnen al- 
ternately. — Fee to the girl at the wells discretionary. 

Carriages. One-horse 3>/2, two-horse 6 m. per hour, after 11 p. m. 2 in. 
more; to Eltville 9V2 and 15 m. ; to Wiesbaden 10 and 15 m. — Donkeys 
l>/2 m. per hour; for excursions there is a fixed tariff. 

Telegraph Office at the post-office. 

English Church Service in the Lutheran Church during the season. 

Schwalbach (951 ft.), officially called Langenschwalbach, 12 M. 
N.W. of Wiesbaden, 9i/ 2 M. N. of Eltville, and 15 M. S. of Hahn- 
statten (p. 197), is situated in a beautiful green valley. It was 
known as early as the year 300, and was a fashionable watering- 
place in the 17th and 18th centuries, but is now regarded more 

Baedeker's Khine. 8th Edit. 9 

130 Route 21. WIESBADEN. 

as a health-resort and medicinal spa. The water, strongly ii 
pregnated with iron and carbonic acid, is adapted for internal ai 
external use, and is especially efficacious in nervous and fema 
complaints. The annual number of visitors is about 5000. 

The three principal springs, the Stahlbrunnen, in one of t 
Talleys, and the Weinbrunnen and Paulinenbrunnen in the oth( 
are connected by promenades. The principal Bath House, call 
the Konigliches Badehaus, is at the Weinbrunnen. A handsoi 
Cursaal, with restaurant, reading-room, etc., was opened in 187 

Walks in the pleasure - grounds and adjacent woods. Also to t 
(10 min. ; donkey 50 pf.) Paulinenberg ; the Platte (1329 ft.), the sumn 
of which, with a fine view, may be reached in 15-20 min. more; and t 
Bvaunchesberg, commanding a good view of the town and the valley 
the Aar. — Longer Excursions may be taken to the ruins of Adolphsi 
(Kling), 2'/2 M. down the valley of the Aar, on the road to Dietz, and 
Hohenstein (Inn at the ruins), 3 M. farther on. A good road leads frc 
Schwalbach down the picturesque valley of the Wisper to Geroldste 
Sauerthal (Sauerburg), and Lorch (p. 112). 

Feom Schwalbach to Wiesbaden (diligence and omnibus twice da 
in 2 hrs.) there are two roads. The new road, now almost exclusivi 
used, ascends by the course of the Aar to Bleidenstadt and Halm, th 
quits the valley, and traverses wooded heights towards the S.E. The ( 
road crosses the Hohe Wurzel (near which is the Rothekreuzkopf, 1673 I 
a fine point of view) and passes the Chausseehaus (1184 ft.), where it unii 
with the road from Schlangenbad to Wiesbaden (p. 129). 

21. Wiesbaden. 

Arrival. The stations of the Right Rhenish Railway (R. 20), Taun 
Railway (R. 29a), and Hessische Ludwigsbahn (to Idstein, p. 220) are : 
on the S. side of the town (Plan E, 8). Cab from the stations into t 
town, one-horse, 1-2 pers. 80 pf., 3-4 pers. 1 m. ; two-horse, 1 m. 10 
i m. 30 pf. ; each box 20 pf., small articles free. The steamboats stop 
Biebrich (see p. 121). Omnibus, see p. 131. 

Hotels. "Nassauer Hof (PI. b; E, 5), in the Theater-Platz , witl 
handsome dependance, colled the Villa Nassau, Sonnenberger-Str. 1 (. 
F , 5) ; *Vier Jahreszeiten & Hotel Zais (PI. a , E 5) , also in t 
Theater-Platz; "Rose (PI. d; E, 5), Kranz-Platz 7-9, with a large garde 
Hotel Victoria, Rhein-Str. 1, corner of the Wilhelm-Str. (PI. E, F, * 
"Adleb (PI. c; D, 5), Langgasse 32, near the Kochbrunnen; all th( 
fashionable and expensive. "Bar (PI. 1; E, 5), Langgasse 41, with 'pi 
sion 1 ; 'Grand Hotel, Schiitzenhof-Str. 3 and 4, opposite the old post-off 
(PI. 16 ; D, 6) , with 'pension' ; *Rhein-H6tel , to the left on leaving t 
station, at the corner of the Rheinbahn-Str. (PI. E, 8), R. 2'/2-3 m., 
60, A. 50-75, B. 1 m. 20 pf., D. 3 m.; 'Hotel du Nord, Wilhelm-Str 
(PI. E, 6), R., L., and A. from 2'/2 m.; all first-class and with baths. 
Second Class: "Gruner Wald (PI. h; E, 6), Markt-Str. 10, R. from 2 1 
B. 1 in., A. 50, D. 2 m. 40 pf. ; -Hotel Weins, Bahnhof-Str. 7 (PI. E, 
R., L., and A. from l'/j m., D. a la carte l'/4-2m.; Spehner, Wilhel 
Str. 28, R. & A. from l'/jm., with baths; "Taunus Hotel (PI. e; E, 
Rhein-Str. 3, R. from 2 m., L. 45 pf., A. 50 pf., B. 1 m., D. 3 in., go 
wines (starting-point of the Schwalbach omnibus); "Railway Hotel, Rhe 
Str. la, moderate, with garden-restaurant; Hotel Vogel, Rhein-Str. 
(PI. T>, E, 7); these three near the stations. — -Alter Nonnenhof, Kirc 
gasse 41 (PI. D, 7), R. 1 m. 20 to 1 m. 70 pf., D. I1/2 m. ; Einhorn , 1 
pretending. — H6tels Garnis: H6tel Block (near the theatre and Trin 
halle), Berliner Hof, Hdtel Bellevue, all in the Wilhelm-Str., comfortal 
but expensive. 

Bath Houses. Europaischer Hof(B\. i ; E, 5), Kochbrunnen-Platz 5; Mi 



21. Route. 131 

4ischer Hof (PI. k; E, 5), Kranz-Platz 11; Bar, see above; Kaiserbad, Wil- 
helm-Str. 42 (PI. E, 7); RSmerbad (PI. m; E, 5), Kochbrunnen-Platz 3; 
"Engel (PI. n ; E, 5), Kranz-Platz 6 ; * Werner Schwan (PI. o ; E. 5), Koch- 
brunnen-Platz 1; Krone (PI. p; E, 5), Langgasse 26; Schwarzer Bock, 
Kranz-Platz 12 (PI. E, 5) , well spoken of; Kblnischer Hof, Kleine Burg- 
Str. 6; Spiegel (PI. q; E, 5), Kranz-Platz 10; Stern (PI. r; E, 5), Weber- 
gasse 8; Weisses Ross, Rheinstein, etc. Charges vary with the season. 

Restaurants. At the " Cursaal , expensive ; "Christmann and Lugen- 
biihl, both in the Untere Webergasse ; "Dahlheim, Taunus-Strasse 15 ; Dasch, 
Wilhelms-Str. 24, with rooms to let; "Alter Nonnenhof, see above. Table 
d'hote at all during the season. Moos, Kirch-Str. 19. — Beer. "Bier-Salon, 
in the Cursaal; "Neuer Nonnenhof, Kirchgasse 39; Engel, Langgasse 36: 
Deatscher Keller, in the Rhein-Hotel, see above; Victoria Hotel, Rhein- 
Str. 1, see above; Dasch, see above; "Duensing (Railway Hotel), Wilhelm- 
Str. 2 and Rhein-Str. la, with a pleasant garden; Poths, Langgasse 11; 
Vogel, Rhein-Str. 11; Trinthammer , Bahnhof-Str. 12. — "Beer Garden 
(Felsenkeller) on the Bierstadt Road, to the E. of the town, with a view ; 
near it the Bierstddter Warte, with a still more extensive view. Beau Site 
at the terminus of the tramway in the Nerothal, see p. 136. In winter the 
Grand H6tel opens a 'biersalon 1 which is much frequented. — Confectioners. 
"Roder, Webergasse 10 ; Jaeger, Grosse Burg-Str. 10; Went, Spiegelgasse 4 ; 
Brenner <t Blum, Schiitzenhof-Str. 4 (PI. D, 6). 

Cursaal (PI. 11). 'Reunions dansantes' on Saturdays, during the season ; 
tickets issued by the bath - authorities. Concerts on Fridays , performers 
of the highest class, adm. 2-5 m. 

Visitors' Tax. (a) For a year: 1 person 20 m., for a family of 2 per- 
sons 30 m., for each additional pers. 3 m. — (b) For six weeks: 1 person 
10 m., for a family of 2 pers. 15, each pers. additional 3 m., children and 
servants included. Payment of this tax entitles the visitor to the use of 
the various public sanitary establishments (Kochbrunnen, Trinkhalle, etc.), 
and of the well-supplied Reading Room (p. 133), and to attend the Con- 
certs (in the Curgarten , daily in summer , 6.30 to 8 a.m. and 4 to 
5-45 p.m. ; and also 8-10 p.m.), Wednesday balls, etc. Passing travellers 
may procure day-tickets, admitting to the Cursaal, for 50 pf. — The Cur- 
verein (office in the Cursaal) , which publishes the 'Badeblatt' daily in 
summer, will supply visitors with any information they may desire. 

Theatre (PI. 21 ; E, 5), one of the best on the Rhine, managed by the 
general direction of theatrical performances at Berlin, daily, except 
Mondays and Fridays, beginning at 6.30 p.m. (closed in June or July). 
Cab-Tariff (double fares from 11 p. m. to 6 or 7 a. m.). 
Drive in the town or to any of the villas as far as 
the Dietenmiihle 

1-2 persons 

3-4 persons 

By time: per hour within the town, 1-4 pers. . . . 
- beyond - - - - . . . . 
(Ineachcase the hirer 
may keep the cab for 
Va hr. and then re- 
turn at half these 
fares; each additional 
1/4 hr. 30-50 pf.) 

To the Platte and back, with stay of l'/s hr 

To Schwalbach and Schlangenbad and back (whole day) 
(To Schlangenbad without returning 9 and 12 m. ; to 

Schwalbach 10 m. 20 and 13 in. 70 pf.) 
From the railway-stations to the town, see p. 130. 
Hotel-carriages one-fourth to one-third more. 

Tramways. From the stations to the Artillery Barracks, and in the 
other direction through the Wilhelm-Str. , Taunus-Str., and the Nerothal 
to Beau Site. Fare 20-30 pf. 

Omnibus at 8 a.m. from Langgasse 20 to the steamboat-pier at Biebrich, 


Beau Site 

Russian Chapel or Sonnenberg 

Neroberg or Clarenthal 




m. pf. 

m. pf. 

- 60 

— 90 


1 10 

2 — 

3 — 

2 80 

4 — 

1 — 

1 40 

1 70 

2 — 

2 40 

3 — 

2 40 

3 40 

6 90 

9 — 

16 - 

20 - 

132 Route 21, WIESBADEN. History. 

70, with luggage 90 pf. ; from the Taunus-H6tel to Schwalbach, every after- 
noon in summer, 2 m. 

Swimming Baths at the Nerothal Hydropathic (p. 136; tramway); bath 
50 pf. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 16; E,7), Rhein-Str. 9. Branch-offices 
at Schiitzenhof-Str. (PI. 16; D,6) and in the Cursaal, at the back of the 
new Colonnade. — Railway Tickets may be procured at some of the prin- 
cipal hotels. 

English Church (St. Augustine's) in the Wilhelm-Strasse; services at 
11 a.m. and 3.30 p.m. (summer 7 p.m.). Chaplain, Rev. Llewellyn Wil- 
liams, B.A. 

Wiesbaden (377 ft. above the sea-level, 92 ft. above the Rhine), 
with 50,000 inhab., formerly the capital of the Duchy of Nassau, 
and now the chief town of the Prussian district of Wiesbaden, lies 
on the S.W. spurs of the Taunus Mts., in a basin watered by the 
Salzbach, and is surrounded by productive orchards and vineyards. 
It is a very pleasant , and for the most part well-built town. A 
number of handsome streets have sprung up within the last fifty 
years in the neighbourhood of the Cursaal and the railway-stations, 
while the public grounds together with the gardens of the 'Land- 
hauser' , or villas where apartments are let , greatly enhance the 
attractions of the place. Wiesbaden is annually visited by upwards 
of 60,000 patients and travellers. The excellence of its sanitary 
establishments , coupled with the healthiness of the climate, ren- 
der it a favourite resort of strangers, even in winter , when living 
is moreover less expensive than in summer. Many of the neigh- 
bouring villas are private residences. 

Wiesbaden is one of the oldest watering-places in Germany. 'Sunt et 
Mattiaci in Germania fontes calidi trans Rltenum, quorum hauslus triduo fer- 
vef is Pliny's account of Wiesbaden (Hist. Nat. xxxi. 1). On the 
Heidenberg , which rises to the N. of the town, traces of a Roman fortress 
were discovered in 1838, which according to the inscriptions was garrison- 
ed by the 14th and 22nd Legions. The Heidenmauer (heathens 1 wall), 650 
ft. long , 10 ft. high, 9 ft. thick , was perhaps a connecting line between 
the fort and the town. Various objects found, here are exhibited in the 
Museum (p. 134). 

From the Railway Stations (PI. E, 8) the traveller enters 
the Wilhelm-Strasse (PI. E, 7, 6), planted with trees, and about 
^M. inlength, bounding the E. side of the town, and adjoined by 
the Anlagen, or public pleasure-grounds, in which is situated the 
English Church (PI. 7). Among the buildings in the Wilhelm-Str. 
are the Museum (p. 134) and the new Kaiserbad. 

At the end of the avenue, to the left, lies the Theatbr-Platz, 
adorned with flower-beds and a Bust of Schiller (PI. 19; E, 5), a 
copy of Daimecker's. Three sides of this Platz are occupied by the 
Vier Jahreszeiten Hotel, the Nassauer Hof, and the Theatre (PI. 21). 
On the right is the square in front of the Cursaal, embellished 
with flower-beds and two handsome fountains, which are illumin- 
ated at night, and flanked by spacious Doric Colonnades (PI. 3; 
F, 5), restored since a fire in 1877, which serve as a bazaar. M ir - 
keVs Picture Gallery is worthy of a visit (adm, 50 pf.; family season- 
ticket 15 m.). 




nilllllfllliiiiliiii no 


Maasstab 1:14300. 


200 300 


1. Casernen. D.l. 

2. CariLSospitaL E.5. 

3. Colonadew 1X5.6. 

4. JHeteiaiaOCtei H3.4. 

5. lavlbruimav D-6. 

6. JEygieafrruppe, U.5. 


7. XngZISrdke, T. 7. 

8 .Jftrangel. ffirdw E.6. 

9. XaQwl.Ereliz D. 7. 

10. Sbchbrumim, JE . 5 . 

11. Xursaal $■ 5. 

12. Mtsaaw E.6.7. 

13.^aZais(E3nyUesid0iii) E.6. 

14. lahtisPauJirw 1-5. 

15. FoUeeiamZ D. 7. 

16. lost luIdearapTv 1.7. 

17. SaOihaus J. 6. 

IB. Beffiervaysijebaiide, JE. 7. 

19. Schiller J)0tJemaZ E.5. 

20. Sjnaaoje D.6. 

ZL Theater E.5. 

22. frinMujOe, 1.4.5. 

23. Waterloo Venkmal D. 7- 

24. EeidenmaiLer D-5- 






EMI J : 

:T J3 





"Wagner fcDebes ,1 eijizi^ 

Cursaai - WIESBADEN. 21. Route. 133 

The "Cursaal (PI. 11, F,5 ; adm. see p. 131), completed in 1810 
from designs by Zais, and dedicated 'Fontibus Mattiacis', is the 
chief resort of visitors. The facade consists of an Ionic hexa- 
style portico, while at the sides are long colonnades supported by 
24 Doric columns. The principal hall, restored with great taste in 
1863, is 132 ft. long, 60 ft. wide, and 48 ft. high. The orchestra 
galleries are supported by handsome Corinthian columns of the red 
and grey marble of the country. The other saloons are all handsomely 
fitted up. On the N. side is the restaurant, on the S. side the 
concert, ball, and reading-rooms, the last well-supplied with news- 
papers and periodicals. 

The *Park at the back of the Cursaal, with which it communi- 
cates by an iron arcade, is the favourite after-dinner lounge of visi- 
tors to the baths, as well as of numerous excursionists from Mayence 
and the neighbourhood, who, especially on Sunday afternoons, 
flock to these shady grounds to sip their coffee and enjoy the music. 
A fountain with a jet 100 ft. in height plays in the great pond 
every afternoon. 

On the Adolphsberg, to the N., are situated the Palais Pauline 
(PI. 14; F, 5), a building in the Moorish style, erected in 1842, 
and a number of pretty villas surrounded by gardens. 

The Kochbrunnen (PI. 10 ; E, 5), or boiling spring (156° Fahr.), 
the most important of the thermal springs (of which chloride of 
sodium is the chief ingredient), is connected with the Curgarten by 
a long iron Trinkhalle (PL 22) in the form of a verandah. The 
waters are beneficial in cases of rheumatism , gout , and many 
other ailments, and are usually drunk between 5 and 8 a.m. 

It is, however, for external use that the waters of Wiesbaden 
are most celebrated, their action resembling that of the Wildbad 
springs, like which they contain very little salt. In addition to the 
Kochbrunnen, which, however, is almost entirely used for drinking, 
there are no fewer than 28 bathing-springs. Most of the more im- 
portant bath-houses, including the Rbmerbad (the oldest of all), 
Rose, Schwan, Europaischer Hof, Englischer Hof, and Adler, have 
each a spring of their own. The marble Hygeia Group (PI. 6 ; E, 5) 
in the Kranz-Platz is by Hoffmann of Wiesbaden. 

The Langgasse, whioh issues from the Kranz-Platz, and the first 
cross-street, the Webergasse, are the main streets of the old part 
of the town and contain many hotels and handsome shops. Keeping 
to the left (S.), we reach the Markt-Platz (PI. E, 4), enclosed by 
the Protestant Church, the Palace, and the Wilhelms-Hospital. 

The Gothic * Protestant Church (PI. 8; E, 6), with its five 
lofty towers , opposite the palace , built of polished bricks in 
1852-60, is the most conspicuous edifice in the town. The choir 
is adorned with colossal marble statues of Christ and the four 
Evangelists, by Hopfgarten. 

The royal (formerly ducal) Palace (PI. 13; E, 6), at the corner 

134 Route 21. WIESBADEN. Museum. 

of the Market and the Markt-Str., was built by Goerz in 1837-40. 
Adjoining it is the ' Wilhelms-HeilanstaW , or military hospital, a 
building in the Italian style, by Hoffmann, finished in 1871. 

The Roman Catholic Church (PI. 9 ; D, 7), also built by Hoff- 
mann, is a handsome modern structure in the Romanesque style 
(many of the ornamental details Gothic), with groined vaulting. 
Altar-piece on the right, Madonna and Child, by Steinle; left, 
St. Boniface , by Bethel. At the high-altar are fifteen figures of 
Saints, by Hoffmann, Vogel, and Hopfgarten. In the Luisen-Platz 
(PI. D, 7), in front of the church, an Obelisk (PI. 23) was erected in 
1865, to the memory of the Nassovian soldiers who fell at Waterloo. 

The Government Buildings (PI. 18; E, 7), Luisen-Str., in the 
Florentine palatial style, were erected in 1842. 

The Museum (PI. 12; E, 6, 7), Wilhelm-Str. 20, occupying a 
building erected by Zais in 1812 as a palace for the crown-prince, 
contains the municipal picture-gallery, collections of antiquities and 
natural history specimens, and a library. 

The Picture Gallery (open daily, except Sat. and festivals, 11-1 and 2-4), 
on the ground-floor to the right, contains some good modern pictures (Cat- 
alogue 35 pf.) : Lessing, Forest scene; J. Becker, Village on lire, a sketch in 
colours; C. Triebel, Swiss landscape; A. Achenbach, View of Porto Venere 
near Spezia; F. Piloty, Sir Thomas More in prison; W. Sohn, Different 
paths of life; C. Triebel, Lake of Lucerne; L. Knaus, Tavern scene; 
F. Hiddemann, Jealousy; 0. Achenbach, Coast near Naples; Oehmichen, 
Sad news; Sondermarm, Our heroes. Also several Dutch and Italian pic- 
tures of the 17th and 18th cent., and several early German works. — The 
last rooms also contain the Exhibition of the Central Rhenish Kunstverein. 

The Collection of Antiquities (Mon., Wed., Frid., 2-6) is on the ground- 
floor to the left. Vestibule. Roman stone monuments. — Room I. Flint 
and bronze implements-, objects found in the caverns in the Leer near 
Steeten on the Lahn, some of the bones ornamented. — Room II. Roman 
sandals, found at Mayence. Collection of glasses, historically arranged. — 
Room III. Mithras monument, found at Heddernheim ; bronze door, found 
at Mayence. — Room IV. Models of Egyptian, Greek, and Roman build- 
ings. Bronze pyramid of Jupiter Dolichenus. — Room V. Franconian 
antiquities. — Room VI. Stone monuments; Jupiter, from Igstadt; three 
portrait-statues from Nieder-Ingelheim. — Room VII. Models of a Roman 
villa at Marienfels and of the fort of Wiesbaden. — Room VIII. Mediaeval 
curiosities, including a gilded and carved wooden altar of the 13th cent., 
from the abbey of Marienstadt. 

The first floor contains an admirably-arranged Natural History Col- 
lection, including Gerning's celebrated Collection of Insects and a com- 
plete series of the minerals of Nassau (Sun. 11-1, Mon., Wed., Frid., 2-6). 

The Library (daily, 10-2), in the upper story, contains valuable old 
MSS., including three interesting parchment codices of the 12th and 13th 
cent. (Visions of St. Hildegarde), with initials and miniatures. 

On the Michelsberg, on the E. side of the town, rises the 
Synagogue (PI. 20 ; D, 6) , in the Moorish style , erected by Hoff- 
mann, and completed in 1869. It is covered by a central dome 
about 120 ft. in height, and four smaller domes at the sides, adorned 
externally with a kind of red and white mosaic, and internally in 
the style of the Alhambra. — Two new Schools in the vicinity. — 
The Promenade adjoining the Heidenmauer (PI. 24; p. 132) was 
formerly a cemetery ; it commands a good view of the town. 

Greek Chapel. WIESBADEN. 21. Route. 135 

The Protestant Bergkirche (PI. D, E , 5), a brick edifice built 
by Otzen in 1876-79, is a worthy example of the Hanoverian Gothic 
style ; the interior is embellished with appropriate frescoes by 

The Old Cemetery (PI. C, 3), on the old Limburg road, V« M. from 
the town, contains a number of handsome monuments, the best of which 
are by Gerth. The Mausoleum (to the S. of the dead-house) of the Duchess 
Pauline (d. 1856), by Boos, is embellished with sculptures by Drake of 
Berlin. Monument to the fallen of 1870-71, with a bronze victory by Schiess. 

Wiesbaden possesses excellent educational establishments, the 
chief of which is the Chemical Laboratory of Fresenius. 

Environs op Wiesbaden. 

The promenades of the 'Curpark' (p. 133) ascend by the Ram- 
bach in 20 miu. to the Dietenmilhle (PI. H, 3), where there is a good 
Hydropathic Establishment (with restaurant). About i / i hr. beyond 
it is Sonnenberg (Jacquemar's Inn) , a village with a castle which 
once belonged to the Counts of Nassau, and was destroyed in 1689 
(tavern at the top). To the E. [}U hr.) rises the Bingert, a fine 
point of view. — Near Rambach, y s hr. higher up the valley than 
Sonnenberg, a Roman fort was excavated in 1859. 

To the N. of Wiesbaden, about halfway up the Neroberg, 1 M. 
to the N . of the Cursaal (pleasantest route through the Dambachthal, 
PI. D, E, 2), is situated the *Greek Chapel (PI. D, 1 ; 538 ft.), erect- 
ed from the designs of Hoffmann as a mausoleum for the Duchess 
Elizabeth Michailowna, a Russian princess (d. 1845). The terrace 
in front of it affords a fine view of Wiesbaden and Mayence ; to the 
S. rises the Melibocus, to the S.W. the long Donnersberg. 

The richly decorated Chapel, 90 ft. in height, in the form of a Greek 
cross, is covered by a large, and four smaller domes, all gilded; the highest 
is surmounted by a Russian double cross, 190 ft. from the ground, secured by 
gilded chains. The interior is entirely of marble. A rich altar-screen (Jkono- 
stas) , with numerous figures of saints on a golden ground , painted in 
Russia, separates the body of the chapel from the choir, to which the 
priests and their attendants alone have access. The altar, above which is 
a window with a stained-glass figure of the Saviour, is visible only during 
divine service. A pentagonal recess on the N. side contains the beautiful 
'^Monument of the Duchess. The recumbent figure of white marble, rest- 
ing on a sarcophagus, at the sides of which are statuettes of the Twelve 
Apostles , and at the corners Faith , Hope , Charity , and Immortality, was 
executed by Prof. Hopfgarten of Berlin. The circle of angels in the 
dome and the four prophets and four evangelists in the angles between 
the arches are by Hopfgarten, the painter. Divine service according to the 
Greek ritual on Sundays at 10 a. m. ; the public are not admitted. At other 
times the chapel is shown by the sacristan who lives near (fee for 1-2 pers. 
75 pf. -1 m., 3-4 pers. l>/2-2 m). 

On the wooded *Neroberg (PI. C, 1), to the N.W. of, and i/ 4 hr. 
above the chapel (road indicated by sign-posts), is an open Temple 
(725 ft.), commanding an extensive prospect. Beside it is a large 
oak, amid the branches of which a gallery has been constructed, 
reached by easy steps. The large and handsome restaurant was 
built by Lemcke. Promenades intersect the wood in every direction, 

136 Route 22. MAYENCE. 

and extend as far as (372 M.) the Platte (see below), the way to 
which is shown by a guide-post. Other paths, also indicated by 
•finger-posts, lead to the Speierskopf (10 min.), the Felsengruppe 
(20 min.), the Leichtweisshbhle (25 min.), the Trauerbuche (35 min.), 
and various other points. — We may now return to the town by the 
;\erothal, a pleasant grassy valley, in which lie the garden-restau- 
rant of 'Beau Site' (PI. B, 2 ; tramway, p. 131) and the popular 
hydropathic establishment of '■Nerothal (PI. C, 3 ; see also p. 132). 
At the entrance of the Nerothal from the town is a Monument 
(PI. D, 3) to Nassovian soldiers who fell in 1870-71. 

The *Platte (1640 ft.), a shooting-lodge of the Duke of Nassau, 
built in 1824 on a height about 4l/g M. to the N. of Wiesbaden 
(comp. the Map, p. 124), is frequently visited for the extensive 
view (finest by evening light), embracing the Spessart, Odenwald, 
and Donnersberg, and the valley of the Rhine as far as the Haardt 
Mts., with Mayence in the foreground. The two fine stags at the 
entrance were modelled by Rauch. *Inn adjacent. The prettiest 
route from Wiesbaden is through the Nerothal, and by the Nero- 
berg, the Wildkanzel, and the Trauerbuche, a walk of 1% hr. 
(finger-posts). The carriage-drive to the Platte is the old Limburg 
road. — Pedestrians may descend from the Platte to the S.E. to 
Sonnenberg (p. 135), 3M. distant. The path, which diverges from 
the main road to the left by a plantation of oaks, is distinctly vi- 
sible from the platform. Wiesbaden lies li/ 2 M. to the S.W. of 

Far below, in the valley to the left, lies the ancient nunnery of Cla- 
rentftat, founded in 1296 by King Adolph of Nassau and Ms consort 
Imagina of Liniburg; above it is a building formerly used as a Pheatantry 
(restaurant). In a valley between the latter and the Platte, to the right 
of the Schwalbach road, is the extensive fish-rearing establishment of the 
Nassovian fishery association (restaurant with view). 

Wiesbaden is connected with Mosbach (p. 121) by a double avenue of 
horse-chestnuts. Half-way to the village is the Adolphshohe, a restaurant 
which affords a beautiful survey of the Rheingau as far as the Rochus- 
Capelle near Bingen. Another fine view is obtained from the Chaussee- 
hatis, a forester's house, on the old Schwalbach road, 3 31. from Wies- 
baden , at the point where the road to Schlangenbad diverges (p. 129). 
Near it rises the * Schlaferskopf (1492 ft.), commanding an extensive pro- 
spect. Fine views of the valley of the Rhine are obtained from the "Rothe 
Kreuz and the RumpelskeUev, each about 2 l /z M. from the Chausseehaus. 

Another very pleasant excursion may be made to the "Kellerukopf 
(906 ft. ; belvedere and inn), which is reached from Wiesbaden via Ram- 
bach in 2 hrs., and may be ascended from JViedernhausen (p. 220) in one 
hour. A beautiful forest-path that leads to it, diverging from the old Id- 
stein road, can scarcely be found without help. 

22. Mayence. 

The Railway Station (PI. D, 4) for the lines of the 'Hessisclie lud- 
wigsbahn' to and from Bingen, Worms, Frankfort (by the left bank of the 
ilain), and Darmstadt is at the upper end of the town. — By means of 
the Febhj Steamboat (PI. E, F, 4, 0) Mayence is also connected with the 
Tuunus Railicaii to and from Frankfort (by the right bank of the Main), 
Wiesbaden, and the Nassovian Railway (right bank of the Rhine). Pas- 

in u% 



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F 34 









Hotels. MAYENCE. 22. Route. 1 37 

sengera by .'these last lines may obtain ticket* at the) pier' of the' ferry- 
boat at Mayence, while those -in the reverse direetio* have their luggage, 
if booked through to Mayeace , transmitted from Castel to the pier at 
Mayence without extra charge. The steamer crosses from Hayence to 
Castel >/< ar - before the departure of each train. 

Hotels. On the Miner "Hop von . Holland (PI. b;, F, 4), Rhein- 
Str. 77, R. from 2 m. 40, L. 80, A, 70, B. I m. 30 pf.; •Bnimoiu Ho* 
(PI. a; F, 4), Rhein-Str. 61 ; *Em»li8CBEb Hop (PI. c; F,G,4)i, Rhein-Str. 89, 
R. from 2'/» m., B. 1 m. 20 pf., D. 3 m.; these three are of the first class. 
,— Souse* Ho* (PI. d ; D, 4), Rheia-8tr. 13, R. 2 l /t, B. 1 m. ; Taencs Hotel, 
Bkeia-Str. 37, D. 3 m.; Ssawi Bonn, Rheiu-Str. 41; Qcbmaiiu,. Rhein- 
fttr, 43, R. 2, B. lm. ; Siakt Coblenz, Rhein-Str. -49, well. spoken' of; 
.H&tbl de Paris, Rhein-Stf. 31,_R. l'/r-S) »» l 1 /* m., w «** spoken of. — 
7» M« IWn: •Kabffen (PL h; F, 4), opposite the post-office, .&-, A.,* B. 
2 m. 65 pf., D. 2 m. 25 pf. ; Landsberg (PI. k; F, 4), Lohrgasse 29; HoM» 
zvr Post, Brandgasae 14 (PI, F, 4); Pfalzbb Hob, close'. to the station, 
within the Holzthor (PI. D, 4), R. Lm, 50 pf., with restaurant. — At Castel; 
fifrtzi. Babtk zum Baeen (PI. 1; 6, 6); 'Ahker (PI. n; G, 8)J, good beer; 
•Hotel Tadsds (PI. m; G, 6). 

1 h Reetaaxests. Wine. * Volt, Falck, Bickerfe, in the Theater-Plate and 
the Triton-Plata;- BMaad, Emmeransgasse j JBahSeMtr, Iiebfrauen-Platx 7, 
with mi .old German drinking-room ; JBrautty Liebfrauen-Str. 3, good wine; 
■Meuunwtk, Jakobsberg. 1, good cuisine; *Rtti%. Restaurant, dear. — Beer. 
HeiUge 0eitt, near the Rhein-Sta \ "ifeid, Rastrich 55-57; 'Sonne, Betzel- 
:8toj 23, old German beer-room; Qreifetdcleme* Ho/, Emmeransgasse, with 
garden ; *Anker Hotel at Castel, see above. — Cafes. Cafe" de Parte, Theater- 
Plats, with restaurant; cate'in the Neve Anlage, see p. 145; *Sehar4, Do- 
minikaner-Str., near the theatre; "Cmfi'Metif, on the Insel(PL F, by, with 
restaurant; *Woeker, at the station, restaurant. — Confectioners. Volk, 
Theater-Platz ; Schneider, Betzel-Str. 25. 

Baths, hot and cold, near the station-; also Swimming Baths. 

Cabs. One-horse for •/« hr., 1-2 • pera. 50, 3-4 pew. 70 pf. ; for 1 hr, 

2 m. or 2 m. 30ipf.;; each box 20 pf., travelling-bag 10 pf., smaller articles 
free; Miss- Anlage or Cemeterv 90. pf. or lm.; ZsfhRmeh or Weisenatt, lm. 
or lm. 20 pf.* to Castel, inol. bridge->toU, 90 pf. or 1 m. — Two-horse, about 
a third more. For each hour of waiting half the above charges per hour; 
for. retuvn-j ourniey a . one-half fare more than the single journey. In 
summer double fares, from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.j in winter a fare and a 
half from 7 to 9 p.m., and double fares from 9 p.m. to 7. 30 a.m. 

i ' Steamboat to Biebrich every tyi hr. in summer, starting from the bridge- 
of-boats, ,....;,....,,.; | ... 

Post and Telegraph Office in the Brand, opposite the Earpfen (PI. F, 4). 
Chief Attractions. Cathedral and its monuments fjJ. 138), the Guten- 
berg monument (p. 141), Eigelstein. (p. 143), and the collection of Roman 
Antiquities in the Palace (p. 143); spend the evening in ,the new Anlage 
(p. 145), at Wiesbaden (p. 130), or in the Park at Biebrich (p. 122). 

Hayeaee , or Mentt , (Jerman Mains (,26^ r ft.), a strongly 
fortified town with. 5(4,000 inhab. (15,000 £rot. , 5000 Jews) and a 
garrison pf 8000 soldiers, is pleasantly situated on the left bank of 
the Rhine, .opposite and below the influx of the Main, and is con- 
nected with the small town of Castel on the opposite, bank by a 
bridge-of-bpats. The, old streets of the towniare for theimost part 
narrow and crooked, but a number of handsome buildings and new 
streets have sprung up of late, while ample space for, an immense 
extension of the yown has been afforded by the recent widening of 
the ijne of oircumvaUation (comp, the Plan). ., 

itafjenei is historically one of the most interesting of the Rhenish 
town's. Its important" 'Strategic situation has in all ages attracted attention. 
The toifn'and itsimost anoientt name ( Mogontiacum) are of Celtic origin. 

138 Route 22. MAYENCE. History. 

In B. C. 14 Augustus sent his son-in-law Drusus to the Rhine as com- 
mander-in-chief, and to him the fortress of Mayence owes its foundation. 
His camp (castrum) occupied the entire table-land between Mayence and 
Zahlbach (p. 143), and was adjoined on the side next the Rhine by a 
colony consisting chiefly of traders and veterans. In order more effectually 
to protect the passage of the Rhine, a second smaller Castellum was soon 
afterwards constructed by Drusus on the opposite bank , whence the pre- 
sent Castel derives its origin and name. Mayence was the seat of the le- 
gate, or governor, of Germania Superior, 

Authentic accounts prove that Christianity flourished at Mayence in 
the early Merovingian period (about 550), and the town afterwards became 
a bishopric. Under St. Boniface (or Winfried, d. 755), the apostle of Cen- 
tral Germany, the see was raised to an archbishopric and made the seat 
of the primate of Germany. This prelate, the son of an English wheel- 
wright, was so little ashamed of his parentage that he assumed a pair 
of wheels as his armorial bearings, which are retained to this day in 
the arms of the city. In 1254 Arnold Walpoden (d. 1268), a citizen of 
Mayence and the chief of the patrician family of the 'Lowenhaupter', 
founded the League of the Rhenish Towns. Mayence became the centre 
and leader of this powerful association, which ere long was strengthened 
by upwards of a hundred other towns, from Bale on the S. to Bremen 
and Munster on the N. Such was the commercial prosperity of the town 
at that period that it was called the 'Goldene Mainz'. Two centuries 
later, however, it lost most of its extensive privileges in consequence 
of a violent attack made upon it by Archbishop Adolph of Nassau in 
1462, on which occasion 500 citizens were killed, and the most influential 
banished. Thenceforth the once independent city was ruled over by the 
archbishops. Its university, founded in 1477, boasted of such distinguished 
men as Nicholas Vogt, John v. Miiller, Bodmann, and George Forster 
among its members, but it was suppressed by the French. 

On 22nd Oct., 1792, the French republicans under Custine entered the 
town almost without a blow, but it was retaken the following year by 
the Prussians. In 1797 it was ceded to France by the Peace of Campo 
Formio , and became the capital of the Department of Mont Tonnerre. 
In 1814 it was assigned to the Grand Duchy of Hessen. The Fortress of 
Mayence belonged to the German Confederation down to 1866, Austria 
and Prussia having the joint right of providing the garrison. Since 1866 
the works have been considerably strengthened and extended. 

Along the Rhine extends a handsome new quay, about 330 ft. 
in breadth, which affords a pleasant promenade. — Leaving the quay, 
we cross the Liebfrauen-Platz, in which is theHauptwache or guard- 
house, and the Speisemarkt (PI. E, 3), adorned with a fountain of 
1526 in the Renaissance style, and reach the cathedral, the princi- 
pal entrance of which is between some houses here (see p. 140). 

The "Cathedral (PI. 12 ; E, 3) was built under Archbishop Wil- 
ligis (975-1011), probably as an enlargement of an earlier Fran- 
conian church, of which traces may be seen in the portal on the 
Liebfrauen-Platz, but was burned down immediately after its con- 
secration in 1009. It was then restored, but again destroyed by fire 
in 1081, 1137, and 1181, after each of which occasions it was re- 
erected on a grander scale than before. In the 13th, 14th, and 15th 
centuries various Gothic additions were made to the edifice. In 
1767 it was injured by lightning, and in 1793 again damaged 
during the siege, after which it was repeatedly used as a maga- 
zine. In 1814 it was at length repaired and restored to its sacred 
uses. A thorough restoration of the E. part of the building was 



22. Route. 139 

undertaken some years ago, under the superintendence of Herr 
Cuypers of Amsterdam, and the crypt under the E. choir, the Ro- 
manesque middle tower, which occupies the place of a Gothic tower 
with a dome, and the two side-towers have already been finished. 
In consequence of all these vicissitudes the church possesses great 
value in the history of architecture. In its present form it con- 
sists of nave and aisles 
with chapels, an E. and a 
W. Choir, and a W. tran- 
sept. The new central 
tower and the picturesque 
W. tower above the cross 
present an imposing ap- 
pearance. The E. round 
towers date from the early 
part of the 11th cent. ; the 
Chapel of St. Godehard at 
the N. end dates from 
1136 (p. 141); the slender 
pillars of the nave, each 
alternate one of which is 
provided with a ressault, 
were probably erected af- 
ter 1181 (when the build- 
ing was destroyed by Are) ; 
the pointed vaulting and 
the W. choir were built 
in the 13th cent., the cha- 
pels in the 13th-15th, and 
the handsome cloisters in 
1397-1412, while the up- 
per part of the principal 
W. tower was restored af- 
ter a fire in 1767. 

It is probable that the 
original roof of the cathe- 
dral of Mayence was flat and 
constructed of wood, though 
it is also possible that the 
nave may have been vaulted 
building, however, are 


as at Speyer. The remains of the original 
scanty to afford any satisfactory technical 
grounds for a decisive settlement of this question. 

The two brazen doors at the entrance from the market, which 
formerly belonged to the Liebfrauenkirche (a church taken down in 
1804), were executed by order of Archb. Willigis in 988, as the 
Latin inscription below records. On the upper panels are inscrip- 
tions, engraved in 1135, enumerating the privileges granted to the 
town by Archbishop Adalbert I., out of gratitude for his liberation 
from the hands of Henry V. (p. 262). 

140 Routed. MAYENCE. Cathedral. 

The "Interior (open in the morning till 11. 30, and 3-6 p.m.; 
ascent of the tower 50 pf.), the vaulting of which is borne by 56 
pillars, is 174 yds. long, 58 yds. broad, and 110 ft. high in the 
nave. The vaulting of the W. choir, nave, and aisles has been 
painted dark blue and richly decorated, the dome of the W. choir 
and the nave being adorned with paintings. The Chapel of the Vir- 
gin was restored in the Gothic style and embellished with painting 
and stained glass in honour of Bishop von Ketteler's 25th year of 
office. By the removal of the whitewash the red sandstone, the co- 
lour of which materially enhances the architectural forms, has been 
restored to light. The altar stands at the W. end of the church. 

The *Mural Paintings in the nave and the W. dome, designed 
by Phil. Veit , have been executed since 1863 by Hermann, 
Lasinsky, and Settegast. 

Dome : Abel, Melchisedech, Abraham, and the Lamb of God, Fore- 
shadowings of the Sacrifice. — Nave (on the N. and S. side alternately) : 
Annunciation; Adoration of the Magi; Presentation in the Temple; Flight 
into Egypt; The boy Jesus in the Temple; Jesus with Joseph in the 
carpenter's shop ; The Baptism ; Marriage at Cana ; Jesus and the adulteress ; 
Sermon on the Mount; Christ delivering the Keys to Peter; Transfigura- 
tion; Raising of Lazarus; Last Supper; Christ on the Mt. of Olives; lastly 
the Mocking of Christ, Bearing the Cross, Crucifixion, Entombment, and 
Ascension, which are to be executed after the restoration is completed. 

The most interesting feature of the interior consists of the 
numerous * Tombstones it contains, ranging from the 13th to the 
:19th century. We begin to the right of the principal entrance 
from the Speisemarkt (p. 136). 

N. Tkansept. The Font, cast in pewter, with reliefs by Meister 
Johannes, in 1328, has been temporarily transferred hither from the E. 
choir. Monuments of the * Von Gablentz family, 1592, and of Canon 
Von Breidenbach. The handsome Portal (closed), in the transition-style, 
-formerly belonged to the Heil. Geistkirche. The altar was presented in 
1G01 by Count Henry of Nassau. 

N. Aisle. By the 1st pillar, 'Monument of Albert of Brandenburg, 
Elector of Mainz and Archbishop of Magdeburg (the statue, and especially 
the head, admirably executed), 1545; adjacent is his tombstone, by the same 
pillar. In a chapel opposite, the monument of the family of Brendel von 
Hamburg, a well-executed Adoration of the Cross in stone, 1563. By the 
2nd pillar, Elector Sebastian v. Heusenstamm. 1555. By the 3rd pillar, 
Elector Daniel Brendel v. Homburg, 1582. By the 5th pillar, Elector Wolf- 
gang v. Dalberg, 1601. By the 7th pillar, Bishop Humann, 1834. Opposite, 
in the chapel of the Waldbotts v. Bassenheim, are an entombment in stone 
and numerous reliefs in marble. By the altar at the side, St. Boniface 
(p. 134) , a relief of 1357. By the 10th pillar, Elector Peter v. Aspelt, or 
Aichspalt, 1320, coloured, leaning with his right hand on Henry VII. and 
with his left on Lewis the Bavarian, the two emperors crowned by him ; 
adjoining him, King John of Bohemia. 

In the Pfaeechok, or E. Choik, to the N. (1.), monument of Canon 
v. Buchholz, of 1609, well executed in stone. The monuments of Count 
Lamberg, an imperial general who fell at the siege of Mayence in 1689, 
and Landgrave George Christian of Hessen (1677), formerly here, have been 
temporarily removed to the aisles. On the S. side, monument (coloured) 
of Archb. Matthew v. Bucheck, 1328 ; monument of Archb. Siegfried III. v. 
Eppstein, 1249, by whom Count William of Holland and Landgrave Hein- 
rich Raspe of Thiiringen were crowned as Roman Kings. 

"Nave (of white limestone, painted red on the exterior). By the 8th 
pillar on the S. side (or the 2nd to the left when we approach from the 

Cathedral. MAYENCE. 22. Route. 141 

E. choir), Elector Adolph I. of Nassau, 1390; opposite (N. side), Elector 
John, II. of Nassau, 1419, a rich Gothic monument. By the 6th pillar 
on the N. side, "Elector Diether v. Isenburg, 1482. Opposite is the Pulpit, 
executed in stone at the end of the 15th cent., with a modern covering 
in wood. By the 4th pillar on the N. side, "Adalbert of Saxony, administrator 
of the archbishopric, 1484, with a simple and noble figure of the youthful 
prince. Opposite (S. side), "Elector Berthold v. Henneberg, 1504, one of 
the finest monuments in the cathedral. By the 2nd pillar on the S., "Elector 
Jacob v. Liebenslein, 1508, late-Gothic. Opposite (N. side), Elector Uriel 
v. Gemmingen, 1514. — We now return to the Pfarrchor and enter the — 

S. Aisle. By the 9th column, Elector Anselm Franz v. Ingelheim, 1695. 
By the 7th pillar, "Elector Damian Hartard v. d. Leyen, 1678. Bishop Col- 
mar, 1818. In the chapel opposite is carved work on a gold ground re- 
presenting the Twelve Apostles and the Coronation of the Virgin, 1514. 
To the left of the handsome entrance-portal (12th cent.) to the 'Memorie' and 
Cloisters (see below) a Slab is built into the wall bearing an inscription to 
the memory of Fastrada (or Fastradana), the third wife of Charlemagne ; 
she died at Frankfort in 794, and was buried there in the church of St. 
Alban which was destroyed in 1552. — At the other side of the entrance 
is the monument of Canon v. Holzhausen, an Entombment of 1588. 

The S. Tbansept contains several monuments to prelates of the 18th 
cent, and also that of George v. Schonenburg, Bishop of Worms, 1529, gilded 
and painted. A fine head of Saturn on the monument of Canon von Brei- 
denbach-BUrresheim (1745), and the noble Gothic monument of Archb. 
Conrad II. v. Weinsberg, 1396, adjoining the W. choir, are also worthy 
of notice. 

The Bischofschor, orW. Choik, separated from the transepts by choir- 
stalls erected in 1767, contains nothing of interest. Above the stalls rise 
two monuments of electors , which possess little artistic merit. In the 
dome are the paintings already mentioned (p. 140). From the S. aisle the 
late-Romanesque (13th cent.) portal above noticed (closed, sacristan for 
one visitor 40-50 pf.) leads into the Memorie, once the chapter-house or 
episcopal council-chamber, erected in 1243, and roofed with wide groined 
vaulting. To the right here is the old entrance, a beautiful Romanesque 
portal of the 11th century. By the W. wall (r.) is the episcopal throne 
in stone. Adjacent are several monuments of the years 1536, 1550, and 
1558. — The Gothic Chapel of St. Nicholas, to the S. of the Memorie, 
possesses some elegant Gothic ornamentation of the 14th cent., choir-stalls 
in the Renaissance style, and modern stained glass. 

The "Cloisters, erected in 1397-1412 in the Gothic style, also contain 
several monuments. On the S. wall is * Schwanthaler 's Monument to 
Frauenlob, a female figure decorating a coffin with a wreath, erected by 
the ladies of Mayence in 1842 to Count Heinrich von Meissen (d. 1318), 
surnamed Frauenlob (women's praise), 'the pious minstrel of the Holy 
Virgin, and of female virtue'. Beyond it, on the E. wall, is a relief, with 
good heads, brought from the garden of the Capuchins in 1839, and prob- 
ably representing the submission of the rebellions citizens of Mayence to 
the Archbishop in 1332. Near it is an older tombstone of Frauenlob, 
erected in 1783, a copy of the original of 1318, which had been accidentally 
destroyed. Here too is the tombstone of the court-jester Henne Neffe, 
known as 'Witze-Henne' (d. 1467). — Good view of the towers. 

Between the N. transept of the cathedral and the Markt, concealed 
from view by surrounding buildings, is the St. Godehardscapelle, a double 
church with aisles, a characteristic Romanesque building, completed in 
1136. It originally formed the chapel of the Archiepiscopal palace, but is 
now disused. 

Near the cathedral is the Gutenberg's Platz, which is em- 
bellished with a *Statue of Gutenberg (d. 1468 ; PI. 24), designed 
by Thorvaldsen , executed at Paris, and erected in 1837. At the 
sides of the pedestal are two reliefs. The inscription at the back by 
Ottfried Miiller runs thus : — 

142 Route 22. MAYENCE. Statue of Schiller. 

Artem quae Oraecos latuit, laluitque Latinos, 

Oermani toilers extudit ingenium, 
Xunc, quidquid veteres sapiunl sapiuntque recentes, 
Non sibi, sed populis omnibus id sapiunt. 
Johann zum Gensfleisch, suriMied Gutenberg, was born in Bla- 
yence about the end of the 14th cent, at No. 23 Emmeransgasse, or '■Hof 
mm QensfleiscK as it is called by the inscription. The l Hof zum Guten- 
berg", which once belonged to his mother's family, now the 'Civil Casino 1 
(PI. 4 ; F, 3), is in the Schustergasse, one of Ihe principal business-streets 
of the town, and also bears an inscription. The garden contains a small 
Statue of the inventor, erected in 1824. Gutenberg's first printing-office 
was at the Hof zum Jungen , Franziskanergasse 3 , near the Stadtstrasse, 
and that of Johann Fust and Peter Schbffer at the Hof zum Humbrecht, 
Schustergasse 20, both indicated by memorial tablets. The latter possesses 
a late-Gothic staircase. — Although the Germans are justly proud of Gu- 
tenberg as an independent inventor of printing (about 1440), the Dutch 
claim for their countryman Coster of Haarlem the honour of having in- 
vented the art at a still earlier period (1423) ; but there is no foundation 
for the story that Gutenberg learned the art from an assistant of Coster. 
The merit of original discovery probably belongs equally to both, but 
Gutenberg appears to have been much more successful in his practice of 
the art than his Dutch contemporary. 

Opposite the monument is the Theatre (PI. 29 ; F, 3), erected in 
1833. Following the broad Ludwigs-Strasse from the theatre towards 
the W., we reach the Schilleb-Platz (PI. F, 2), planted with lime- 
trees, bounded on the S. by the Military Government Buildings, and 
on the W. by the Barracks and Military Casino, and embellished 
with a bronze Statue of Schiller (PI. 25), designed by Scholl, and 
erected in 1862. The Fountain Pillar, of Felsberg syenite (p. 228), 
was brought from the palace of Charlemagne at Ingelheim (p. 125). 

The broad Emmerich-Joseph-Strasse ascends from the Schiller- 
Platz to the Kastrich, an eminence on which, since the explosion of 
a powder-magazine here in 1857, a new and well-built quarter of 
the town has sprung up. The *Mathilden-Terrasse here (PI. E, 
F, 1) commands an extensive view of the town and environs. 

On an eminence in the neighbourhood rises the handsome Gothic 
Church of St. Stephen (PI. 19; E, 1, 2), erected in 1257-1318 on 
the highest site in the town (98 ft. above the level of the Rhine), 
and tastefully restored after the explosion mentioned above. It con- 
sists of nave and aisles of nearly equal height, a form rarely seen 
in Rhenish churches. Among the objects of interest it contains are 
the bones and sacerdotal vestments of Archbishop Willigis, several 
monuments in stone, and altar-pieces by Veit over the altars on the 
left. The altars, pulpit, and organ-loft, in gilded and varnished 
wood, are executed in the Gothic style. Behind the high-altar are a 
late-Gothic canopy of 1500 and four bronze candelabra of 1509. 
The octagonal Tower, 216 ft. in height, deserves to be ascended for 
the sake of the *View it commands. Visitors ring near the flying 
buttress to the right of the N. door of the tower. The late-Gothic 
Cloisters, dating from 1499, are remarkable for their tasteful vault- 
ing and windows. 

Within the Citadel (PI. C, D, 2), whioh occupies the site of the 

Eigelstein. MAYENCE. 22. Route. 143 

Roman castrum, is the * Eigelstein (PI. 6), or Eichelstein, a mon- 
ument said by tradition to have been erected in the year B.C. 9 
by the 2nd and 14th Legions in honour of Drusus, who was killed 
by a fall from his horse. The name, which was in use early in the 
middle ages, is connected with the Latin aquila, or eagle. The 
external masonry has long since disappeared, and the monument 
has undergone many changes in height and form. At the beginning 
of the 16th cent, it was 82 ft. high. It is now a grey, circular mass 
of stone, 42 ft. in height, furnished in 1698 with a spiral staircase 
in the interior, and commanding a good survey of the town and en- 
virons from the summit. Visitors apply for admission at the office 
of the 'Commandantur', Grosse Bleiche 15, and are then accom- 
panied by a soldier (fee 50 pf.). 

About 3 /4 M. from the neighbouring Gauthor (PI. C, 1), outside which 
we take the first road to the right, on a hill to the right of the village 
of Zahlbach, are the remains of another interesting Roman structure, an 
-Aqueduct , of which 62 concrete pillars , some of them 30 ft. high, are 
still standing. By this channel a supply of water for the use of the 
Roman castle was conducted to a reservoir on the site of the present 
Entenpfuhl ('duckpond'), a distance of about 6 M. The spring called the 
Konigs-Born, which the aqueduct connected with the Castrum, is situated 
at Finthen (Fontanae) on the road to Bingen, 5 31. from Mayence. Several 
Roman monuments, found in the Roman military cemetery near Zahlbach 
(see p. 146} , are now preserved in the so-called Eiseme Thnrm , Lohr- 
strasse 12. 

To the N.W. of the Schiller-Platz , mentioned at p. 142, runs 
the Schillbr-Strassb (PI. F, 2), near the upper end of which, on 
the right, are the Government Buildings (PI. 26). To the E. of this 
point stretches the broad, straight, and regularly-built Grosse Bleiche 
(PI. G, 2, 3), leading to the Rhine, the longest street in Mayence, 
about '/3 M. in length. On the N. side of this street are the Re- 
sidence of the Commandant (PI. 36) and the old Library Building. 
In the small square to the left is the Neubrunnen, an obelisk with 
symbolic reliefs and river-gods and lions below, erected in 1726 
and recently restored. The building with the gilt horse on the 
gable, farther down the street , formerly the electoral stables, is 
now a Cavalry Barrack. The Lowenhof Barrack opposite formerly 
contained the electoral archives. 

On the right, at the E. end of the street, where it enters the 
large planted Schloss-Platz, is the Church of St. Peter (PI. 18), 
erected in 1751 , and restored in 1873 ; it is embellished with frescoes 
by Appiani. On the N. side of the Schloss-Platz, which lies in front 
of the church and is used as a drilling-ground, rise the extensive 
infantry-barracks, formerly a military hospital (PI. H, 3, 4). 

The Palace (PI. 28; H, 4), erected in 1627-78, was the resi- 
dence of the electors down to 1792, and during the French war 
was used as a hay-magazine. It is now occupied by several collec- 
tions. That of *Roman Antiquities, chiefly consisting of objects 
found at Mayence or in the environs, is one of the richest in Ger- 
many. The * Roman-Germanic Museum, containing reproduction 

144 Route 22. MAYENCB. Palace. 

of the most interesting ante-Christian antiquities of Germany, af- 
fords a unique survey of the extant monuments of this kind, and 
merits careful inspection. Both of these collections, and also the 
Picture Gallery, are open on Sundays 9-1, and Wednesdays and 
Thursdays 2-5; at other times cards of admission (1 m. for 1-2 
pers., 40 pf. for each additional pers.) are procured from the custom- 
house officers in the Rhein-Strasse; closed on holidays. Short 
catalogue of all the collections, 1 m. 

The Entbance, indicated by an inscription, is on the W. side of the 
building, in the Schloss-Platz. 

'Roman Antiquities. The Vestibule contains the original models of 
Thorvaldsen's statue of Gutenberg (p. 141) and ScholVt statue of Schiller 
(p. 142), and an altar with reliefs of various divinities, erected by the 
'Vicani Mogontiacenses vici novi'. — Beyond this we enter a suite of four 
halls containing Roman and medieval monuments in stone (Catalogue of 
the Roman inscriptions, 2 l /2 m.). Hall I. Roman altars and tombstones ; 
222, 167, 169. Military tombstones, with reliefs; some pillars from the 
bridge over the Rhine built by Charlemagne (p. 145). — Hall II. 241, 
242, 247. Tombstones , found in the Mitternachts-Platz at Mayence. — 
Hall III. Tombstone of Blussus, a ship-master, with reliefs of himself, his 
wife, and child on the one side, and his vessel on the other. — Hall IV. 
Mediaeval objects, including reliefs of the seven electors, of Emp. Henry 
VII., and of St. Martin, dating from 1312, brought from the old Merchants' 
Hall; Jewish tombstones of the 13th and 14th centuries. — Returning to 
Hall I. and crossing the staircase (see below), we next reach — 

Room I., which also contains mediaeval objects (armorial bearings, 
weapons, vases) and a model in cork of the Roman amphitheatre at Nimes. 
— Room II., adjoining this on the right, contains Germanic antiquities, 
flint knives, axes ; vessels of clay from Heidesheim and Mblsheim. 

Room III. contains in glass-cabinets and cases the smaller Roman and 
Germanic antiquities. We first inspect the Roman section, on the left side 
of the room. By the first window ; pieces of leather and cloth, in frames. 
Iu a glass-case : sandals, found in excavations in the Schiller-Platz. By the 
second window : remains of a goblet in perforated work ('vas diatretum'), 
found at Hohensiilzen. In the glass-case in front: glass vessels, bottle 
with chased Bacchic scenes, from a tomb at Hohensiilzen; to the right, 
head in bronze; chariot with figure in bronze-gilt; weapons and utensils 
of various kinds. Below a large glass-covering: the tombs of five legion- 
aries. — The Germanic and Franconian antiquities occupy the right side of 
the room. Entire tomb of a German woman, from Oberolm. On a stand, 
under glass, is a gold enamelled 'Fibula', with the Roman eagle, found in 
the Stadthaus-Str. in 1880. The cabinets contain an extensive collection 
of Franconian enamels, inlaid rings, and weapons. — We next enter the — 

'Roman-Germanic Museum. Room I. Tools of flint and bone, urns, 
bronze implements. Brazen and stone moulds for bronze knives and 'celts'. 
Casts of the Porta Nigra at Treves (p. 162), of the Igel Monument (p. 167), 
and of the Roman chariot-wheels found atSpeyer; model of a lake-dwell- 
ing; models of altars, a 'Heidenschanze' (such as the Heidenmauer men- 
tioned at p. 132), and tombs. Etruscan utensils found to the N. of the 
Alps. Small bronze chariot with figures of men and animals, found in a 
tomb at Judenburg in Styria, and probably used as a stand for some kind 
of vessel ; objects from tombs at Rodenbach and Durkheim. Two golden 
hats(?), of similar workmanship, the one found at Schifferstadt near Speyer, 
the other at Corinth ; Chariot ('Kesselwagen') from Peckatel in Mecklen- 
burg. In the cases : Weapons, armour, war-trumpets. Above, Albanian urn 
in the form of a hou3e. Two idols from Wurtemberg. Model of a Roman 
catapult. — Room II. In the connecting passage : Phaleree (military orna- 
ments), found at Lauersfort. Above one of the cases : Roman horse-trap- 
pings. Figure of a Roman legionary in full uniform. Tomb-stones. Exten- 
sive collection of Roman weapons, implements, and ornaments. — Room III. 

Neue Anlage. MAYENOE. 22. Route. 145 

Franconian weapons, implements, and ornaments. Models of tombs. Wea- 
pons and ornaments from the tomb of King Cliilderic I., discovered at 
Tournai in 1655 and now at Paris. 

We now ascend the staircase mentioned above and reach, on the left, 
the entrance to the Picture Gallery on the second floor. The best pictures 
were presented by Napoleon I., but there are few of great value. — Room I., 
with ante-room: Modern pictures, chiefly belonging to the Art Union. — 
Rooms II and III. Netherlandish Works : 90. Mierevelt, Don Ruy Gomez, 
Spanish secretary of state ; 80. S. Hofmann, Kitchen of a prince. — Room III. : 
55. F. Bol, Abraham on Mt. Moriah. — Rooms IV. and V. Italian and Span- 
ish Masters: 168. Lor. di Credi, Madonna; "170, 171, 172. Oaud. Ferrari, 
St. Jerome in a landscape, Adoration of the Infant, The young Tobias (three 
admirable pictures, forming a winged altar-piece); 187. Outdo Reni, Rape 
of Europa ; 193. Schidone, Visitation ; 195. Titian, Bacchanalian ; 198. Ve- 
netian School, Filial love ; 213. Murillo, Duck-stealer ; 217. Velazquez, Head 
of a cardinal. In the centre of Room V. is an astronomical clock (of 
the beginning of this century). — Room VI. German Masters of the 17th 
and 18th cent., including several natives of Mayence. — Room VII. Ne- 
therlandish Masters: "286. Jordaens, Christ among the doctors. — Room 
VIII. Old German School: 294. Early Copy of DUrer, Adam and Eve (ori- 
ginal at Madrid); 299-307. Griinewald, The nine beatitudes of Mary. — 
Room IX. French Masters : 335. Jac. van Artois, Foundation of the Char- 
treuse, a large landscape, the figure of St. Bruno by Le Sueur; 345-348. 
Ranucci after Claude Lorrain, Four periods of the day, painted for the 
Empress Josephine in 1812 (original at St. Petersburg) ; 349, 350. Mignard, 
Poetry, History, Painting, and the God of Time. — Room X. (Balcony 
Room). Water-colours, drawings, chalks, etc. 

Opposite the picture-gallery, on the other side of the landing of the 
staircase , we pass through two rooms containing casts from the antique, 
and enter the Akademie-Saal, built by F. Karl v. Erthal, the last elec- 
tor, in 1775, with ceiling-painting by Januarius Zick of Coblenz. Opposite 
the portrait of the founder is that of Grand Duke Lewis II., by E. Beuss. 

The Library and the collection of coins occupy the second and third 
floors of the W. wing. The former consists of 130,000 vols., including early 
impressions by Gutenberg, Fust, and Schoffer, from 1459 onwards. The 
reading-room contains portraits of eighteen electors. — The Coins include 
a full set of those of Mayence, from the time of Charlemagne down to the 
overthrow of the electoral sway. — The collection of the Natural History 
Society on the 3rd and 4th floors is extensive and well arranged, the bio- 
logical collection of insects being particularly interesting. 

Opposite the Electoral Palace , to the S. , is the Palace of the 
Grand Duke (PI. 5 ; G,4), formerly a Lodge of the Teutonic Order, built 
at the beginning of the 18th cent., and connected with it is the Ar- 
senal (PI. 41), which was erected by Elector Philip Charles in 1736. 

A Bridge-of-Boats (PI. Gr, 4, 5), J /s M - in length, connects 
Mayence and Castel. A new permanent bridge is to be built a little 
lower down. The remains of the pillars of a bridge constructed by 
Charlemagne in 793-803, formerly visible here when the river was 
low, have been removed (see p. 144). — Castel, see p. 137. 

The *Neue Anlage (PI. A, B, 3, 4; restaurant), or public 
promenade, on a slight eminence near the Neuthor (PI. C, D, 3), 
on the S.E. side of the town, occupies the site of the electoral 
chateau of Favorite, where on 25th July , 1792, the well-known 
manifesto of the Duke of Brunswick to the French nation was 
framed by a large assembly of princes. The grounds command a 
view of the town , the river , and the Taunus Mts. The grounds 
are intersected by the railways to Darmstadt and Ludwigshafen. 

146 Route 23. KREUZNACH. From Bingtrbruek 

The former crosses the Rhine by the Railway Bridge (PI. A, 5, 6), 
which lies obliquely between the Mayence bank and the opposite 
'Mainspitze'. This bridge, which is altogether 1410 yds in length, 
was constructed in 1862 on Pauli's ('fish-belly') system. It consists 
of four arches, each about 137 yds. in span, beyond which towards 
the E. bank, it is continued by the so-called Fluthbrucke ('flood- 
bridge'), resting on buttresses. A walk across the railway-bridge 
is also recommended , but the best survey is obtained from the 
towers (fee 50 pf.). 

The new Wallstrasse (PI. G, H, 1, 2), extending along the site 
of the former fortifications from the Binger Thor to the Hartenberg, 
and planted with four rows of trees, commands a striking view of 
Wiesbaden, the Taunus, and the Rheingau. 

The Cemetery, which was once the burial-ground of the Roman 
legions and of the earliest Christian church (St. Aureus), lies to the W., 
outside the Miinsterthor (PI. G, 1 ; cab, see p. 137). It occupies an emi- 
nence near Zahlbach (p. 143), and deserves a visit for the sake of its sit- 
uation and its tasteful arrangement. 

23. From Bingerbriick to Kreuznach, Saarbriieken., 
and Metz. 

Comp. Map, p. 102. 

137 M. Railway to Neunkirchen in 2'/<-3 1 A hrs., to Saarbriieken in '/a hr. 
more; thence to Metz 1>/j hr. (fares to Saarbriieken 11 m. 50, 8m. 70, 5m. 
80 pf. ; to Metz 17 m. 90, 13 m. 10, 8 m. 70 pf.). 

The line begins at Bingerbruck (p. 115), on the left bank of the 
Nahe, skirts the Hunsriicken mountains , traverses vineyards and 
a fertile district, and passes several small stations, the most impor- 
tant of which is (5 M.) Langenlonsheim (Berliner Hof). Then (7 M.) 
Bretzenheim, ll/j M. to the N. of which is a hermitage with a church 
hewn in the solid rock. 

10 M. Kreuznach. — The station is •/» M - from tne town, and 1 M. 
from the Curhaus. Hotel - omnibuses and cabs await the arrival of the 
trains. Cab with two horses for 1-2 pers. 1 m., with one horse 80 pf., for 
each additional person 25 pf. — In summer most of the trains also stop at 
the Haltastelle am Bad, a small station, '/a M - f rom the Curhaus, not re- 
recommended to those arriving for the first time. It has no booking-office 
for luggage. 

Hotels. In the town, PfIlzer Hof, next the post-office, R. 2 m. 50, 
B. 1 m., A. 50 pf., well spoken of; Adler, Hochstrasse^ both with gar- 
dens ; Berliner Hof, at the Kornmarkt ; Tacbe, R. and B. l m. 80 pf. ; Weis- 
ses Ross; Hoff; Goldene Krone, near the post-office; the last four un- 
pretending, and all often crowded in the height of summer. Bath-houses 
and hotels in and near the Bade-Insel, for patients, closed in winter: Cor- 
hau8, Englischer Hof, Kaczenberg, Obanienhof, Dheil-Schmidt, Hof von 
Holland, Kuroi'aischer Hof, Hotel Royal, Hotel Riedel, Grand Hotel 
du Nord, opposite the Elisabeth-Quelle, Stadt Hamburg, Dr. Schultz'b 
Private Baths, etc., and many other lodging-houses, nearly all with baths. 
An ordinary salt bath costs 1 m. 20 pf. 

Restaurants, with gardens : SchSnewolf, Curhaus-Str., music frequently 
in summer; Hoffmann, Oravius, on the right bank of the Nahe; Cliisse- 
rath, confectioner, with cafe-restaurant, near the iron bridge ; Zur Kaiserau, 
en the left bank of the Nahe, reached by a foot-bridge (removed in winter). 

to Mete. 


23. Route. 147 

Carriages to the following places and back, with 2 hrs. stay. 

stein . . . 

stein via. Mun- 
ster .... , 

stein, Munster, 
and the Ebern- 


Visitors' Tax, 


m. pf. 

6 — 

T — 


m. pf. 




Munster. . . . 
Munster (with- 
out returning) 
Ebernburg or 
Rothenfels or 
Schloss Dhaun 
Per hour . . . 





6 — 

9 — 
18 — 


m. pf. 



9 — 

12 — 
24 — 

10 — 

The 'Brunnen Karte* for the season costs for one pers. 
10, for 2 pers. of the same family 15 m.; each additional pers. 3 m. more; 
single ticket admitting to the grounds of the Curhaus 50 pf. 

Music every forenoon and afternoon at the Curhaus or the spring. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 3), near the N. (Binger) Thor. 

Donkeys at the Curhaus. To the following places and back, with halt 
of l /t day : Munster am Stein 3, Rheingrafenstein 3, Ebernburg 3, Rothen- 
fels 3 m. — By time : first hour 1 m., each additional hr. 50 pf. 

English Church Service during the season. 

Kreuznach (340 ft.), which from the 13th to the 15th cent, was 
the capital of the County of Sponheim , then belonged to the Pala- 
tinate, and since 1814 has been Prussian , lies on the Nahe, about 
10 M. from the Rhine. Pop. 15,500, of whom one-third are Roman 
Catholics. The river separates the Altstadt, with the larger Protes- 
tant church (PI. 6), on the right bank, from the Neusladt, with 
the Roman Catholic church (PI. 7), on the left , and above the 
town forms the Bade-Insel , or Bath Island (see below). A stone 
bridge , on the buttresses of which several houses are built, crosses 
the lower part of the island , affording a picturesque view, and 
unites the three different parts of the town. The Protestant Church 
(PI. 5) on the island, near the bridge, was consecrated in 1777, to 
replace an earlier edifice which was destroyed by the French in 
1689. The ruins of the Gothic choir of the latter, dating from 1330, 
were fitted up as an English Chapel in 1857-63 (PI. 8). Adjoining 
the church is the marble statue of Dr. Prieger (d. 1863), by whom 
the baths were first brought into notice, by Cauer. The Protestant 
School, in the Kreuz-Strasse, contains a few antiquities. 

Kreuznach has lately become a watering-place of considerable 
repute, and is visited by upwards of 6000 patients annually. The 
Salt Baths, which are particularly beneficial in cases of scrofula and 
cutaneous diseases , are situated on and near the Bade-Insel, or 
Badewbrth, where a new and attractive quarter of the town has sprung 
up. The principal street, flanked with hotels, lodging-houses, and 
gardens , leads from the church in a straight direction to the Cur- 
haus, with the Badehaus or Bath House, built in 1872, and forming 
the rendezvous of patients and visitors. Many of the former drink 
the waters of the Elisabeth-Quelle, a spring containing bromine and 
iodine, and rising from the porphyry rock at the S. end of the is- 
land. In bad weather the promenaders take shelter in a covered 

148 Route 23. MUNSTER. From Bingerbruck 

walk, 130 yds. long. The agate wares of Oberstein (p. 153) are 
among the most attractive of the various objects offered for sale here. 

Opposite the Ourhaus an iron bridge crosses the narrower arrr 
of the Nahe and connects the island with another new quarter, con- 
sisting of bath and lodging-houses , which has recently sprung uj 
on the right bank. The road in a straight direction leads to the Halte- 
stelle, mentioned above, 4 / 2 M - from tne Curhaus. Near this statior 
(on the left) is the studio (PI. 2) of the Messrs. Cauer, who are 
well known for their skilful treatment of subjects from the world o; 
romance ('Dornroschen', 'Aschenbrodel', etc.). The sculptors are, 
however, almost always at Rome. Many of the monuments in the 
cemetery , which lies on the road to Hackenheim , are by these 
sculptors, including a memorial of the war of 1870-71 by Robert 

On the N.W. side of the town, on the left bank of the Nahe, rises 
the Schlossberg (500 ft.), a hill laid out as private pleasure-grounds, 
The vineyards on its S. slopes yield an excellent wine, called 
'Kauzenberger'. Shady walks ascend the hill from the old bridge 
over the Nahe (entrance from the lane at the back of the fountain, 
fee to gate-keeper). The ascent may also be made from the 
Kaiserau (p. 146) in 1 / i hr. The summit, crowned by the ruined 
castle of Kauzenberg, the ancient seat of the Sponheim family, 
which was destroyed by the French in 1689, commands a fine view 
of the valley from the Rheingrafenstein to Bingen. A lion hewn in 
stone, brought here from Dhaun (p. 152), commemorates the gallanl 
conduct of Michel Mort, a butcher of Kreuznach, who sacrificed his 
life in a battle against Archbishop Werner of Mayence in 1279, to 
save his Prince , Johann von Sponheim. The traveller may now 
walk along the top of the hill and descend to the ferry above the 

About 1 M. above Kreuznach are situated the saline springs 
and salt-works (with bath-house) of Carlshalle and Theodorshalle 
(Hotel Rees and others ; R. 10-15 m. per week ; Restaurant in 
the Curgarten ; Refreshments at the forester's house in the wood). 
About 2Y2 M. farther on lies — 

Manster am Stein. — Hotels. 'Curhaus; "Hotel Baum; H6tei 
Low; Stolzenfels, well spoken of; Adlee; Pariser Hof. Numerous 
private hotels. 

Restaurants. Cursaal; TrummPs Restaurant, in the Huttenthal on the 
right bank of the Nahe (see below). 

Visitors' Tax the same as at Kreuznach. 

Miinster am Stein (370ft.; rail, stat., seep. 150) a village 
pleasantly situated at the foot of the Rheingrafenstein and the Gans 
also possesses salt-springs, and has of late years acquired impor- 
tance as a watering-place. The waters of the principal salt-spring 
(87°) are conducted directly to the baths, which are well fitted up. 
The Curgarten is connected with the springs by a covered way. 

The * Rheingrafenstein (803 ft.), a picturesque cliff of por- 

to Mm, RHEINGBAFEN STEIN. 23. Route. 149 

phyry , here rises 432 ft. almost perpendicularly from the Nahe. 
The river should" be crossed by the ferry near the saline springs, 
and the Huttenthal ascended for rfbout ^M., when a good new 
path diverges to the right and leads to the ruin in Vabr. (fine 
view). The boldly-situated ruined castle, built in the lith cent., 
once the residence of the 'Rheingrafen' (Rhenish counts), was blown 
up by the French in 1789. The new chateau, farm-buildings, 
etc., are the property of the Duchess of Osiuha, daughter of Prince 
v. Salm-Salm (d. 184Qf), l 'a descendant of the Rheingrafen. 

The *GanB (l^ffr), an indented ridge of porphyry, 3/ 4 M. to 
the N'.E. of the Rheiojjjjrafenstein, commands a more extensive view, 
embracing the Nahethjal as far as Brngen and part of the- Rhein'gau. 
At the top are an iron indicator and a conspicuous pavilion, for 
which visitors are Indebted to die liberality of a Dutch lady. ' 


Stein a, beautiful: walk pf,2V«"2 l /s hrs., a route hardly to be mistaken. 
Following the road in a straight direction from the 'Haltestelle' , and 
passing a rock-cellar, we reach' the conspicuous 'Tempelehen' on the 
Knhberg in "•/»,« l*r. ', about 100 paces beyond • which- ■ »> path diverges 
through the wood to the right, leading, to. the (>/« hr.) Rheingraftntteiner 
Bof. several, (Footpaths 'ascend hence to the Gang. The route from the 
latter to the llieingrafenstein is by a field-road towards the S. provided 
with a direction-pbst, and leading through the wood tor the ruin, to. which 
steps ascend. Descent to the Nahe through the Huttenthal, see above. 
To the left, about halfway down, a finger-post indicates the way to the 
Altenbaumburg (see below). 

Opposite* the Rheingrafenstein , to the W. , rises the ruined 
"fEbembnxg, once the stronghold of Franz von Sickingen (b. 1481', 
<|.„1523), and at that time often an asylum for outlaws and fugitives. 
Under his roof several of the early Reformers found shelter, and 
IJlrieh von Hutten here composed (1620-22) his letters to Charles V. , 
to the German nobility, and the German nation. The castle was 
fortified by the French, in 1689 , but in consequence of the Peace 
of.Ryswyk in 1698 it was again dismantled. The ruin remained 
in the possession of the Sicklngens till 1750, when It was annexed 
to the Palatinate. Out of the ruins rises a quaint, pinnacled building, 
fitted up as an inn , and embellished with portraits of Sickingen 
and Ms wife, Ulrich von Hnttefl, and others. Old weapons and 
bullets, which have been dug up, are preserved in the castle-yard. 
Fine prospect. 

The view from the *Bothenfels (918 ft. above the sea), a barren 
red porphyry cliff 2^2 S. from Krenznach, surpasses those from the 
Gans and Ebernbafg, as it embraces the Valley of the Nahe as far 
as the Lemberg, and the Alsenzthal as far as the Moschellandsberg. , 

A charming- 'excursion from ifunster am Stein is through the Hutten- 
thal, a valley Oh i the opposite bank- of the Hahe (ferry, 'ttttady mention- 
ed), then across arable land, and finally through beautiful woods, to the 
(i'/t hr.) 'Alt'eribaumburg; ('Restaurant) , an extensive ruined castle de- 
stroyed by the 9Vench ih-1669,* the ancestral seat of the ancient 'Baugrafen', 
and formerly . called the Bwmburg , or (kvntbur'g. Another route is by 
railway to Altenbamberg (see below).»nd then on fact to (2§ min.) the Alten- 
baumburg. — *Behloss Kontfort may be reached from Ifunster, by the 

150 Route 23. ALSENZ. From Bingerbruek 

Ebernburg and Bingert, in 2 hoars. The extensive castle (refreshments at 
the Montforter Hof) , once a robber's stronghold , was destroyed in the 
15th century. Turning to the right from Bingert, the traveller may ascend 
to the summit of the Lemberg (1312 ft.) , which rises precipitously from 
the Nahe and commands an extensive panorama. Restaurant at the top, 
open in summer two days weekly. The descent may be msde by a good 
path to the (20 min.) Oberhausen ferry, whence stat. Waldbbckelheim 
(see below) is reached in V2 hr. — The Lemberg may also be ascended 
from stat. Niederhausen, with a guide, in l'/2 hr. 

The finest of the more distant excursions from Kreuznach are 
to the Disibodenberg (p. 151), Schloss Dhaun (p. 152), and Oberstein 
(p. 153), all of which are easily reached with the aid of the railway 
(carriages , see p. 147). The Donnersberg , see p. 248. — From 
Kreuznach to Bacharach by Stromberg, see p. 111. 

Rail-way to Saakbkuckbn and Mbtz. The district between 
Kreuznach and Waldbockelheim (see below) and the neighbourhood 
of Oberstein are the most picturesque portions of the line. Leaving 
the principal station at Kreuznach, the train crosses the Nahe, stops 
at the Haltestelle am Bad (p. 146), and skirts the base of the Gans 
(p. 149). To the left, where the train next crosses the Nahe, rise 
the two curious pinnacles of the Rheingrafenstein (p. 148). 

I21/2 M. Minister am Stein (370 ft.), see p. 148. 

From Monster am Stein to Kaiserslautern, 37 l /2 M., railway in 
2y 4 hrs. (fares 4 m. 80, 3 m. 20, 2 m. 5 pf.). The line crosses the Nahe, 
which here forms the boundary between Prussia and Bavaria, and beyond 
(Vz M.) Ebernburg , a small village at the foot of the castle of that name 
(p. 149), ascends the valley of the Alsenz. — 2'/2 M. Altenbamberg lies at 
the foot of the Altenbaumburg (see above). 

7 M. Alsenz (Post), a village with a coal-mine. From Alsenz to (4'/2 M.) 
Oaugreliweiler, diligence twice a day; then on foot through the valley of 
the Appel to Iben and via Wonsheim to Flonheim (comp. p. 247). — In a 
pleasant lateral valley to the W. of Alsenz (3 51. , diligence thrice daily) 
lies the small town of Obermoichel (Knobloch), with the large ruined castle 
of Landsberg, which was destroyed by the French in 1689. Diligence hence 
twice a day to (7'/2 M.) Meisenheim (p. 151). — On the hill to the right of 
(9 1 /* M.) Mannweiler is the ruin of Randeck. 12 M. Dielkirchen. 

14 M. Rockenhausen (Detttsches Haus), a considerable village, the best 
starting-point for the ascent of the Donnersberg (see p. 248). 

20 If. Winnweiler (Zum Donnersberg), an industrious village, with 
iron-works and a copper-foundry, near the picturesque Falkensteiner Thai, 
with the ruin of Falkenstein. — 22 M. Langmeil-Milnchweiler, junction for 
the line from Langmeil to Marnheim (see p. 248). — 25 M. Sembach-Neu- 
hemsbach; 27 M. Enkenbach; 31 M. Hochspeyer, where the line joins the 
'Pfalzische Ludwigsbahn' (p. 255). — 37'/2 M. Kaiserslautern, see p. 255. 

Beyond a cutting the Ebernburg (p. 149) appears on the left. 
The train next runs between the Nahe and the base of the preci- 
pitous Rothenfels (p. 149), and after going through two tunnels, 
passes the villages of Norheim, Niederhausen, and Oberhausen, and 
an abrupt rock rising on the right , crowned with the ruins of 
Bbckelheim, destroyed by the French in 1688, in which the Emp. 
Henry IV. was kept prisoner by his son Henry V. in 1105. 19i/ 2 M. 
Waldbbckelheim lies in a side-valley, 2 M. to the N. of the station : 
the above-mentioned ruins are 1 M, from the station, 

to Met*. DISIBODENBERG. 23. Route. 151 

The castle and abbey f Sponheim, the ancestral seat of one of the 
oldest Rhenish families (comp. p. 147) , are situated y% h*. to the N. of 
Waldbbckelheim. The church, consecrated in 1123, occupying the site 
of an older structure, and belonging to the former Benedictine Abbey, 
is a fine example of the Romanesque style, and has been recently restored. 
Jobann TrithemSus (p. 180), the learned chronicler, was abbot here from 
1484 to 1508. 

"Emerging from a tunnel beyond Waldbockelheim, we observe 
on the left, beyond the Nahe, the extensive ruins of *Disiboden- 
fcerg, a monastery founded by the Irish bishop Disibodus (d. about 
700), the first propagator of Christianity in this district (20 min. 
to the E. of Staudernheim). It was rebuilt in 1150, but abandoned 
in 1559, and soon fell into decay. The Abbey Church, consecrated 
in 1143, was an imposing edifice with pillars; the vaulting of the 
choir , which was composed of nave and aisles, was borne by im- 
bedded columns. The secular portions of the monastery are in the 
Gothic style of the 13th cent., when it had come into the posses- 
sion of the Cistercians. Adjoining the church were the cloisters, 
and to the right of them the chapter-house. Farther'to the W. was 
the residence of the abbot, with a view over the valley of the Nahe, 
and to the E. was the refectory, of Which the gable-walls are still 
standing. The custodian shows a number of Gothic fragments 
(chiefly key-stones) from the old building, which are collected in 
a vault. The pleasure-grounds around the ruins afford a good sur- 
vey Of the valleys of the Nahe and its affluent the Glan. 

22Y2 M- Staudernheim (*Salmen) lies to the left, connected 
with die station by the five-arched 'Landgrafen-Briioke', con- 
structed in 1850. 

Diligence from Staudernheim thrice daily in iy« hr. (carr, 4 1 /* m.) to 
Meisenheim (Engel), a Prussian district-town, 7 M. to the S„ pleasantly 
situated on the : Olan. The old *Schlosskirche , a gem of late -Gothic 
architecture, built in 1479 and restored in 1878-80, contains the handsome 
Renaissance monument of Prince Charles I of Pfala-Zweibriicken (d. 1630), 
and the tombs of several other members of the same house. — Farther 
up the valley of Dhe Glan', beydnd jtduterecteri, lies (10 M.) Offenbach am 
Olan f Qcrlach; 'BaHotm), -with an' ^Abbey Church, built about 1170-90, 
and considered one of the finest extant examples, of the so-called, transi- 
tion style. The choir, transept , and two . chapel-like lateral choirs now 
alone remain; the Wave' and aisles having been pulled down in 1810. 

24 M. Sobernheim (Fdst; Adler; beer at Burkarfsy is a small 
town of some antiquity , enclosed by a wall. It possesses a late- 
Gothic church and ah old chapel , parts of which perhaps date 
from the 10th century, and several picturesque old houses , the 
most noticeable of which is one in the Renaissance style with 
a tasteful oriel, bearing a quaint inscription in old-fashioned Ger- 
man. In the N. part of the town , Y4 M. fromthe station , are an 
old Chapel and Commandery of the Knights of Malta , the latter 
now used as a school. 

27 M. Momingen (Pflug), on the, slope to the right, yields one 
of the best wines of , the Nahe. On theright, farther on, i& (30 M.) 
Mwptimtein (Seipel), curiously. built on a rock , with its church on 

1 52 Route 23. KIRN. From Bingerbruck 

an eminence surrounded by a tine group of trees. The station is 
'/ 2 M. from the village. Beyond it, in a valley opening on the right, 
are situated the grand ruins of Schloss Dhaun. 

-Schloss Dhaun, the seat of a branch of the Rheingrafen which be- 
came extinct in 1750, was erected in the 12th cent., and greatly extend- 
ed in 1729. This strikingly picturesque castle is situated 6 M. from 
Monzingen , 2 l /i M. from Martinstein, and 3'/2 M. from Kirn (see below ; 
carriage 7'/2 m.). A relief over one of the doors, representing an ape 
giving an apple to a child , commemorates the incident that a child of 
one of the Counts was carried off by an ape, but fortunately recovered. 
Magnificent view of the valley of the Nahe as far as the Lemberg , of the 
Simmerthal, and the dark ravines of the Soonwald. Admission, including 
tee to attendant, 30 pf. Near the entrance is the H6tel Dhaun. 

The traveller who visits Schloss Dhaun from Martinstein should return 
from Dorf Dhaun to the valley of the Nahe by johannisberg (see below). 

From Martinstein a new road leads through the picturesque valley of 
the Simmerbach or Keltenbach to (11 M.) Gemiinden (Post). From Gemun- 
den a pleasant excursion may be made to the (1 hr.) ruined castle of 
Koppemtein, which commands a splendid 'Panorama of the upper Nahegau, 
the Soon and the Liitzelsoon, and the heights of the Huniriick (to the N). 
The most important of the small towns and villages which sprinkle the 
Hunsriick is Simmern (Lamm), containing an interesting church (p. xxxiii) 
and the well-known reformatory Aiifm Schmiedel. Simmern may be 
reached from Gemiinden in 2 l /2 hrs. (diligence from Martinstein daily in 
1 hrs.; diligence to Boppard, 22 M., once daily in 4'/2 hrs.). — From Sim- 
mern excursions may be made to the N.W. through the KilUthal to (9 M.) 
KatteMaun , and to the S.W. to (7 M.) Kirehberg. We now return to 
Gemiinden by Ravengiersburg, which possesses an interesting abbey-church. 
To the E. is the Altenburg (2210 ft.; "View), rising above the Soonwald, a 
wooded district abounding in all kinds of game; the E. part of the forest, 
with the lofty Opel and the Weissenfels ("View), is more easily accessible 
from Stromberg (p. Ill) or Kreuznach. 

On an eminence to the right stands the church of Johannisberg, 
which contains ancient tombstones of the Rheingrafen. The train 
next passes through a tunnel and reaches — 

33 M. Kirn (595 ft.; *Stroh; Kothen; *Rheinl(inder ; all at the 
station; beer at Dill's and Nonnweiler' s) , a thriving little town, 
with manufactures of cloth and leather, and a brewery. During last 
century it was the residence of the Princes v. Salm-Kyrburg , the 
last of whom perished by the guillotine at Paris in 1794. The an- 
cient church (nave Romanesque, choir Gothic, added in the 15th 
cent.) contains a good ciborium, and several tombstones of Counts 
Palatine. The town is commanded by the ruin of Kyrburg (restau- 
rant), 1 M. from the station, which, in 1861, was freed from the 
disfiguring buildings around it, and embellished with pleasure- 

A road ascends from Kirn through the valley of the Hahnenbach, 
which falls into the Nahe here, by Biichenbeuren to Berncastel (p. 174) and 
Trarbach (p. 179) on the Moselle. About l'/2 M. up the valley, which on 
the night of 5th Aug. 1875, was visited, along with Kirn, by a terrible 
inundation occasioned by a water-spout, are the ruins of Stein-Kallenfels, 
curiously perched on the rock like a swallow's nest. At the entrance to the 
valley are several agate-polishing mills. In the background the white castle 
of Wartenstein, on a wooded height. Farther to the N. is the Schmidburg 
(1 hr.). From Wartenstein by Oberhavsen to Dhaun, and from Dhaun by 
Johannisberg, or through the woods to Kirn, a pleasant walk of 3'/2 hrs. 

The valley now expands, but the line again enters a mountain- 

to Mete. OBERSTEIN. 23. Route. 153 

ous district at Sulzbach, where the cliffs become more abrupt. The 
most interesting part of the line in point of construction is between 
Kirn and Birkenfeld, where there are no fewer than twenty bridges 
over the Nahe and ten tunnels, while the whole of the remaining 
part of the line has five bridges and five tunnels only. Beyond 
(38 M.J Fischbach the train comes in view of Oberstein, situated 
most picturesquely on the opposite bank. To the right a *View 
is obtained of the 'Fallen Rocks'. 

42 M. Oberstein (Restaurant at the station , with pavilion 
and *View ; *Post , in the town , near the new bridge ; agates sold 
at several shops), a town with 4800 inhab., is the finest point on 
the Nahe. The precipitous cliffs , 400 ft. in height, which confine 
the town within narrow limits, are crowned with two ruined castles 
of the Barons of Oberstein, who became extinct in 1670. The best 
way to the castles is the 'Burgweg', ascending to the left of the 
'Post', opposite Wild's brewery. By this route we first reach the Neue 
Burg (Restaurant), which has only of late fallen to decay, and then, 
beyond a hollow containing a "War Monument, the *Alte Burg, sit- 
uated almost perpendicularly above the town. About 5 min. higher 
is a pavilion commanding a very extensive * View. We may now 
return by the *Protestant Church, curiously built into the face of the 
rock about halfway down (200 ft. above the Nahe), and said to have 
been erected in the 12th cent, by a member of the Oberstein family 
with his own hands, as an atonement for fratricide ; it was restored 
in 1482. The sexton lives close by. The Gothic Roman Catholic 
Church, built of grey 'melaphyre', lies on the right bank of the Nahe. 

Most of the inhabitants of Oberstein are occupied in cutting and 
polishing agates. These stones were formerly found here in abundance, 
but are now imported from Brazil and Montevideo. A process has been 
discovered by which colourless agates are converted into onyxes, sardo- 
nyxes, &c, by the addition of colouring matter. On the Idarbach, which 
falls into the Nahe near Oberstein , there are upwards of fifty polishing 
mills. Idar ("H6tel Veeck, or Schiitzenhof), l'/s M. to the N.W. of Ober- 
stein (diligence thrice daily in 20 min.), a place with 3000 inhab., also 
possesses a Gewerbehalle , or industrial hall, in which these wares are 
sold at officially regulated prices. At Idar and Oberstein upwards of 100 
'goldsmiths' are engaged in setting the stones in silver and other metals. 
— Beautiful excursion to the Wildenburg (2>/2 hrs.) by the Kalzenloch ; 
guide necessary. 

47 M. Kronweiler; 50'/2 M. Heimbach. 533/ 4 M. Birkenfeld 
(Emmerich), the capital of the principality of Birkenfeld, now be- 
longing to the Duchy of Oldenburg, lies 3 M. to the N. of the rail- 
way, with which it is connected by a branch-line. From (57 l / 2 M.) 
Tiirkismuhle a pleasant excursion of 2 , /4hrs. may be made via Soe- 
tern to the Hunnenring. A diligence runs in 7^4 hrs. from Tiirkis- 
muhle to (32 M.) Treves via. Hermeskeil. The line now attains the 
culminating point (1030 ft.) between the Nahe and Blies, and then 
descends rapidly to the district- town of — 

66M. St. Wendel (970 ft.; Jochum), with a fine old Gothic 
church and pulpit of 1462. 

154 Route 23. SAARBRUCKEN. From Bingerbriick 

About 7!/2 M- tu tne w - of st - Wendel is situated the small town 
of Tholey (Knoll), formerly the seat of a Benedictine Abbey, the simple 
early - Gothic church of which is still preserved. Above it rises the 
Schaumberg (1837 ft.) , a volcanic eminence (porphyry) , which affords a 
fine view. Numerous Roman antiquities are found in the neighbourhood. 

71 M. Ottweiler (Hotel Haass). The handsome building on the 
hill to the right is a Protestant Training School. The train now 
passes through the Wiebelskirchen Tunnel, which is 400 yds. in 

75 V2 M. Neunkirchen {Mester, near the bridge; Simon, at the 
station), a town with 15,000 inhab., is the junction of the Mann- 
heim line (R. 37). Large foundry belonging to Messrs Stumm. 

Beyond Neunkirchen is the Bildstock Tunnel (517 yds.). The 
numerous cuttings here expose to view strata of coal, often curiously 
dislodged. The coal-mines all belong to the Prussian government. 
See below. 

80 M. Friedrichsthal ; 83 M. Suhbach ; 85y 4 M. Dudweiler, 
the long row of glowing coke-furnaces at which forms an imposing 
spectacle at night. 

Between the stations of Suhbach and Dudweiler , in a wood l / t M. to 
the left of the line, is situated the 'Brennende Berg', or burning mountain, 
a coal-bed which ignited spontaneously at the beginning of last century. 
Slow combustion still takes place , and the bed , 400 by 40 yds. , is gra- 
dually sinking. Smoke is seen , especially after rain , issuing from the 
fissures , in which eggs are sometimes cooked by visitors. 

88 M. St. Johann - Saarbrucken (*6uepratte; *Rhein. Hof; 
*Kbhl; Korn, Zix, near the station), two sister-towns on the right 
and left bank of the Saar , united with each other by two long 
bridges. St. Johann (12,000 inhabitants), containing the railway- 
station, is entirely modern, dating its importance from the con- 
struction of the railway, which does not touch Saarbrucken. Down 
to 1793 Saarbrucken (9000 inhab.) was the residence of the prin- 
ces of Nassau-Saarbriicken , whose Schloss , burned down by the 
French revolutionary army in that year, is now private property; the 
palace-church contains monuments of the princes. The hall of the 
Rathhaus at Saarbrucken has, by order of the Emperor, been de- 
corated with frescoes by Werner, commemorating the events of 
19th July to 9th Aug. 1870 (see below). — Saarbriicken is the 
centre of a very important coal-mining district, employing about 
25,000 miners and producing in 1880 six million tons of coals. 
Railway to Treves, see R. 24 ; to Saargemiind, Hagenau, and Strass- 
burg, see R. 41 ; to St. Ingbert and Zweibrucken, see p. 256 ; to 
Neunkirchen and Ludwigshafen, see R. 37. 

On the heights of Spicheren , about 3 M. to the S. of Saarbrucken , on 
6th Aug. 1870, a sharp engagement took place between the Prussians and 
French, in which the latter, although numerically superior, were obliged 
to retreat. A visit to the battle - field occupies 3-4 hrs. (carr. 12 m.). 
The Metz road is followed, passing the (l'/jM.) Ehrenthal, the burial-place 
of the German soldiers who fell at Spicheren, and the (1 M.) toll -house 
and 'Goldene Bremm' inn, near which is the Spicherer Berg Hotel, with 
a collection of relics of the battle. On the left rises the Spicherer Berg 
875 ft.) , with its steep and scantily wooded slopes , a strong position 

to Met*. METZ. 23. Route. 155 

in which the French had intrenched themselves. The Germans began 
the attack from the right and left side of the road, and from the Winter- 
berg, a hill about 1 M. to the S. of Saarbriicken. A tower recently erected 
on the latter height to commemorate the victory commands a good survey 
of the battle-field. 

At St. Arnual, ly 2 M. to the S.E. of Saarbriicken, on the E. side of 
the Winterberg , is a 'Church in the best Gothic style , with remarkably 
fine font, pulpit, and interesting monuments of the princes of Nassau- 
Saarbriicken. Opposite is the Hallberg, with a modern chateau. 

The Rail-way to Metz crosses the Saar, traverses the battle- 
field of 6th Aug. 1870, and passes (5 M.) Stiring-Wendel , and the 
little town of (6 M.) Forbach, with 6000 inhabitants. To the left 
in the distance rises the hill of Spicheren (see above). The country 
beyond Forbach is undulating. 9M. Kochern. At (il 1 / i M.') Beningen 
the line from Metz to Saargemiind and Strassburg diverges to the left 
(comp. p. 274; new branch-line to Thionville, p. 160, open as far 
as Carlingen). Next (13 3 / 4 M.) Oberhomburg on the Rossel, (18 M.) 
St. Avoid, (25 M.) Falkenberg, (31 V4 M.) Herny, (35»/ 2 M.) Re- 
milly, (41 V2 M.) Courcelles-sur-Nied, all frequently mentioned in 
the annals of the Franco-Prussian war. (Branch-line from Courcelles 
to Bolchem, a town of 2500 inhab., and Bous, 32 M., see p. 160.) 
Then (45 M.) Peltre, which was entirely destroyed in consequence 
of a sally on 23rd Sept. 1870. On the right , before the station of 
Metz is entered, rises Fort Queuleu, now called Fort Goben. 

48^2 M. Metz. — Hotels. "Grand Hotel de Metz (PI. a; C,5), Rue 
des Clercs 3, R. 3-5, L. 1 , D. at 6 p.m. 4, B. l>/ 2 , A. 1 fr. ; "Hotel de 
l'Europe (PI. b; C, 5), Rue des Clercs 4, R. from 2, B. l'/z, D. 3 fr. — 
Hotel de Paris (PI. c; C, 4), adjoining the Esplanade, well spoken of; 
Hotel de Lokdres, Rue au file 4, near the cathedral, R., L., & A. from 
1 fr. 60c, D. 2 fr. 60c. ; Hotel Luxembourg, Rue Serpenoise 55; Hotel 
Garni (PI. d; C, 5), Rue Pierre Hardie 4, with restaurant; "Hotel de 
la Poste (PI. g; C, 5), Rue des Clercs 38, unpretending, R. 2, B. 1 fr., 
with restaurant; Rheinischer Hop, Rue de TEsplanade, with restaurant. 

Restaurants. "Moitrier, Rue Chapelrue 4, adjoining the Rue Serpe- 
noise; Ehrhardt, luncheon-rooms, Rue Fournirue 9 (PI. D, 5) ; "Dannhofer, 
Rue du Faisan ; at some of the hotels, see above. — Cafes in the Esplanade. 
— Beer. Huber, Rue des Allemands 1, bis ; Zeising, Rue Serpenoise 23. 

Tramways to all the city-gates, and to Montigny, Longeville, and Moulins. 

Metz, the capital of German Lorraine, with 53,107 inhab., more 
than a fourth of whom are German settlers (pop. before the Franco- 
German war 55,000), and a German garrison of 16,000 men, lies 
in a wide basin on the Moselle, which flows in several arms through 
\.he town, at the lower end of which it is joined by the Settle on the 
right. It was the Divodurum of the Romans, the chief town of the 
Gallic tribes of the Mediomatici, and in the 5th cent, began to be 
known as Mettis. In 406 it was plundered by the Vandals, and in 
451 it suffered the same fate from the Huns. It afterwards came into 
the possession of the Franks, and in 512 became the capital of the 
kingdom of Austrasia. Subsequently Metz was a free city of the 
German Empire , until it was taken by the French in 1552, and 
successfully maintained by them against an army which besieged it 
under Charles V. By the Peace of 1556 it was ceded to the French 

156 Route 23. METZ. Cathedral. 

together with Toul and Verdun, and in 1871 it was again incor- 
porated with the Empire of Germany. 

Metz has always been strongly fortified (at one time by Vauban), and 
under the later French regime was rendered one of the greatest fortresses 
in Europe by the construction of forts on the neighbouring heights. Until 
its surrender to the Germans on 27th Oct. 1870, the fortress had never 
succumbed to an enemy, and even on that occasion it is probable that 
mismanagement on the part of the French contributed mainly to its 
downfall. The Germans are now actively engaged in restoring and 
completing the fortifications. The outworks form a girdle round the 
town of about 15 M. in circumference; the most distant (Plappeville) is 
about 4 M. from the cathedral, the nearest (St. Quentin) about 1 JI., 
the rest 2-3 M. To the W., commanding a wide surrounding tract of 
country are : Fort St. Quentin, consisting of two parts, that to the E. being 
now called Friedrich Karl and that to the W. Manstein; and Fort Plappe- 
ville, now named C. v. Alvensleben; on the N.E. are Fort St. Julien, now 
Manteuffel, and Fort Les Bottes, now Zastrow; to the S.E. Fort Queuleu, 
now Goben ; to the S. Fort St. Privat , now Prinz August v. Wtirtem- 
burg, Bellecroix, now Steinmetz, and Moselle, now Voigts-Rhetz. 

The *Cathedral (PI. 7; C, 4), the finest edifice in the town, 
is a magnificent Gothic structure, begun in the 13th century. The 
nave was completed before 1392, the choir dates from the 15th and 
16th cent, and was consecrated in 1546 , and the unsightly portal 
was added in the degraded taste of the 18th century. The whole was 
thoroughly restored in 1830-35. The roof caught fire in 1877, dur- 
ing the visit of the Emperor William , but has since been restor- 
ed. The *Interior is very interesting, although most of the old 
monuments were destroyed at the time of the French Revolution. 
By the altar adjoining the sacristy is a kneeling figure of the archi- 
tect Pierre Perrat (d. 1400). Several late-Gothic paintings on the 
pillars have recently been discovered under the whitewash, and re- 
stored. The choir contains fine stained-glass windows, the oldest of 
which, of the 13th cent., are on the S. side ; those in the middle are 
of the 14th and 15th cent., and several others are modern. The 
tower, 387 ft. in height (110 steps to the first gallery, 105 more 
to the huge clock called La Muette, and 78 thence to the highest 
gallery) , commands a beautiful view of the town and the fertile 
'Pays Messiri. 

The Marche Convert (PI. 23; C, 4), to the W. of the cathedral, 
should be visited by the traveller in the morning for the sake of 
seeing the magnificent display of vegetables and fruit yielded by the 
remarkably fertile environs. 

The Place d'Abmes (PL C, 4), adjoining the cathedral on 
the W., is adorned with a Statue of Marshal Fabert (d. 1662), 
a native of Metz , who distinguished himself in the campaigns of 
Louis XIV. 

The Church of St. Vincent (PI. 14 ; C, 3), a fine Gothic structure 
begun in the 13th cent., with traces of the Romanesque style is 
disfigured externally with an unsuitable modern facade. 

In the Rue Marcel (PL B, 4), in the vicinity, is the handsome 
modern Romanesque Church of Sle. Constance, with good mural 

Germans: wtnlnfajitry . &e\ Cavalry. ..... Artilbru . French s ,.«., Infantry ~* 3 Cavalry, Arlithrtf 

Battle of Aug. 18 th,1870. 

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Battle Fields. METZ. 23. Route. 157 

paintings of 1861 by Hussenot, a native of Metz. The church be- 
longs to the extensive OrphSlinat, or orphan asylum, where visitors 
apply for admission to the church. 

The Library (PI. 2; D, 4), in the Rue ChevrertfOnt, contains 
mafriy Valuable works oh the history of Lorraine and the town itself. 
The Museum, in the same building, embraces considerable collec- 
tions and a picture-gallery (Sun. &ThUrs. 1-4, gratis; on other 
days 10-4, lee). 

Ground Floob. Qalerie ArcMologique (catalogue 2 m.% Boom I, 
Greek and Boman vases. Boom II. Stone, monuments from, the environs 
ofjtete: 9, iQ, 35-40. Roman tombstones; 27. Altar of the, goddess Epona; 
79., Altar of Mercury and Bosmerta; 89. monument from Artan, with reliefs 
of children;. 99. Belief of a shop; 170, Fine statue of a woman, found at 
Jltets; portions of a monument found at Mertens; richly-decorated column, 
which supported an equestrian statue. . — -.Mediaeval Collection. 416. Gothic 
chimney-piece from the convent of St. Elisabeth , 16th cent.; 440; Baarelief 
of the Twelve Apostles and the martyrdom of St, Agatha, -r- The First 
Fi,oob contains a collection of smaller Boman antiquities, a Cabinet of 
Coins (one room), a Natural History Cabinet, and the Picture Oallery (three 

, The handsome Church of St. Eucharius (PI. 8 ; E*5), with a plain 
interior, near the Porte des Allemands, dates front the 12th century. 

The Esplanade , which extends towards the S.W- of the town, 
is laid out in pleasant walks. The spacious Kaiser- Wilhelm-Caseme 
(PL B, 6) , formerly the Caserne du Genie , is situated here. In 
front of the Esplanade stands a Statue of Marshal Ney, .who' was 
born at Saarlouis in 1769.,. created Poo d'Elchingen by Napoleon in 
1805, and Prince de la Moscowa in 1812, and shot in 1815 in con- 
sequence of his defection from the royal cause to that of Napoleon 
after the return of the emperor from Elba. 

The Palais de Justice (PI. 25; B, 5), an extensive building of 
the last century, is also situated in the Esplanade. 
F * To the N. of the Porte ChamMeie, or Schlachthausthor (PI, E, 3), 
is a lofty Monument to the memory of the French soldiers who died 
at Metz in 1870. 

. Metz is the junction of the Saarbriicken Bailway with the lines to 
Papny and Nancy (p. 159), to Thioriville (Diedenhofen) and Luxem- 
ftpiwgjjp'. 160),; arid to AmanviUfirs and Verdun,, opened in 1874. 
(To. Aimaavillers, 9M., in 45-50 min., passing Moulins, situated at 
the entrance of the 'valley- of Monvaux, which the train ascends.) 

The Battle Fields of 16th and 18th August, 1870,, lie to the; W., of 
Wets on the road to Verdun. A visit to them occupies a whole day 
(9-10 hrs.), and may be most conveniently accomplished by- taking the 
following route (either entirely by carriage: two-horse carriage 30-40 fr., 
the best at the principal hotels; or, by train toNove'ant and by omnibus 
to Gorze , and the rest on foot) : up the valley of the Moselle to Mevitmt 
(p. 160); thence to 0o?-«r3 3 /< M. ; Vionville 3»/»M. ; Rezonville 2 M. ; Qra- 
velotte 2 M. s St. Hubert .£»/« M. ; back to Gravelotte l l /4 M. ; from Gravelotte 
to Vernivilte 2 St.; Ste. Marie-aux- Chines 2% M, ; St, Prfaat-larMojitagne 
and. AmanvWens, which is a railway ■? station (see, above), 2 3 /* M.; in all 
about i7V» M. fyoxa Gorze." Information on all. points connected with the 
battles is given by the keepers of the monuments and burial-grounds. 

158 Route 23. GRAVELOTTE. 

Those who desire to visit the Battle Field of the 18th August only 
should proceed by railway or tramway to Moulins (Croix d'Or), and 
thence follow the road to Gravelotte , which ascends to the W. Before 
we cross the brook, which flows through the valley, at Maison Neuve, 
we pass a road diverging to the right , which , like the railway, runs 
through the valley of Monvaux by Chatel to Amanvillers and St. Privat. 
By the village of Rozerieulles, farther up the hill on the main road to 
Gravelotte, began the left wing of the French army (composed of the 
2nd Corps under Frossard and the 3rd Corps under Leboeuf), whose chief 
'point d'appui 1 was the farm of Point du Jour situated on the hill. The 
Germans who opposed them consisted of the 7th and 8th Prussian Corps 
(commanded by Zastrow and Goben under Steinmetz) , who towards 
evening were supported by the 2nd Corps (under Fransecky). The 
French maintained their position until nightfall , but retreated on the 
morning of the 19th. The inn of St. Hubert, somewhat lower down the 
hill, had however previously been captured by the Germans in the course 
of the afternoon. The sanguinary nature of the struggle is shown 
by the numerous tombstones of the different regiments. The road de- 
scends into a ravine, and then ascends to the plateau of Gravelotte (* H6tel 
du Cheval d^Or, expensive), 5 M. from Moulins-les-Metz. In the middle of 
the village the road divides, both branches leading to Verdun. On that to 
the right (N.), about 1 M. farther, lies the farm of Malmaison, near which 
a good survey is obtained of the farms of Point du Jour, Moscou, Leipzig, 
Montigny-la-Grange, etc., on the opposite heights, then occupied by the 
French. Malmaison was occupied by the 9th Prussian Corps d'Armee (under 
Manstein), the lines of which extended along the road diverging to the 
right as far as (l'A M.) Verniville. To the W. of the village (reached by the 
road diverging to the left) is a handsome Monument to some of the fallen 
Germans. Good view from the height. To the N. of Verneville French 
territory is crossed for a short distance. In the vicinity are several other 
German monuments. The villages of (I1/4 M.) Habonville and ( 3 /4 M.) St. Ail, 
from which the right wing of the guards (under Prince Augustus of Wur- 
temberg) and behind it the reserve of the 10th Corps (under Voigts-Rhetz) 
advanced, are French; Ste. Marie-aux-Chenes, 3 /t M. farther, the centre of the 
left wing of the guards, now belongs to Germany. Here there is a French 
monument. Farther N. are Montois-la-Monlagne and Malancourt, where 
the left wing of the German line of battle was terminated by the Saxon 
corps (under the Crown Prince of Saxony). The right wing of the French 
opposite (consisting of the 4th Corps under Ladmirault, and the 6th Corps 
under Canrobert) was posted by the villages of Roneourt and St. Privat- 
la-Kontagne, on the road, opposite Ste. Marie, both of which were taken 
in the evening by an attack of the guards and the Saxons, whereupon 
the right French wing retreated towards Metz in great confusion. Several 
Monuments have been erected to the Germans on the road from Ste. Marie 
to St. Privat. From the latter the traveller may now return to (1 M.) 
Amanvillers, which contains two German monuments, and by the above- 
mentioned railway to (5 M.) Moulins-les-Metz, or by footpaths passing the 
farms of Montigny-la-Grange, La-Jolie, Leipzig, Moscou, and Point du Jour. 
— The eight German Corps d'Armee engaged in the battle of the 18th 
August numbered about 230,000 men , opposed to whom were 180,000 
French troops. The Germans lost 899 officers and 19,260 men ; the French 
609 officers and 11,705 men. 

The Battle Field of the 16th August adjoins that above described. 
The position of the French was principally supported on the left by the 
village of Rezonville, situated on the left (S.) branch of the road from Grave- 
lotte, and 1 >/s M. distant from it ; the Emp. William spent the night of 18-19th 
Aug. in the last house to the W. (A little to the S. of the village, at the 
end of the ravine ascending from Gorze, mentioned above, is a monument 
to the commander of the 72nd Regiment, who fell at this spot ; good view 
hence.) The French line of battle extended in a semicircle towards the 
K.W. as far as *Sf(. Marcel and Bruville, while the Germans advanced 
from the woods towards the S. , in the direction of the road. Near 
Rezonville, where the monuments have been erected, the French batteries 

VIONVILLE. 23. Route. 159 

planted on the N. side of the road were gallantly attacked by the German 
cuirassiers and uhlans. About 2 M. farther lies Vionville, which was 
occupied soon after the beginning of the battle by detachments of the 
3rd Corps d'Armee (Brandenburgers) and successfully maintained by them 
in spite of vehement attacks by numerically superior French troops, so 
that the S. branch of the road to Verdun was rendered unavailable for 
the French retreat. Here also rise numerous monuments to the fallen. 
Between Vionville and Mars-ta-Tour a spirited attack was made by the 
Dragoon Guards and the Rheinbaben Cavalry Division in aid of the harassed 
infantry of the 10th Corps. Mars-la-Tour itself, with its monument, lies 
within the French frontier. — The battle of 16th Aug. was one of the 
bloodiest fought during the whole war. In the course of the day no 
fewer than 138,000 French troops and 476 guns were engaged at intervals, 
while the German forces amounted to 67,000 men with 222 guns. The 
French loss was estimated at 879 officers and 16,128 privates, and the 
German loss at 711 officers and 15,079 rank and file. 

To the E. of Metz lie the Battle Fields of 14th Aug. and of 31st Aug. 
and 1st Sept. 1870. The former began between three and four o'clock 
in the afternoon, and ended at 9 p.m. by the French being driven back 
under the guns of Metz. The Germans have named it the battle of 
Colombty-Nouilly , as the ground between these villages was the principal 
object of attack (see Map). The result of the battle was to cause a fatal 
delay in the intended march of the French to Verdun. 

The battle of 31st Aug. and 1st Sept. was fought on the occasion 
of the first and most determined attempt of Marshal Bazaine to break 
through the German army which had surrounded Metz since 19th 
August. The chief object of dispute was the small village of Noisseville, 
5 M. from Metz, on the road to Saarlouis. The 4th and 6th Corps and 
the guards of the French took the place about 6 p.m., soon after the 
beginning of the battle ; they lost it about 9 p. m. and re-captured it at 
10 p. m. On the following day the Germans took the village three times 
and lost it as often, but at length about noon they succeeded in gaining 
final possession of it. The principal German monuments rise to the S. 
of the village, and there are several others near Servigny to the N. of it, 
and near Colombey to the S. The German loss amounted to 126 officers 
and 2850 men, and the French loss to 141 officers and 2664 men. 

To the N. of Metz, not far from the road to Thionville, lies Woippy, 
where Bazaine's last sortie, on 7th Oct., terminated in the retreat of the 
French after a battle of nine hours' duration. — At the chateau of Fres- 
cati, 2 3 /< M. to the S. of Metz, on 27th Oct., was signed the capitulation 
of Metz, whereby the fortress with 3 marshals, 50 generals, 6000 other 
officers, 173,000 men (including 20,000 3ick and wounded), 53 eagles, 66 
mitrailleuses, 541 field-pieces, and 800 fortress-guns, together with a vast 
quantity of other munitions of war, were surrendered to the Germans. 

Fkom Metz to Nancy, 35 M., railway in ^/i-l 3 ^ hrs. (fares 
5 m. 40, 4 m., 2m. 90 pf.}. — The line ascends the picturesque and 
well-peopled valley of the Moselle, which flows between hills of mod- 
erate height. Soon after leaving Metz, at the point where the line 
to Thionville branches off to the right, we pass on the left Fort 
St. Privat, now Prinz August v. Wiirtemberg, and then the chateau 
of Frescati, embosomed in trees. A little farther on, the train crosses 
the river and reaches (5 M.) Ars-sur- Moselle. A little above the 
village, and also at Jouy-aux- Arches on the right bank, about 5 l /g M. 
from Metz, are situated extensive remains of a *Roman Aqueduct 
erected by Drusus, which was once about 60 ft. in height and 3 / 4 M. 
in length, and conducted water from the hills on the right bank to 
the Roman town of Divodurum, the modern Metz. At Ars there are 

1 60 Route 24. SAARLOUIS. 

seven, and at Jouy eleven arches still standing. 8I/2 M. Noveant, 
connected by a suspension-bridge with Corny, the head-quarters of 
Prince Frederick Charles during the siege, is the German frontier- 
station. 12 M. Pagny is the French frontier station. 17y 2 M. Pont- 
h-Mousson, a picturesquely situated little town, with 11,000 in- 
hab., commanded by the ruins of the castle of Mousson on a lofty 
eminence. Then Dieulouard, Marbach, and (30 M.) Frouard, where 
the Rhine and Marne Canal is crossed , and the line to Paris di- 
verges to the E. 

35 M. Nancy (Hotels de Paris, de t Europe, de France, du 
Commerce, d'Angleterre, de Metz, the last two near the station), the 
capital of the Departement de la Meurthe , formerly that of the 
Duchy of Lorraine, with 70,000 inhabitants, is pleasantly situated 
in a fertile and vine-clad plain, not far from the left bank of the 
navigable Meurthe. The town contains broad, well-built streets, 
handsome places adorned with fountains, and a number of imposing 
buildings. The chief objects of interest are the Gates, built in 
the style of triumphal arches ; the Place Dombasle , the Cours 
Leopold, and the Place Stanislas, which are all embellished with 
statues ; the Hotel de Ville, with a collection of modern paintings ; 
the Chapelle Ronde, the burial-church of the dukes ; and the new 
church of St. Epvre. See Baedeker's Paris. 

From Mktz to Luxemboubg, 41 M., railway in i^l^-l hrs. (fares 
5 m. 40, 3 m. 60, 2 m. 30 pf. j express 6 m. 15, 4 m. 35 pf.). The 
line describes a curve on the "W. side of the town, passing Montigny, 
(5 M.J Devant-les-Ponts (outside the Porte de France of Metz), 
(Ti 1 /* M.) Maizieres, (13 3 / 4 M.) Hagendingen, (17*/^.) Hiickingen, 
and (20 J /2 M.) Thiomrille (Hotel St. Hubert), or Diedenhofen , a 
small fortified town on the Moselle, which was taken by the Germans 
on 24th Nov. 1870. Then Oross-Hettingen, Bettemburg, Berchem, 
and (ii i /i M.) Luxembourg (p. 168). 

24. From Saarbriicken to Treves and Luxembourg. 

Gomp. Map, p. 170. 

Railway to Treves (55 M.) in 2-3V4 hrs. (fares 7 m. 20, 5 m. 40, 3 m. 60 pf. ; 
express 8 m. 10, 6 m., 4 m. 10 pf.); to Luxembourg (87 M.) in 31/2-5 hrs. 
(fares 11 m. 40, 8 m. 30, 5 m._50 pf.). 

Saarbriicken, see p. 154. The line follows the course of the 
Soar. Picturesque scenery, especially between Saarbriicken and 
Saarlouis, at Mettlach, and at Saarburg. Numerous manufactories 
are passed. 4 M. Louisenthal; 6 M. Vblklingen; 10 M. Bous, the 
junction of the line to Bolchen and Courcelles (p. 155) ; 127 2 M. 

14 M. Saarlouis (*Rheinischer Hof; Zwei Hasen), with 6800 
inhab., a Prussian fortress, constructed in 1680-85 by Vauban for 
Louis XIV., was the birthplace of Marshal Ney (p. 157), the house 

TREVES. 24. Route. 161 

of whose parents is indicated by a marble tablet. The town lies on 
a peninsula formed by the Saar, at a considerable distance from the 
station of Fraulautem. About 2 M. to the N. is Wallerpmgen 
(Vtf&drifange), once a fortified place, with an extensive porcelain- 
manufactory and a park. 

17 M. DUlingen ; 20 M. Beekingen. 24^2 M. Merzig (Trierscher 
Hof), with a pointed 'basilica of the 12th centuTy. About 1 M. 
lower is a large Lunatic Asylum. Before (29 M.) Kettlach f?$ium 
Saarstrom) a long tunnel. The buildings of a suppressed Benedic- 
tine abbey, founded in the 7th cent., are now occupied by the ex- 
tensive earthenware-factory of Villeroy and Boch. 

At Mettlach the Saar makes a considerable circuit, which the line 
avoids by the above-mentioned tunnel. The H. point of the Mil which 
it penetrates (IV2 hr. to the K.W. of Mettlach, and reached by a shady 
path) is the *Glef (probably from davit, the round tower which once stood 
here having formed the key to this district), affording a fine survey of the 
two , arms of the valley of the Saar , separated by a narrow strip of. land. 
On the latter stands the ruined castle of STontclair, destroyed in 1360 by 
Elector Baldwin of Treves. 

One mile W. of the Clef (path through the wood) lies Oricholn 
("Thiellemanns) , from which a carriage-road leads to Weitett, 21/4 M. to 
the H. A mile farther is the old castle of Freudenburg, and 1 M. beyond 
it a finger-post indicating the way to Oastell. Hear this village, on a bold 
rock overhanging the Saar, is a chapel restored by Frederick William IV., 
in which he deposited the bones of his ancestor, the blind king John of 
Bohemia, who fell at Crecy in 1346. The cell hewn in the rock contains 
some Roman antiquities. The castellan lives in the village below. 

The line follows the right bank of the Saar. Near Saarburg the 
chapel of CasteM (see above) is seen on a precipitous wooded rock 
on the right bank. 40'/2 M. Beurig is the station for — 

Saarburg (Pott; Trierscher Bof) f picturesquely situated in a 
basin, and commanded by the considerable ruins of a castle of the 
Electors of Treves. The Gothic Church of St. Lawrence was erected 
in 1856. The Leak, which here unites with the Saar, forms a 
waterfall, 60 ft. high, near the 'Post'. 

The line descends the valley of the Saar, passing (1.) Wiliingm, 
(r.) Scharzhof, and Ober~Emmel, celebrated for their wines, to 
(49y2 M.) Cons, the Roman Consitium, below which it enters the 
valley of the Moselle. The bridge over the Saar at Conz is men- 
tioned by the Roman poet Ausonius (d. 392) in his poem 'Mosella'. 
The present bridge was constructed by Clemens Wenceslaus, the last 
Elector of Tr&ves (see below). 

50 M. Karthaus, the junction of the Metz and Luxembourg lines 
(pp. 167, 169). 

/• The railway crosses the Moselle by a massive stone bridge, 
beyond which the line to Treves turns to the right. 53i/gM. Lowen- 

55 M. Treves./ - Hotels. "Tbibbbghek Hof (PI. a; F, 5), B. 2m.; 
"Rothes Haus (PI. b, F 3; see below); 'icXipiBUBGEB Ho* (PI. c; F, 4), R. 
2, A. Vui D. 2V«, B. im.;**STADt Veoti!mo (PI. d; E, 5), R. and B. 21/4, 
a. 2 in.; Post (PI. &i B, 4), opposite the post-office. 

Restaurants. Caft Stern (Fiichtr), in the market ; Kuff, Neue-Str. 222 

Baedeker's Rhine. 8th Edit. 11 

1 62 Route 24. TREVES. Porta Nigra. 

(good Moselle wine) ; Cafe Germania, with garden , and Steinhatis, both in 
the Fleisch-Str. ; Schneider's Hof, on an eminence on the left bank of the 
Moselle, with splendid view (comp. p. 166). 

Cabs. Per drive within the town , to the station , amphitheatre , and 
Zurlauben, for 1 pers. 50, 2 pers. 60 pf.; each additional pers. 25 pf. more. 
For a drive of an hour l'/s or 2V2 m.; for each additional 20 min., 50 or 
75 pf. — • Longer drives according to bargain. — To Igel (p. 167) two- 
horse carr. about 6 m. 

Railway Stations. The station for all trains is now on the right bank 
of the Moselle, on the E. side of the town (comp. PI. H, 2). 

Post Office (PI. 22; E, 4), Fleisch-Str. 75. 

Steamboat to Coblenz, see B. 25. 

Treves, Ger. Trier, a town on the right bank of the Moselle, with 
24,140 inhab. , said to be the oldest in Germany, belonged to the 
Civitas Treverorum , or territory of the Treveri , a tribe of Belgic 
Gauls conquered B.C. 56 by Caesar. It is uncertain whether there 
was a settlement here in pre -Roman times. The Roman town, 
Colonia Augusta Treverorum, was probably founded by Claudius, 
and rapidly rose to importance. In the reign of Diocletian Treves 
became the capital of Belgica Prima, and during the 4th century it 
was frequently the residence of the Roman Emperors. The numerous 
relics of that age in the vicinity are among the finest on this side 
of the Alps. On the introduction of Christianity by Constantine, 
Agricius of Antioch was (328) elected first Bishop of Treves , and 
for nearly 15 centuries the town continued to be the residence of 
the bishops , archbishops , and electors , till Clemens Wenceslaus, 
the last elector, a Saxon prince (1768-1802; d. 1812), transferred 
his residence to Coblenz in 1786. On 10th Aug. 1794, the French 
captured the town, and in 1815 it was ceded to Prussia. 

The surrounding vine - clad hills and wooded heights , and the 
rich plain in which the town with its red sandstone walls and nu- 
merous towers is situated, are strikingly picturesque. 
'Trevir metropolis, urbs amoenissima, 
Quse Bacchum recolis, Baccho gratissima, 
Da tuis incolis vina fortissima 

Per dulcorP Old Saying. 

The Market lies nearly in the centre of the town. The 'Rothes 
Haus' Hotel (PI. b ; F, 3), situated here, a late-Gothic building of 
the 15th cent. , was formerly the Rathhaus, and bears the inscription : 
'Ante Romam Treviris stetit annis MCCC, referring to a mediaeval 
tradition that Treves was founded by Trebeta, son of the Assyrian 
monarch Ninus. An ancient Column in the Platz, supposed to date 
from 958, was renewed in 1723, and is surmounted with a cross 
with the Lamb of God. The St. Petersbrunnen, a beautiful Renais- 
sance fountain, was erected by Elector John of Schonberg in 1595. 

The Simeons-Strasse, leading out of the market-place towards the 
N., terminates in the *Porta Nigra (PI. 21; F, 1), also named Porta 
Mortis, Rbmerthor , or Simeonsthor , a gate with towers of defence, 
and the finest of the Roman structures at Treves. This magnificent 
relic is 115 ft. long, 75-93 ft. high, and 29 ft. in depth. It con- 
sists of three stories, with two gateways, 23 ft. in height, and is 

Cathedral. TREVES. 24. Route. 163 

constructed of huge blocks of lias sandstone, blackened with age and 
fastened -with iroit or 'flapper-' braces instead of mortar.'' Opinion's 
vary as; to its .age , but the faet of its never having been finished 
seems to point to an origin during the last* years of the Roman em> 
pire. The interior is open to the public daily in summer from 9 to 
11 {entrance on the W. side). • i ■■<■ 

,, The Porta Nigra was a fortified city-gate, the t»teriOr:of which could 
be closed by a portcullis and defended by the two towers. If the enemy 
sdccieeded in Conning the gate he found himself in the 'propugnacuium , 
a small enclosed cthwt, secured on the side next the town by a barricade 
and exposed to a racing fire from all parts of the gate-house. At, both 
ends there are still, traces of the junction of the gate with the walls, and 
at the W. end is a doorway, which opened on the ramparts. In 1028-35 
the E. tower was occupied by a Chreek hermit named Simeon, and Oh^rfd 
death the structure was converted into two churches, one above the other. 
In 1817 3II the later additions . were removed except the apse at the E, 
end , and in 1876 the original Roman structure was thoroughly disclosed. 
To the E. of the Market Place rises the "Cathedral (Pi. 10; F, 
G, '3), 'one of the oldest churches in Germany, the nucleus 1 df which 
consists of a quadrangular basilica erected by the Emp. Valen- 
tinian I. {364-375), either' for a court of law or as a baptistery. This 
building,' which was of the same breadth as the present edifice, and 
extended from the second pillar from the W. entrance to the E. apse, 
seems to have been converted into a Christian church during the Ro- 
man period. In the centre stood four huge granite columns, connected 
by 1 arches, some remains of which lie in the cloister-garden (see be- 
low); The church was partially destroyed by the Franks, but Was re- 
stored in the original style by Bishop Meetius, who held the see from 
532 to 561. It was afterwards again devastated by the Normans, and 
restored by Archbishop' Poppo (1016-47) and his successors ', who 
increased its' size by an addition of one-thiTd at the W. end, In the 
style of the original Roman edifice, and also built an apse. ' The E. 
apse was added by Bishop Hillin (1152-69).. The vaulting Of the 
nave and aisles dates from the- loth cent. ; the circular, dome- 
roofed treasury was not built till the 17th. — ■ The various periods 
at which the structure has been built are all clearly visible on the 
N. exterior ;■ the Roman work consists of sandstone and bricks, that 
of Archbp. Poppo is partly of brick and partly of limeilone. Several 
Roman arches and Fianeonian capitals have also been exposed to 
view in the interior by the removal of the stucco. 

, The I#tebiqb is open the whole day except from. 12 to 2. In the vaults 
repose 26 archbishops and electors. The finest monument is that of Jo- 
hmu III. (eon Metzenhaueen, d. 1540), on the. wall tif the IT. aisle. On the 
tombstone of Elector Richard ',111. (von Oreiffmkhm,' 4. 15S1}» the successful 
•opponent of Protestantism, are medallions with portraits. ,p| the elector pn 
the left , and his most violent antagonist, Franz von Sickingen (p. 256), ion 
the right. In the high-altar are deposited some highry-prixedreHcS, among 
which are the 'Holy Coaf without aeam, exhibited at rare intervals, and 
attracting vast crowds of pilgrims, a nail from the Cross., and a part of the 
Crown Of Thorns. By the steps leading to the high- altar are statues of 
Constantine and St: .Selena, and on the pulpit reKefs in stone" of 1572, re- 
presenting the eight Beatitudes and the Last Judgment. Under the organ- 
loft is a monument to Abp. Sttldmim^ brothenof Emp. Henry IV. ? . - 


1 64 Route 24. TREVES. Basilica. 

Adjacent to the cathedra] , and connected with it by beautiful 
Cloisters of the 13th cent., is the*Liebfrauenkirche(Pl. 15 ; F, G, 3), 
one of the most interesting early-Gothic churches in Germany, built, 
it is supposed, in 1*227-43, and probably in imitation of the abbey- 
church of Braisne near Soissons. It is circular in form (60 yds. long, 
49 yds. broad, and 124 ft. high), intersected by a lofty, vaulted cross, 
and supported by 12 slender pillars , on which the 12 apostles are 
represented, probably painted in the 15th cent, (visible simultane- 
ously from a slab of slate in the pavement , about 8 paces from the 
entrance}. The church contains numerous monuments of ecclesiasti- 
cal dignitaries, and the mummy of Bishop Theodulf, who died in the 
6th century. To the right of the high-altar is an altar-piece (St. 
Sebastian) ascribed to Guido Reni. The sacristy possesses an in- 
teresting old side-door and contains the *Monument of Johann Se- 
gensis (d. 1564), with a portrait. The * Portal is richly decorated 
with sculptures , symbolical of the Old and New Testament, etc., 
dating from the erection of the church. 

The other churches of Treves are comparatively uninteresting. 

In the S.E. Quarter there are several interesting relics of the 
Roman period. 

The *Basilica (PI. 9 j G, 4, 5) , built entirely of brick , prob- 
ably in the reign of the Einp. Constantine, served originally for the 
administration of justice and for commercial purposes, like the 
similar ancient Roman structures at Rome itself and elsewhere. 
Early in the middle ages it was the seat of the governors appointed 
by the Frankish sovereigns, and in 1197 it was made over to the 
bishops. When the town became Prussian, it was used as a barrack, 
but after 1846 it was restored by order of Frederick William IV., 
and in 1856 consecrated as a Protestant church. The interior, ter- 
minating in an apse at the N. end , is lighted by a double row of 
windows. The Basilica is 225 ft. long, 100 ft. wide, and 98 ft. high. 

The N.W. side up to the lower row of windows, the apse, and the 
lofty arch between the nave and the apse are all antique. The S. 
facade and the E. side , on the other hand , are almost entirely modern. 
The entrance for the public was at the S. end; the two smaller entrances 
near the apse were probably for the use of the judges. The interior was 
richly decorated with painting, some relics of which may be inspected 
in the museum. Below the floor was a hypocaust, or heating-apparatus. 

The *Roman Palace (PI. 24; H, 6), entered from the Prome- 
nade, and also from the Exercier-Platz, lies at the S.E. corner of the 
town, and forms a picturesque group of ruins, part of which is 65 ft. 
high. The name of Roman Baths, by which these ruins were long 
known, is undoubtedly a misnomer, as the public baths of the town* 
have been discovered in the suburb of St. Barbara. In the middle 
ages the building was used alternately as a church and as a fortress. 
The rubbish in the interior accumulated to such an extent , that 
one of the windows was once used as an entrance to the town. 

The best-preserved part of the edifice is a Rectangular Room , with 
three apses, at the S.E. end, formerly lighted liy two rows of arched 

Town Library. TREVES. 24. Route. 165 

Windows , and heated by channels for hot air ,. many of which are still 
visible. To the right and left of this chamber stood two Towejbs, one 
of which is still extant and commands a fine view of the ruins and of 
the town (ascent by a steep spiral staircase). — At the 1T.W. end, where 
the excavations are still in progress, various circular and square rooms 
and subterranean passages have been brought to light. 

On a rising ground about ^4 M. to the E. of the Baths (comp. 
PI. H, 7), is the 'Amphitheatre , locally known as the Kaskeller, 
situated among vineyards. This arena , still in excellent preser- 
vation, with a diameter from N. to S. of 76 yds., and from E. to 
W. of 53 yds. , was capable of accommodating 30,W0 spectators, 
(that at Verona held 70,000 spectators, the Colosseum at Rome 
87,000.) The E. half is built into the rocky side of the hill , while 
the W. is raised to the same level by artificial means. At the SL 
and S. ends are gateways , each with three openings , that in the 
centre leading to the arena, and those at the sides to the seats for 
spectators. There are also two entrances for the public on the W. 
side. The dehs for the tffld beasts and the chambers for the gla- 
diators are still traceable adjacent to the arena. The amphitheatre 
was probably built in the reign of Trajan or Hadrian. In 306 Con- 
stantine here sullied his fame by Causing several thousand captive 
Franks , with their leaders Ascarich and Ragais , to be torn to 
pieces by wild beasts; and in 313 , thousands of the Bructeri were 
barbarously sacrificed for the amusement of the people. 

The Town library , at the Gymnasium (PI. 26 ; F, 5 ; adm. 
9-11), contains some rare printed vjorks and numerous valuable 

Among the printed books are several 'incunabula 1 or works of the 
15th cent, (when the art of printing still lay in its cradle, 'in cunabulis'), 
including the Bible of Fust and Gutenberg of 1450, and the Catholicpn of 
1460. — One of the most interesting M8S. is the Codex Aureus, containing 
the four Gospels, presented. by Ada (d. 809), a reputed sister of Charle- 
magne, to the Abbey of St. Maximin. It is illuminated with allegorical 
paintings , and the binding is superbly adorned with jewels, and a cameo 
Of uncommon size, representing the Familia Augusta. The 'Codex Eg- 
bert*, dating from about 9TO, is perhaps the finest extant specimen of 
the art of illumination at that period. The miniatures combine the best 
traditions of Carlovingian art with the new influences of the classical- 
Italian school. The Liber Aureut contains documents of the convent of 
Priim, ranging from the 9th to the 11th century, and admirably illustrat- 
ing -the advance of the illuminator's art. — Several letters of Luther, one 
from Blusher on the death pf Queen Louisa , etc., are also interesting. 
The Ante-Chamber contains portraits pf Electors of Treves, the Duke of 
Alva, Huss, Sickingen, and' others. 

The- "Provincial Museum in the same building (open daily in 
summer from 11 to 1, Sun. and Wed. free, at other times 50 pf. ; 
in winter 11 to 1, Sun. and Wed. free, Frid. 50pf., at other times 
75 pf.) contains an interesting collection of Roman and mediaeval 

To the bight. Room I. Mosaic pavement, found atOberweis; Tomb 
from Welschbillig; "Torso of an Amazon in marble, found in the Therms 
of i Treves ' (see below). Extensive collection of Soman glass; shallow 
early j Chrigtian vessel with a representation of Abraham and Isaac ; goblet 
with caterpillars in high relief. Etruscan bronze vessels ; fine statuettes 

166 Route 2d. TREVES. 

in bronze. — Rooms II. & III. contain sculptures from Neumagen (p. 180), 
chiefly from tombs. In B. II.: Group of a bear devouring a ram; Relief, 
with battles of Tritons and sea-monsters ; "Two galleys laden with wine- 
casks (noticeable the cleverly depicted humorous expression of one of 
the steersmen). On the walls, frescoes from the Basilica (p. 164), and 
imitations of Roman mosaics found at Treves. In R. III. : Reliefs of cap- 
tured warriors , and ladies at their toilette ; Youths counting money ; 
Schoolmaster. In the middle of the room, Statue of a Roman peasant, 
found at Langsiir (p. 167). Fine torso of Cupid on an ancient column of 
darkgreen marble ('verde antico'), found at Treves. At the wall: Reliefs 
of a stag and a lynx, found at Treves. — Room IV. Objects found in a 
Roman burial-place outside the Porta Nigra; to the right by the window 
is part of the burial-place arranged as it was when discovered. The case 
to the left contains the more valuable articles. — Valuable collection of 
pottery from Nassau, Siegburg, etc.; mediaeval weapons ; Greek and Egyp- 
tian antiquities ; a mummy. 

To the left. Collection of Coins. Early Christian inscriptions from 
the churches of SS. Matthew, Maximin, and Paulin. Sarcophagus, with 
relief of Noah's Ark. Mosaics. Pre-historic Collection. Reconstruction 
of a Roman room. 

In the suburb of St. Barbeln, adjoining the new Kaiser-Strasse 
(PI. C,D,7), are the Roman Baths, an imposing structure of the 3rd 
or 4th cent., recently excavated. In front of the N. facade, which 
is now exposed to view, was a large court, extending as far as the 
mediaeval city-wall. The various basins and water-conduits are also 
disclosed. The baths were richly adorned with marble and mosaics. 

Adjacent is the Moselle Bridge (PI. B, 7), with eight arches, 
some of the buttresses of which are of Roman origin. The seeond 
and seventh buttresses from the town-side were blown up by the 
French in 1689, and restored in 1729. The bridge has recently been 
skilfully widened and levelled. — The Railway Station on the left 
bank of the Moselle is now used for goods traffic only. 

The *Mariensaule, a tower with a colossal statue of the Virgin, 
situated on the bank of the river opposite Treves , between the 
bridge and the village of Pallien (PI. A, 1), and about I72M. from the 
former , affords the best survey of the town and its beautiful en- 
virons. The traveller should return through the entrance to the 
Pallien-Thal , a picturesque glimpse of which is obtained through 
the arch of a bridge built by Napoleon. A little beyond the ferry 
which connects Pallien with Zurlauben (*Cafe'-Restaurant Mett- 
lach) on the opposite bank , on the hill , lie the Schneider s-Hof 
Restaurant and the manor of Weisshaus, with a pretty park, always 
open to the public. A little higher up is the Kockelsberg (Restau- 
rant), commanding an admirable view. Farther down the stream is 
a second ferry. 

About 3 / t M. to the S. of Treves is situated the venerable Church of 
St. Matthew, dating in its present form from the 12th cent., with alter- 
ations made in the 16th and 18th cent., and said to contain the sarco- 
phagus of the Evangelist (a favourite resort of pilgrims). — About 3/ 4 M. to 
the N. of the town is St. Paulin, with an interesting rococo church of 
the early part of the 18th cent., richly adorned with frescoes. In the 
vicinity is a spot marked by a Cross where some of the early Christians 
suffered martyrdom at the hands of the Romans. Near it is the vener- 
able Abbey of St. Maximin, now a barrack (PI. H, 1). 

inJV?2ff Gymnasium . F.5 


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16 Tentple j/roteslanl 


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17 Eveehe 


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18 Hopital dyQ 


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19 Hotel du Gourernemrnt 


9 Cathedrale 


20 S.dela mnison Royal e 


10 SPCuneffande 

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23 la priiicesse A.2. 
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25 Pastas et Telcgraplies A.B.3. 

26 Prisons pt niendiciie C.3 
2" Tlicatre B.2. 



J Ml 



IGEL. 24. Route. 167 

The Luxbmbotoo Linb follows the tight bank of the Moselle as 
fgft as Karthaus. — 561/2 M. Ldwenbrucken, 

60 M. Karthaus, the junction of the Metz and Luxembourg 
line (p. 161). Opposite the station is an old Carthusian convent, 
still partly preserved , with the ruins of a church. The train now 
crosses the Moselle. 

62 M. Igel, an inconsiderable village , containing one of the 
most interesting Roman relics to the N. of the Alps, the celebrated 
*Igel Monument, popularly called the 'Hetdenthurrri' (heathens' 
tower) , and visible from the railway. The monument is a square 
sandstone column, 75 ft. in height, and lBVgf*. broad at the base, 
and was erected as a funeral monument by the rich mercantile 
family of Secandini, probably in the latter half of the third cent. 
after Christ. It bears appropriate inscriptions, some of which are 
now illegible , and also several reliefs of scenes of daily life and 
mythological representations, such as Hylas and the Nymphs, Apollo 
and the chariot of the Sun, Mars and Rhea Sylvia, the Apotheosis 
of Hercules, Terseus and Andromeda, and Hercules with the apples 
of the Hesperides. From the churoh on the hill behind the mon- 
ument a fine view is enjoyed of the country around. Above Igel are 
extensive gypsum-quarries. 

Near (641/2 M.) Wasterbillig the line crosses the frontier of 
Luxembourg ; scenery picturesque ; the Sauer (Sure) here unites 
with the Moselle , after having for some distance formed the boun- 
dary between Prussia and Luxembourg. Near its mouth is the-. priory 
of Langsur. 

FaoM Wasbekbillis to Diekihch, 30 It., railway in l'/s-S 1 /* hit, 
(fares 4 fr., 2 fr. 35, 1 fr. 35 c). The line follows the pretty valley of the 
Sure, but at some distance from the river. — 4>/j 3t. Born; 8 M. Rotport. 

13 K. Echternach (*jB»mcA, also 'pension'), a small town, with a well- 
preserved Benedictine abbey, which maintained its independence down 
to 1801. The abbey-church of *8I. WilUbrord ia a Romanesque edifice of 
1017-31, skilfully restored since 1861. The walls of the nave are support- 
ed alternately by pillars and columns, as in St. Michael's at Hildesheim 
and other churches of Lower Saxony. The proportions of the interior are 
yery light and elegant, and the capitals of the columns are beautifully exe- 
cuted. Echternach is noted for the singular 'Leaping Procession 1 , which 
takes place every Whit-Tuesday and is participated in by 12-15,000 pil- 
grimS from the country round. Picturesque walk on the left hank of the 
itinie, with view of the town and its pretty environs.; ' 

it M. Bollendorf, on the left bank of the Bam-, 24 H. Meitdorf; 27 M. 

30 M. Diakireh (*JS«ft*I'<f«» Ardennei, 'pens/ 5 fr.), a small town pret- 
tily situated on the Sure. .,< Pleasant excursions may he made hence to the 
ruin of Brandenburg, to Bwtcheid, and to Vianden {Hitet du Luxembourg), 
a small and ancient town , 8 M. to the ~S,\ in the valley of the Our, a 
tributary of the Sure. Vianden is commanded by an imposing ruined 
castle of the Counts of Nassau; the elegant decagonal' chapel was restored 
in 1849. The church contains a few tombstones of the la-16th centuries. 

From Diekirch to EttelbrVck (p. 169), 21/2 M., railway in 15-20 minutes. 

Near (65 M.) Mertert the train quits the Moselle and ascends the 
valley of the Sire. To the right Manternach, with a large paper- 
manufactory. 70 M. Weaker; 74 M. Roodt; 79 M. Oetringm. The 

168 Route 24. LUXEMBOURG. 

train then crosses the Pulverthal by a viaduct 275 yds. long and 
100 ft. high. The station of Luxembourg, situated on the right side 
of the Petrusthal , is connected with the town by a handsome via- 
duct (omnibus to the hotels 1 fr.). 

87 M. Luxembourg, formerly Lutzelburg (* Hotel de Cologne; 
Hotel de V Europe ; Hotel Brasseur, well spoken of; Hotel des Ar- 
dennes ; *Fabers Restaurant ; Cafe Italien ; Cafe de la Place ; good 
photographs at Briick's book-shop), formerly a fortress of the Ger- 
man Confederation, a town with 16,000 inhab., is the capital of the 
Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, which is subject to the king of Hol- 
land. The situation of the town is peculiar and picturesque. The 
Oberstadt, or upper part, is perched upon a rocky table-land, which 
is bounded on three sides by abrupt precipices , 200 ft. in height. 
At the foot of these flow the Petrusbach and the Alzette, which are 
bounded by equally precipitous rocks on the opposite bank. In this 
narrow ravine lies the busy Vnterstadt or lower portion of the town, 
consisting of Pfaffenthal , the N., Clausen, the E., and Grund, the 
S. suburb, separated by a rocky ridge in the valley of the Alzette. 
The view of the town with its variety of mountain and valley, gar- 
dens and rocks, military edifices and groups of trees, obtained from 
the Treves road, is singularly striking, and is enhanced by the rail- 
way-viaduct and the huge Petrus Viaduct which connects the rail- 
way-station with the S. part of the Oberstadt. 

The fortifications, which were condemned to demolition in 1867, 
are partly hewn out of the solid rock, and are now almost all acces- 
sible ; a visit to them is interesting, as Luxembourg has long been 
considered one of the strongest fortresses in Europe. 

The construction of the works gradually progressed during 500 years 
under various possessors, — Henry IV., Count of Luxembourg, afterwards 
German Emp. as Henry VII. (d. 1312), his son John, the blind king of 
Bohemia (killed at Crecy, 1346), the Burgundians, the Spaniards, the 
French (whose celebrated engineer Vauban constructed a great part of 
the fortress), the Austrians, the French again, and finally the German 
Confederation, by whom it was evacuated in 1866. 

Apart from its fortifications, curious situation, and pretty environs, 
Luxembourg offers little to detain the traveller. The Athenaeum (PI. 
2 ; B, 3) contains an interesting collection of Roman glass, bronzes, 
and other antiquities , found chiefly in the Roman camp at Dahl- 
heim. — A small collection of pictures was bequeathed to the town 
in 1855 by M. J. P. Pescatore, and is always open (PI. 21 ; fee). — 
Of the magnificent castle of the Spanish Governor Count Mansfeld 
(1545-1604), in the suburb of Clausen (PI. D, 1, 2), on the right 
bank of the Alzette (to the N.W.), no vestige is left, except a small 
portion of the wall and two gateways, into which several interest- 
ing Roman sculptures are built. The once famous Mansfeld Oar- 
dens now only nominally exist in a walk (striking view) along the 
E. slope of the hill, near the Treves Gate. The traveller who has 
leisure will be repaid by a walk through the entire valley. 

NENNIG. 24. Route. 169 

Fsoh Luxembourg ^oJSaois Viebges (Pepituteifc Lihgt), 43 SL, railway 
in 2V4-3 hrs. (fares 5 mi^Sitt: 70, 2k. 40 pf.)> ^- The line ascends the 
valley of the Alzette. 2V« H. Bommetdange; 4'/s M. Wolf er dang e ; 7 1 /: M. 
LorenUweilet •; 9 M. Lintgen. 

11 M. Herein (Petite Croix a" Or), at the confluence of the JSVscA, 
JfonMr, and Alzette, the valleys of which afford pleasant excursions. To 
the W. are the chateau of HoMtnftU and the ruined convent of Marien- 
thal in the valley of the Eisch, and the handsome chateau of SchdnfeU 
in the valley of the Mamer; to the E. lie the chateau and park of Megi 
temburg, the property of Prince Arenherg , and the picturesquely situated 
rfttIS -town of 'La SoeMetttt. 

• 14 Jl. Kruchten. 16 M. Cotmar-Berg, with an old chateau of the Counts 
of Nassau, at the confluence of the Alzette and Attert. 

' I8V2 M. Ettelbriick (HStel du Luxembourg) , a small town, pleasantly 
situated at the confluence of the Wareke and the Alzette. Fine view from 
the Herrenberg. Branch-railway to Biekirch, see p. 167. 

23 M. Michelau, whence a visit may be paid to the (>/z hr.) imposing 
ruins of the castle of Surtcheid, below which is" a tunnel. The finest 
scenery on the line is at this point. — 25'/2 M. Qoebelsmiihlt , at the con- 
fluence of the Wolz and the; Sure (p. 167). — 28 M. Kautenbaeh, at the 
confluence of the Wile and the Wolz. — 31 V2 M. Wilaeneiltt; to the right 
is the ruined castle of ScMeburg. — 38 M. Clervaux (Ger. Clerf}, a pictur- 
esquely situated place (HStel K6ner) to the E. of the line , with an old 
castle, visible before and after the passage of the tunnel, but not from 
the station. The castle was formerly in the possession of the Seigneurs 
de LannDy, the most famous of whom was Charles V.'S general, Charles 
de Lannoy, the conqueror' of Francis I. at the battle of Pavia. The interior 
has been modernised. — 40 M, MaulutmilhU. 

43 M. Trois Tiergei, Ger. Ulflingen, the frontier-Station of Luxembourg. 
— Hence to Stavelot, Spa, Liege, etc., see Baedeker'! Belgium and Holland. 

From Luxembourg to TMonville and Mett, see p. 160. 

Fsoh Taivss to Thiohvim,b, 43y 2 M., railway in l 3 / 4 hr.. 
(fares 5m. 80, 4m. 20, 2m.80pf.). — The line, a prolongation of 
that described in B. 25, ascends the valley of the Moselle above 
Treves. H/g M. L&wehbrueken. 5 M. Karthaut, the junction of 
the Saarbrticken line (p. 161). Below the bridge at Conz (p. 161) 
the train crosses the Soar, affording a view of the pretty valley of 
that stream. 8 M. Wasserlieseh ; 13 M. Wellen. Near (15.M.) Mtiel 
the train passes through a tunnel. 18 M. Winehrmgen. 

25 M. Hennig (Zur Bomischen Villa) , with the remains of a 
Roman villa, excavated in 1852, containing a remarkably fine 
*Mosaie Pavement, 49 ft. long and 33 ft. broad. It is nearly as 
large as the Mosaic of the Athletes in the Lateran at Rome , and 
perhaps surpasses that celebrated work in artistic execution. The 
principal scene represents a combat of gladiators, and is sur- 
rounded by seven medallions with animals, fencers, and musicians. 

29 M. Perl (Greiveldinger), the first place in Lorraine. 32 M. 
Sierck (HStel Metz ,- Qoldner Lowe), a small and ancient town with 
1800 inhab. , picturesquely situated on the right bank of the Mo- 
selle, and commanded by the conspicuous ruins of a castle of the 
Dukes of Lorraine. About 6 M. to the N.E. is Sehloss Mensberg, 
popularly known as Sehlpss Marlborough, from its occupation by the 
great British general. 36 M. Mallingen ; 38 l /a M. Konigsmachern. 
, 431/2 M. Thionville, see p. 160. 


25. The Moselle from Coblenz to Treves. 

Railway (69'/ 2 M.) in 2y«-3»A ln-s. (fares 9 m., 6 in. 80, 4 m. 50 pf. ; ex- 
press, 10 m. 10, 7 m. 50, or 5 in. 30 pf.). The trains start from the 'Mosel- 
bahnhof (p. 90). — View to the left. 

Steamboat (117 M.) four times weekly in l'/ 2 day (faresjd m., 4 m.). 
The night is spent at Trarbach, and Treves is reached about 3 p.m. on 
the second day. The descent from Treves to Coblenz occupies only 11-12 
hrs. (fares 8 m., 5 m. 30 pf.). The river is sometimes so low that the 
steamboats have to cease running. — Local Steamboats : between Coblenz 
and Cochem daily in summer, except Friday, leaving Coblenz at 1p.m. 
and Cochem at 5 a.m. (1 m. 80, 1 m. 20 pf.). — The steamboat -pier at 
Cobleni'. lies between the two bridges over the Moselle (PI. A, 2), and is 
reached by descending to the left of the approach to the old bridge and 
passing through the gateway. [It is probable that the Moselle steamers 
will cease plying altogether in the course of 1882.] 

The Valley of the Moselle is not unworthy of comparison with that of 
the Rhine. The scenery is remarkably picturesque at places, the wooded 
and vine -clad hills present a great variety of form, and the valley is 
enlivened with smiling villages and ruined castles. The finest portion is 
between Coblenz and a point a little above Berncastel. The prevailing 
stillness affords a pleasant contrast to the noise and bustle of the Rhine. 
Charming excursions may be made in the wooded lateral valleys, the 
beauties of which are often enhanced by picturesque ruins, and magni- 
ficent views are afforded by the tops of numerous hills. The region 
watered by the Moselle is also rich in political and historical associations, 
extending back to the time of the Romans ; and a Roman poet, Decius M. 
Ausonius (circa 309-392), has celebrated the praises of this river in a poem 
entitled 'Mosella\ The Moselle wines have long been famous for their 
delicate bouquet (see p. xxiii). The pedestrian will find the valley admir- 
ably adapted for a walking-tour, which is greatly facilitated by numerous 
fairly comfortable though small and unpretending inns. The letters R.B. 
and L.B. denote the right and left banks with reference to the traveller 
descending the river. 

The train skirts the base of the Karthause (p. 94 ; to the right 
the Kemperhof orphanage"), and above Moselweis (*R6sschen , with 
'pens.') crosses the Moselle by a handsome iron bridge with three 
spans of 213 ft. each. 

2i/ 2 M. Guls (steamb. stat.; Zillien), a prettily-situated village, 
much frequented by the Coblenzers when the cherry-trees are in 
blossom. The train traverses the orchard-like district of GUIs, skirt- 
ing the vine-clad hills, and passes Lay, a village on the right bank. 

5M. "Winningen (steamb. stat.; *Schivan; *Adler; Anker; Hof- 
bauer), a market-town with 1700 inhab., once belonging to the 
county of Sponheim, and hence forming, like several other places 
on the Moselle (Enkirch, Trarbach, etc.), a Protestant 'enclave' in 
the midst of the Roman Catholic Electorate of Treves. A figure of 
Germania has been erected here in memory of the war of 1870-71. 

Beautiful walk past the Distelberger Ho/ (Inn) to the p/ 2 fir.) Blumslay 
and the CVs hr.) Rothe Lay, two fine points of view. — On the right bank 
of the Moselle above Winningen opens the Conderthal , with a mineral 
spring, a pleasant walk through which brings us in l'/ 2 hr. to the Kuh- 
kopf (p. 95 ; refreshments at the Remstecker Ho/, a forester's house). 

Farther up the river the left bank consists of lofty and precipi- 
tous rocks, called the Winninger and Coberner Vlen , every 
available spot on which is planted with vines, producing the best- 

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BRODENBACH. 25. Route. 171 

flavoured -wine of the Lower Moselle. — On the opposite (ri) tank 
lies Dieblieh (irfSriershaiiser), with a handsome church. 

L.B. ((^/tM.) Cobern (steamb, stat. ; *8imonis), commanded hy 
two castles. The railway-station lies above Cobern, on the Gondorf 
road. Near it is a large Roman stone sarcophagus, one of several 
found in this neighbourhood in 1878 during the construction of the 
railway. A steep footpath ascends through the vineyards (the path 
with the pilgrimage-stations is longer, but easier) to the picturesque 
Niederburg, once the seat of the knights of Cobern, the last of whom 
was executed at Coblenz in 1536. Higher up is situated the Ober- 
or Altenburg, within which is the interesting * Chapel of St. Matthias, 
a hexagonal edifice in the late-Romanesque style, begun in 1230, 
and measuring 53 ft. from angle to angle. The central portion rises 
above the rest, and is supported by six columns. The very elaborate 
decorations are executed in a masterly style, and the acoustic 
properties of the chapel are excellent. It was restored by Frederick 
William IV. Fine view of the valley 

Farther up, on the same (1.) bank, lies Qondorf (*Haupt), with 
the Tempelhof, a Gothic castle, recently restored, and an old 
electoral chateau, partly destroyed, and now used as a parsonage. 

On the opposite bank lie Niederfell (Fassbender) and Ruhr. 
The church at Niederfell contains the altars formerly in the 
abbey of Marienroth , 3 M. from the river , which was destroyed 
by the peasants in 1794. 

lCM/z M-. Lekmen (steamb. stat. ; *Zirwas), with a modern castel- 
lated chateau. The river is bordered here with precipitous crags. 

R.B. Oberfell. Above (13 M.) Katenes the river flows through a 
narrow gorge, in which are several mills. 

R.B. Aiken (steamb. stat. ; * Comes, unpretending), an old town 
with mediaeval houses and fortifications, now eomes suddenly into 
view. On the hill above it rise the towers of the old castle of Thuron, 
or Thurant, built by Count Palatine Heinrich (p. 89) about 1200, and 
a frequent object of dispute between the Counts Palatine and the 
Electors of Cologne and Treves. It was besieged by the two Arch- 
bishops in 1246-48, when 600,000 gallons of. wine are said to have 
been consumed by the assailants. The chroniclers also relate that 
the towns-people, having discovered that their governor was med- 
itating a treacherous surrender, shot him from a catapult across 
the valley into the enemy's camp, where he arrived without scath. 
The chapel on the Bleidenberg, to the N., is a memorial of the fact, 
and of the governor's gratitude for his miraculous escape. — 14 M. 

R.B. Brodenbach (steamb. stat. ; *Post\ pleasantly situated at 
the base of a lofty wooded hill. 

Just above Brodenbach is the. month of a narrow ravine, which ex- 
pands about '/» M* from the river and contains a number of mills. Near 
tlfe first of these a footpath diverges to the left between two rocks and leads 
past a (3 min.) point of view to the (V«hr.) ?Ifcrcni«tg, the finest ruin on 

1 72 Route 25. MOSELKERN. The Moselle from 

the Moselle, situated on an isolated peak. A vaulted, winding carriage-way 
leads to the foot of the two towers, which command a beautiful panorama. 
The knights of Ehrenburg waged frequent feuds with the town of Coblenz. 
The castle now belongs to the Countess von Kielmannsegge (p. 195). — 
About 2 51. farther up the valley is Schloss Schoneck. — From the Ehren- 
burg to Boppard, 2'/ 2 hrs.; comp. p. 103. 

An overhanging cliff is now passed on the left bank ('Hattonis 
Porta'), beyond which the valley of the Moselle expands. 

16 M. Hatzenport (steamb. stat.) and Boes (*Heidger, mode- 
rate), two long contiguous villages, above which rises an old 
church. The railway-station is 3 / 4 M. above Hatzenport. 

About 3 M. inland (diligence from Hatzenport twice daily in 1 hr.) 
lies Miinster-Maifeld ("Sonne), a small and ancient town, supposed to be 
the Pagus Ambitivus where the Emp. Caligula was born, and from the 
6th cent, onwards the chief place in the Megingau, or Meingau, which 
extends hence to the Rhine. The conspicuous "Church, formerly belonging 
to an abbey, is the successor of a basilica of St. Martin, which existed 
here as early as 638. The front with its two round towers, resembling a 
fortress, and a curious elevated chapel in the interior, perhaps date from 
the 10th cent, (or the 12th?) ; the choir and choir-chapels are in the tran- 
sition-style of 1225-30; while the nave, in the developed Gothic style, was 
erected at the beginning of the 14th century. The church contains a statue 
of the Virgin (about 1350), a Ciborium of about 1450, and the tomb of 
Kuno von Eltz (d. 1536) and his wife (d. 1531). 'View from the towers. 

— From Miinster-Maifeld to (3 M.) Schloss Eltz, see below ; carr. 5 m. 

R.B. Burgen (steamb. stat.; *Kaiserswerth, plain), at the mouth 
of the Beybachthal. Opposite rises the massive tower of Bischofstein, 
an electoral castle erected in 1270 ; the white band round the middle 
of the tower is said to indicate the height of the Moselle at Treves. 

— In the Beybachthal, 7 M. farther up, is the ruin of Waldeck. 

19 M. Moselkern (*Deiss, moderate; Zur Burg Eltz, well spoken 
of), at the mouth of the Eltz. 

In the narrow, tortuous valley of the Eltz, 4 M. above Moselkern, lies 
Schloss Eltz, which may also be reached from Miinster-Maifeld (see above) 
via Wierschem in 1 hr., or from Hatzenport (see above) on foot via Lasserg 
in l 3 / 4 hr., or from Muden (see below) in 1 hr. A visit to Schloss Eltz also 
forms a pleasant excursion for one day from Coblenz. — The Footpath 
from Moselkern passes the church and ascends the left bank of the Eltz, 
crossing to the right bank a little on this side of the second mill. Beyond 
the mill it skirts the slope of the hill, traverses meadows for a short dis- 
tance , and then ascends into the wood , through which it leads up and 
down hill to the castle. Milk may be procured at the last mill. 

"Schloss Eltz, an ancient residence of the Counts of Eltz (p. 121), is 
most picturesquely situated upon a lofty rock, surrounded by wooded 
hills. The different parts of the chateau date from the 12th-16th cent., 
and have been to a great extent restored. The rooms are furnished in 
the styles of different centuries, and are adorned with family-portraits, 
armour, and weapons. In the Rittersaal (knights' hall) is a visitors' 1 
book, which contains the autograph of the Prince of Wales. Admission 
on written application, Sundays and holidays excepted. Opposite Schloss 
Eltz are the ruins of Trutzeltz, or Baldeneltz , erected by Archbishop 
Baldwin of Treves to command the castle, with the counts of which 
he carried on a protracted feud. Best survey of Schloss Eltz and Balden- 
eltz from the cross on the path to the chateau from Wierschem, beyond 
its junction with that from Lasserg and Neuhof (see above). 

About 3 M. farther up the Eltzthal, and the same distance from Miin- 
ster-Maifeld, rise the imposing ruins of the castle of Pyrmont, near which 
the Eltz forms a fine waterfall. Beyond the castle we ascend (good echo) 
to the Pyrmonter Hbfe, and then proceed to the right to Roes (Hilgert), 

Coblenz to Treves. CARDEN. 25. RouU. 178 

where we procure the key of the (»/#!£& solitary BehwtmUrehe, a pagrimage- 
ehureli^.lrailt in ,1473 and restored in 1880. Thence, By Brohl or font to 
Caraen (see Delowj-l'/a h r. 

L.B. Muden (*H6fer), opposite the entrance of the JCwfzer-'IftaZ 

23 M, Garden (steamb. stat, ; *Brauer ; Wems, at the station), 
below which is a cave in which St. Castor, whose bones now re- 
pose in the Castorkirche at Coblenz, is said to have dwelt in the 
4th century. The present church, once part of an abbey, was 
erected in 1183-1247 on the site of an earlier one founded by the 
saint. The choir and transept are in a late-'Romatiesque style, the 
nave is early-Gothic. The interior contains an interesting terra- 
cotta group of the Magi and Saints at the high-altar, several other 
late-Gothic sculptures, and old tombstones. — Higher up, on the 
other bank of the river, lies — 

R.B. Treis (steamb. stat. ; Conzen, well spoken of), a village 
with 1500 inhabitants. In the valley behind it are the ruins of the 
Wildenburg and Sehloss Treis. Tasteful church by Lassaulx, 1830. 
The (2 M.) Treiser Schock commands a fine view. — A path crosses 
the hill from Treis to Bruttig (p. 174) in 1'1/j hr. ; in the Flaum- 
bachtiial is the ruined monastery, of Engelport. 

25V2M. Pommern, with an old castle, at the mouth of the Pommer- 
baeh, in the valley of which are the ruins of the nunnery of Rosen- 
thal, founded in 1 170. — 27 M. Clotten (steimh. stat.), with the castle 
of that name. Clotten is the dep6t for the excellent slate yielded 
by the curious subterranean quarries of Mullenbaeh , 9 M. inland. 

30 M. Cochem (steamb. Btat. ; *Vnion, R. 2, 'pens.' 4-41/2 m. ; 
Kehrer), a district-town with 3000 inhab., and one Of the prettiest 
places on the Moselle (beautiful view from the railway-station); 
The old castle, destroyed by the French in 1688, was frequently 
occupied by the Archbishops of Treves in the 14th and 16th cen- 
turies. It was restored in 1869-77 by Raschdorff, with the aid Of 
a view of the building taken in 1676. The principal tower is 
adorned with a huge figure of St. Christopher, in mosaic, by Sal- 
viati. Visitors Apply for admission in the restaurant at the en- 
trance (1-4 pers., 1 m.). The finest rooms are the armoury, the 
dining-hall, and the 'Kitfersaal', the last decorated with frescoes 
by Ewald and Minister. The Restaurant Rnuppehm, below the 
castle , affords a fine view. The old Capuchin Monastery , now a 
school, which is picturesquely situated on an eminence, once num- 
bered among its inmates Pater Martin of Cochem (d. 1712), a well- 
known German devotional writer. At the influx of the Endertsbach 
into the Moselle stands a Monument in memory of the war of 1870- 
71. In the background, on the summit of a hill about !*/■ M. up 
the valley of the Endertsbach , rises the tower of the Winneburg, 
the most ancient seat of the Mettemich family, destroyed by the 
French in 1689. — On the right bank,, opposite Cochem, lies fond, 
,; The train now passes through the Cochenier or Ellerer Berg to 
Eller (p. 175) by means of the Kaiser Wilhelm Tunnel, the longest 

174 Route 25. EDIGER. The Moselle from 

tunnel in Germany (2 2 / 3 M.), the excavation of which through the 
clay-slate occupied 3'/2 years (1874-77) and cost 4,000,000 m. ; it 
is vaulted throughout. 

The Moselle sweeps round the Ellerer Berg in a winding curve 
of more than 12 M. in length, which the steamer takes life hrg. 
to traverse in ascending and l 1 /^ nr - in descending. The banks 
here are particularly picturesque. 

At Sehl, on the left bank, 1 M. above Cochem, a fine retrospect 
is enjoyed of Cochem, its castle, and the Winneburg. — L.B. Eber- 
nach, once a priory of Laach (p. 89). 

R.Yi.Valwig. Picturesque groups of rocks. At the top, not visible 
from below, is the Marienkapelle, a favourite resort of pilgrims. 

L.B. Nieder-Ernst and Ober- Ernst. Between them a modern 
church with two towers. Above the sharp bend which the river 
makes here lies — 

R.B. Bruttig (* Friedrichs , plain), a small town with quaint 
mediaeval houses, formerly under the joint sway of the Counts of 
Winneburg and Beilstein and the Electors of Treves , a curious 
division of authority which also existed in other places on the Mo- 
selle. The church contains some Gothic sculptures from an earlier 
edifice. Bruttig was the birthplace of the grammarian Petrus Mo- 
sellanus (d. 1524). A walk on the right bank from Bruttig to Sen- 
heim is recommended to lovers of the picturesque. 

R.B. Fankel, lying somewhat inland. 

L.B. Ellenz (Doren). Fine view of Beilstein from a point 
near the mediaeval church. 

R.B. Beilstein (steamb. stat.), nestling at the foot of the rocks, 
is overlooked by the old imperial castle of the same name, which 
afterwards belonged to the Electors of Treves, and then to the 
Counts (now Princes) of Metternich-Winneburg, under whose pro- 
tection numerous Jews settled here. 

L.B. Poltersdorf. — R.B. Briedern. — R.B. Mesenich, with the 
cellarage of the old Abbey of Brauweiler. 

R.B. Senheim (steamb. stat.; * Schneiders) , picturesquely 
situated on the slope of the hill, with a high-lying church and an 
imposing old castellated dwelling - house (the ' Burg '). (From 
Senheim to Bullay via. the Konig, 2 J / 2 hrs.) — Opposite lies — 

L.B. Senhals, and a little farther up is Nehren. About 3 / 4 M. 
from the latter is a hill with a Roman tomb (the 'Heidenkeller'), 
commanding an admirable view of Senheim. — The next places 
are Lehmen, with an old tower, and — 

L.B. Ediger (steamb. stat. ; *L'6we), surrounded with old for- 
tifications , and possessing numerous mediaeval buildings and a 
late-Gothic church which contains a fine late-Gothic monstrance. 
The Rathhaus is adorned with quaint reliefs. "We now reach Eller 
(comp. p. 173). 

Coblenz to Trives. ELLER. 25. Route. 175 

Just above Eller,' at; the base of the wooded Calmwid, in the 
pretty valley of the EUer, is the month, of the tunnel mentioned 
at p. 173. 

33y 2 M. Eller (*Zur Moselbahnf, with old. houses of the few- 
dal ages. Above it., on the right: hank, are the rains of Stuben 

The train crosses the Moselle, passes through another tunnel 
(370yds. long) j t and skirts the base of the precipitous Petersjery, 
on the right bank. 34 M. Neef (steamb. stat.). t ' , ,. 

j, Q* the summit of the? Setqpberg are, the Phaptl &fM r -^ttm_»tki. the 
trerial-ground of Neef , commanding a beautiful 'Panorama. (A pictur- 
eiijae footpath leads from tW VhxpeN via the Eulentop/ 'an* StuBen to 
Bremm is 25 min.) ; .'• •"> ■ ■ ' 

At the centre of the curve which the river describes round the 
Petersburg, to the left, are situated the ruins of the monastery of 
Stuben, founded in the 12th cent, and suppressed in 1788,, Ob the 
left bank, a little farther on, is; Bremm (*Amlinger) , with a late- 
Gothic church i and mediaeval houses, where the vine is said to have 
been cultivated on the central part of the Moselle for the first time. 
The next place is Aldegund. nearly opposite Neef. 

36^2 M. Bullay (*ytndr»as, moderate; *Bail. Restaurant), on the 
right bank, the station for Mf and the baths of Bertrieh (see p. 185) 
on the opposite bank, and also for Zell (p. 177). The road 
to the ferry turns to the right at the station, and then leads again 
to the right below the railway. By following the railway- a little 
farther and crossing the bridge mentioned below we reach, the foot 
of the Mwienbwg (p: 177}-, which is ascended hence by a good 
footpath in 20 minutes. 

Opposite Andries' Inn is a road leading to the {•/« M.) road to Herl 
which we . follow to the left for >/i M. .and then diverse to the right. After 
knottier */* *• we reach a point 1 where the path f dirks , that to the left 
leading to Senheim and the other to Herl. Following the latter we resell 
(5 min.) the * ' Yierseenplats* on the KSnig, which commands a splendid 
view of the Marienbttig and the Mos ell*, surpassing that from the Harien- 
bnrg itself. The descent to Her!' takes >/ s hr. %£ pleasant walk of 2*/«-3 
h». may be taken to All, the Xarienburg, Kaimt, Zell, Merl, the lfepnig, 
and then back to Bullay.) 

Steamboat Jocbnbt from Alf to Tbbvbs^ see p, ,17§. . , 

Railway. Beyond Bullay the train crosses' the Moselle, by, a 
huge double bridge resting on iron girders, of which the higher 
level supports the ordinary roadway. The central opening has a 
span of 290 ft.. The train then penetrates the Primenkopf, by a 
curved tunnel, 480 yds. in length, which emerges upon the river 
above Piinderich (p. 177). -, The railway is next carried along the hill 
by an imposing viaduct with 92 arches, each 24 ft. wide. 3.8'S/jjM, 
Rett (p. Ii77)i The train then quits the river, and reaches the M£- 
thal by means of another tunnel (530 yds.) through the Better Hal*. 
jjThe valley of the Moselle is regained at Schweioh, see below.) 
, To the righjt in the Alfthal, half concealed by the trees, is seen 
the. church of the old canonry of Springirsbaeh, founded in 1107, 

176 Route 25. WITTLIOH. The Moselle from 

an edifice in the Italian style of the 18th cent., and now the 
parish-church of Bengel. To the N. is the Kondelwald , through 
which a picturesque path leads via the Signal to Bertrich (p. 185). 
The train ascends the valley, passes Bengel (Zimmer) and Kinder- 
beuren (Wirz), and, beyond a tunnel (635 yds.), reaches — 

44 M. Verzig (Seiler), 2 M. from the village of that name on 
the Moselle (p. 179), to which a diligence runs twice daily. 

The train now descends into the valley of the Lieser , and 
reaches — 

48 M. Wengerohr, the station for Wittlich (*Zum Wolf; *Post; 
Losen, unpretending), a district-town with 3100 inhab., surround- 
ed with walls, lying 2 l /% M. to the N.W. (omnibus from the station 
in !/2 hr., fare 40 pf.). The old chateau , of which all traces have 
vanished, was often occupied by the Electors of Treves. — Route to 
Berncastel, see p. 179. 

The Lieser is crossed. To the right lie the hamlet of Biirscheid 
and the village of Altrich, to the left the Haardter Hbfe. Beyond 
the watershed between the Lieser and the Salm we reach — 

53M. Salmrohr, l'/^M. from which is the pilgrimage -resort 
Eberhards- Clausen (Klein), an old abbey with a fine church , con- 
taining a carved altar of the second half of the 15th century. ■— 
57 M. Hetzerath (630 ft. above the sea; Paltzer) ; hence to Cliisse- 
rath(p. 180), l'/ 2 hr. 

• 62 M. Schweich (steamb. stat. ; Johanntgen ; Denhard), on the 
Moselle. The train then passes through the tunnel of Issel, 850 yds. 
in length. — 65 M. Ehrang , also a station on the Eifel railway 
(p. 184). The Moselle railway crosses the river at Pfalzel, and 
reaches — 

69 1 / 2 M. Treves, see p. 161. The station lies to the E. of 
the town. 

The Moselle from Alf to Treves. 

Alf (*Post, with steamboat-office ; *Bellevue , post and tele- 
graph-office, unpretending), a village with 1200 inhab., lies at the 
mouth of the picturesque valley of the Alf, between the Sollig 
and the Prinzenkopf. Through the valley runs the high-Toad to 
( 4 J /2M.) Bertrich (see p. 185). In the background rises Burg Arras 
(p. 185). — From Alf to the Marienburg, see p. 177 ; this excur- 
sion makes an agreeable break in the long voyage up stream. 

Alf lies at the lower end of a circuit of 7 l / 2 M. described by 
the Moselle round the saddle of the Marienbubg (360 ft.) and 
the Barl, a tongue of land only 550 yds. in width, on the farther 
side of which lies Punderich (see below), IV2 M. from Alf. 
The steamer takes 3 / 4 hr. with, and l</ 2 hr. against the stream, 
to accomplish this detour , so that walkers may quit the river at 
Alf, ascend to the (*/ 2 hr.) Marienburg, and regain the steamer at 
(V 4 hr.) Punderich. There is still ample time to make the descent 

Coblenz to Trkves. ZELL. 25. Route. 177 

after the boat has come in sight at Briedel. — A walk from Bullay 
ioithe Marienburg, across the bridge mentioned at p. 175, takes 
20 minutes. 

The "Marienburg (*Restairr*nt), with the rains of a castle said 
to have once existed here, or of the monastery erected on the same 
spot in 1146, is one of the finest points on the Moselle. The view 
embraces the wooded and vine-clad slopes of the Moselle,' thesmil^- 
lag villages on its banks , the summits of the Hunsruck and the 
Elf el, and two detached reaches of the river, .resembling lakes. — 
Pleasant walks may be taken from the Marienburg to the top of 
the Barl (see. above), .and to the Reilerhals, which affords a. view of 
the valleys of the Moselle and the Alf. . , > 

A picturesque route leads direct from the Marienburg to the (?/« or.) 
Amtpal and Bertricn (difficult to find without a guide]. "Diverging to, the 
right from the footpath to. Alf, we skirt the Prineenkopf, and in 10 nun. 
reach the road from Alf to Eiel and Bengel, which we follow to the 
left,, through beautiful woods. In a few minutes we reach' a path de- 
scending to thte right and soon joining another, which leads along the 
steep side of the MIL We now proceed in the direction of the con- 
spicuous castle of Arras (p,- 186). On reaching the saddle we may either 
descend to the left to Selfenthal and Smytgiriiach (p. 175), or to the right 
to the confluence of the All and the uesbach, on the road from Alf to 
Bertrich (p. 185). 

The distance from Alf to Treves by the river is about 62 M. 
The first place passed by the steamboat after leaving Alf is Merl 
(Grfiff , well spoken of) , a small village on the right bank, 2 M. 
above Bullay, with an old Minorite abbey. * 

R.B. Corray. — R.B. Zell (*Fier, omnibus to meet the trains 
at Bullay, p. 176), a district-town with 2300 inhabitants, surroun- 
ded by remnants of an old wall, suffered severely from a conflagra- 
tion in 1848. — Opposite lies — 

L.B. Kaibnt, whence a picturesque path leads along the base 
of the Barl to P/4 nr.) the Marienburg. 

R.B. Briedel, commanding a good view of the S. and "W. sides 
of the Marienburg. A rough short-cut leads from Briedel across 
the hill to Enkirch (see below). 

R.B. Punderich (Schneider), a picturesquely situated village. 
Opposite the steamboat-pier is the path mentioned above-, which 
ascends to the Marienburg in 1/4 hour: The mouth of the tunnel 
through the Prinzenkopf , the imposing railway-viaduct, and the 
entrance to the tunnel by which the train quits the valley of the 
Moselle are also visible" from the steamboat (coirip. p. 175). 

R.B. Reilkireh, i'/iM. above Punderich, is the church of the 
village of Reil (Barzem, well spoken of) , which lies a little higher 
up on the opposite bank. Beyond Reil the left bank is very' steep. 

R.B. Burg. — R.B. Enkirch (Imich), a large village-, named 
Ankaracha in the earliest documents , most of the inhabitants of 
which are Protestants. ' 

L.B. Kovenich , a small group of houses , built chiefly with 
the ruins of Montroyal (see below). — L.B. Litzig: 

Baedeker's Rhine. 8th Edit. 12 

1 78 Route 25. TRARBACH. The Moselle from 

On the top of the lofty rocks to the left (R.B.) lies Starkenburg, 
with the ruins of a castle, in which, about the middle of the 14th 
cent., the Countess Laurette von Starkenburg detained Archbishop 
Baldwin of Treves in captivity for an attempted infringement of 
her rights , until he paid a large ransom for his liberation. To the 
right rises the Trabener Berg , on the flat top of which are traces 
of the fortress of Montroyal , constructed by Louis XIV. in 1686, 
but demolished in 1697 in pursuance of the Treaty of Ryswyck. 
The hill commands a beautiful view. — At the apex of the curve 
which the river makes round this hill lies — 

L.B. Traben (* Claus , R. & B. 2 m. 20, D. 1 m. 80, S. 1 m. 
50 pf.) , a village with 1400 inhab., seriously damaged by fire in 
1857 and 1878. — Opposite (7i/ 2 M. from Punderich)is — 

R.B. Trarbach, (*Bellevue ; Brauneberg), burned down in 1857, 
and since rebuilt , the busiest and most prosperous little town on 
the Moselle , with 1600 inhab. , most of whom are Protestants 
(comp. p. 170). It is commanded by the ruin of the Grafinburg, 
erected according to tradition by the Countess von Starkenburg with 
the ransom she exacted from the Archbishop of Treves (see above), 
but more probably built by her son, Count Johann III. (d. 1387). 
The castle was dismantled by the French in 1734. 

At Trarbach opens the Kautenbachthal, a valley enclosed by wooded 
and rocky slopes, through which runs the high-road to Fischbach (p. 153). 
The most picturesque part is above (2 ! /2 M.) the baths of Kautenbach 
(poor), where there is a thermal spring (83° Fahr.). 

A route, which cannot be mistaken, leads from Trarbach over the 
hill (fine view, especially of the old intrenchments), to Berncastel (p. 179) 
in i}/\ hr. (part of the way a footpath only). The distance by the river 
between the two places is 13 M., traversed by the steamboat in l 1 ^ hr. 
with, in 3 hrs. against the stream. 

At Trarbach we reach the district of the 'Upper Moselle', 
which produces the 'Zeltinger Schlossberg', 'Bemcasteler Doctor', 
'Brauneberger', and the other most highly-prized varieties of Mo- 
selle wine. 

L.B. Bissbach. — R.B. Wolf. The ruins on the hill are those 
of a monastery. 

L.B. Croff (*Zur Gr'aflnburg, unpretending), capital of the old 
'Croffer Reich', which included several villages in the valleys of 
the Moselle and the Alf. Croff was originally a Carlovingian free- 
hold, but afterwards came into the possession of the Emperors. In 
1171 Frederick I. gave it in pledge to the Counts of Sponheim, and 
the inhabitants suffered no little injury from the disputes between 
these nobles and the Electors of Treves , who acted as the im- 
perial representatives. 

L.B. Kinheim (*Neidhofer, good wine; Zur Schonen Aussicht). 

R.B. Kindel. — R.B. Losenich. — R.B. Erden. 

On the left bank, below Uerzig, is a tower built into the rock, 
with a large sun-dial, formerly a castle, afterwards a hermitage, 
known as the Michaels-Lei or Nicolaus-Lei. 

Coblenz to Treves. BERNCASTEL. 25. Route. 1 79 

R.B. TJerzig (*Post), a place of some importance, which once 
possessed an independent jurisdiction. It is 2 M. from the station 
mentioned at p. 176, the road to which first ascends somewhat 
abruptly and then descends (diligence in V2 nr - j omnibus 50 pf.). 

R.B. Rachtig. — L.B. Machern. — R.B. Zeltingen (Scheer; 
'Schlossberger' wine). 

R.B. Graach. Adjacent to the church is an old abbey. The 
Martinshof, or Josephshof, a little lower down, the Himmelreich, 
and the Kirchlei all produce esteemed varieties of wine. 

R.B. Wehlen, also a wine-growing place. 

R.B. Berncastel (*Drei Kbnige, in a side-street, R. & B. 2 m. 
40 pf., omn. to Uerzig twice daily, Ufam.; *Post, moderate), the 
capital of the district, with 2400 inhab., was partly burned down 
in 1857. The ruined electoral castle of Landshut, now the property 
of Emp. William, commands a beautiful view of the Moselle and of 
the valley of the Tiefenbach. The wine known as 'Berncasteler 
Doctor' and those of the 'Lei' are much prized. Diligence twice 
daily to Wengerohr-Wittlich (p. 176) via Lieser or Machern (10 or 
9 M. ; also omnibus) ; and daily to (28y 2 M. ] Fischbach , on the 
Rhine and Nahe Railway (p. 153), in 7 hours. 

The * Tiefenbachthal , which opens at Berncastel and is ascended by 
the road to the Hunsruck, resembles the Ahrthal (p. 81) in the grandeur 
of its rocky scenery. About 1 M. above Berncastel are a chapel and a 
waterfall, where a lateral valley diverges to the right, through which we 
reach P/4 hr.) Monzelfeld (fine view). Hence to Veldenz (see below), i hour. 

L.B. Cues was the birthplace of the learned Cardinal Nicolaus 
Cusanus (d. 1464), who founded a hospital here and bequeathed 
to it his library, containing some valuable MSS., a number of 
Codices, and rare old impressions. The hospital owns several of 
the vineyards in the neighbourhood. 

R.B. Andel , the first place in the old Protestant county of 
Veldenz, which was finally incorporated with the Palatinate. 

L.B. Lieser (Jung) , a well-built village at the mouth of the 
brook of that name. 

R.B. Muhlheim (*Karsch), a village of some importance at the 
entrance to the picturesque Veldenz Valley, in which lie the vil- 
lages of Veldenz (Bottler) and Thai Veldenz, and the ruins of Burg 
Veldenz (fine view). 

R.B. Dusemond. — R.B. Neu-Filzen. — R.B. Filzen. 

L.B. The Braune.berg, famous for its wine. At the upper end of 
the Brauneberg, on the hill, lies Monzel, below which, on a small 
headland, is Kesten (*Licht , unpretending) , whence a footpath 
leads in l'/^hr. to Pisport (see below). The hills of Ohligsberg and 
Neuberg, on the other bank, also produce excellent wine. 

R.B. Winterich, where the hills approach close to the river. 

L.B. Minheim, at the apex of a sharp curve in the river. 

R.B. Reinsport (*Fuchs, below the ferry). — R.B. Musterl. A 
little inland lies Niederemmel. 


180 Route 25. NEUMAGEN. 

L.B. Pisport (*Hayn), perhaps 'Pisonis Partus', has been for 
centuries famous for its wine. A road leads hence via Clausen 
to (6'/2 M.) Salmrohr (p. 176), on the Moselle railway. 

Near the village of Ferres , the Boveriis of ancient charters, 
which lies about ^M. above Pisport on the same bank, traceshave 
been discovered of an old Roman road, leading to Clausen. 

A little higher up , the Thron, a rapid stream abounding in fish, 
flows into the Moselle on the left. The village of Thron (feilen), in its 
narrow valley, is noted for its wine ('Hofberger'). A provostry of the 
abbey of Tholei, which lay here, was presented by Napoleon to Marshal 
Bertier, Prince of Wagram. At the head of the valley rises the ruined 
castle of Troneck, near which is the 'Singende Thai 1 . 

R.B. Neumagen (Brand; Hoffmann) , the Roman Noviomagus, 
where Constantine had a castle, and well-known as a prolific source 
of Roman antiquities. The church, erected in 1190, was probably 
built with the stones of the castle. Opposite is a foot-path leading 
over the hill to (1 hr.) Cliisserath. 

Above Neumagen the Moselle makes a wide curve. Here , to 
the right, lies Trittenheim, the birthplace of Johann Trithemius, 
an eminent historian, and Abbot of Sponheim (d. 1516), who 
persuaded the Elector Joachim of Brandenburg to found the uni- 
versity of Frankfort on the Oder. 

R.B. Leiwen (*Becker). — R.B. Kowerich. — L.B. Cliisserath 
(Post), at the mouth of the Salm, 71/2 M. from Hetzerath (p. 176). 

R.B. Thornich. — R.B. Detzem ('ad decimum', i.e. the tenth 
Roman milestone from Treves). Opposite, — 

L.B. Ensch. — L.B. Schleich. — L.B. Polich. — L.B. Mehring, 
an old place. —L.B. Lorsch. — L.B. Longen. 

A little inland on the right bank, between the two last-named 
villages, on the side of the hill , lies Rial , the Rigodulum of 
Tacitus , where the Roman general Cerealis conquered the rebel- 
lious Treveri, and took their leader Valentinus prisoner. 

R.B. Longwich (*Sonntag, moderate). — R.B. Kirseh , nearly 
opposite Schweich (p. 176). 

Pedestrians should quit the river at Longwich and walk to (9 M.) 
Treves via Mertersdorf and the fortified village of Griinhaus (good wine) 
in the Ruwerthal. Indeed on the upper Moselle the paths along the hills, 
affording numerous views, are generally preferable to those on the banks 
of the river. 

L.B. Between Issel and Ehrang (p. 176) is the Quint ('ad quin- 
tum', i.e. 5 M. from Treves). 

R.B. Ruwer ; in the valley of the brook of that name lie Eitels- 
bach and Casel. 

L.B. Pfalzel ( Palatiolum) , where Adela, daughter of King 
Dagobert, founded a nunnery in 655. 

Treves, see p. 161. 

26. From Cologne to Treves. The Volcanic Eifel. 

113 M. Railway in 4»/4-5V« hrs. (fares 14 m. 60, 11 m., 7 m. 30 pf.). 

Cologne , see p. 22. As far as (6l/ 2 M.) Kalscheuren the line 
follows the direction of the Left Rhenish Railway (R. 10); it then 
turns to the right, and intersects the Vorgebirge (p. 13). 10 M. 
Kierberg; 13 3 / 4 M. Liblar ; 17^2 M. Weilerswist , the station for 
Vernich; 21 M. Derkum. 

FromDuren (p. 12) to Euskirchen, I8V2M., railway in 3 /«hr. (fares 2 m. 
10, 1 m. 60, lm. 10 pf.). — 8 M. Vettweis. 12'/2 M. Zulpich, an ancient 
town, the Roman Tolbiacum, where in 496 the Alemanni were defeated by 
the Franks, in consequence of which victory Clovis became a convert to 
Christianity. The handsome Romanesque church of St. Peter, of the 11th 
and 12th cent., contains carved Gothic altars of the 16th century. The four 
gates of the old fortifications of the town, dating from the 15th cent., are 
also worthy of notice. 14V2 M. Vilrscheven. 

24 1 /2 M. Euskirchen (Brinkmann), a busy little town of 5500 
inhab., with important cloth-factories, lies on the Erft. It is the 
junction of the Cologne line with branches to Duren (see above) and 

From Euskirchen diligence twice daily in l'/j hr. to Milnstereifel , a 
small town on the Erft, with a late-Romanesque church of the 12th cent., 
containing several good tombstones of the 16th cent, and a winged altar- 
piece of the school of Lucas van Leyden. 

From Euskirchen to Bonn, 21 M., railway in l'/2 hr. (fares 2 m. 80, 
2 m. 10, 1 m. 40 pf.). — The line crosses the Erft. 2 M. Cuchenheim; 41/2 M. 
Odendorf. To the right the extensive Flamersheim woods. 7'/2 M. Rhein- 
bach, situated in a fertile plain. 

IO'/j M. Meckenheim (Eiche; Nierdorf) , a village with 1600 inhab., 
and once fortified. Opposite rises the ruined castle of Toniburg, which 
perhaps was originally a Roman watch-tower; it afterwards passed suc- 
cessively into the hands of the Counts Palatine (950-1156) , the Counts of 
Toniburg, the Barons Dalwigk, and the Barons Vincke. — From Mecken- 
lieim a road leads by Oeltdorf to (11 M.) Altenahr (p. 84) ; the Kalenborner 
Hbhe, about 6 M. from Meckenheim, is a fine point of view. Another 
charming view is enjoyed at the entrance to the Ahrthal. 

Beyond (13 M.) Kottenfont the train traverses part of the forest of 
that name and descends to (17 M.) Duisdorf. — 21 M. Bonn, see p. 71. 

29'/2 M. Satzvey; 33 M. Mechernich, to the left of which are 
extensive lead-mines and foundries. At (39^2 M.) Call (Nasschen; 
Reinhard), a village with some disused forges, the line reaches the 
narrow valley of the Vrft, bounded by sandstone rocks, and ascends 
the course of the stream. 

In the picturesque Olefthal, 3 M. to the W.. of Call, lies Schleiden, 
with two ancient churches and a rained castle. About 5 M. higher up the 
valley are the imposing ruins of the castle of Reifferscheid, which is men- 
tioned in a document of 975. 

42 M. Vrft (Schneider). The old abbey of Steinfeld , founded 
in the 10th cent, and now a reformatory, lies 1 M. to the S.W., but 
is not visible from the train ; the large and well-preserved church 
contains an altar-piece of 1530 and a marble monument of 1732. 
— 45 M. Nettersheim, on the Urft. 

49'/ 2 M. Blankenheim, which lies 2^2 M. from the station (dili- 
gence four times daily ; Schwartz's Inn) , is situated in a narrow 
valley to the E., with the picturesque ruins of the ancestral castle 

182 Route 26. HILLESHEIM. From Cologne 

of the knights of Blankenheim, built in the 12th century. The 
parish church contains the burial-vault of the Counts of Mander- 
scheid, to whom the castle afterwards belonged. The Ahr (p. 84) 
rises at Blankenheim , where its sources are enclosed by a wall. — 
From Blankenheim a diligence runs once daily to (18^2 M.) Adenau 
(p. 85). 

The line continues to ascend, until at (52M.) Schmidtheim, with 
an old castle, it crosses the watershed between the Urft and the 
beautiful * Valley of the Kyll, which it enters at (57^2 M.) Jurike- 
rath (1450 ft.), the station for Stadtkyll (Post), situated 2M. higher 
up (diligence four times daily). Jiinkerath, which possesses a large 
foundry and an extensive ruined castle, probably occupies the site 
of the Roman station Icorigium. The train now descends the valley, 
passing over forty -four bridges and viaducts, and through ten 

63 M. Hillesheim (1433 ft.; *Sehmitz; *Kloep), a small town 
with 900 inhab., 2 M. to the E. of the station. The (1 M.) Kyller 
Hbhe commands a beautiful view. 

A pleasant walk may be taken from Hillesheim station down the 
Kyllthal to the (l l /4 hr.) Casselburg. After passing (20 min.) Niederbettingen 
and ('/■< hr.) Bewingen we take the footpath to the left beyond the points- 
man's cottage, and ascend to the (V2 hr.) Casselburg (see below). 

Hillesheim is about 17 M. from Adenau, to which a good road leads 
(see Map). On this road, 3 M. to the N.W. of Hillesheim, lies Kerpen, with 
a beautiful ruined castle. Here we may quit the road for a walk to 
(l'/2 M. to the E.) Niederehe (Schmitz, tolerable), a village in a basin of 
shell-limestone, with an old abbey-church containing the tombs of Philip, 
Count of the Mark, and his wife. A footpath oseends hence, following the 
course of the Ahbach, to the Nohner Miihle, the ruin of Dreimiihlen with a 
waterfall (fossils), and Ahiitte ("Fasen, by the bridge). A Roman villa 
was discovered in 1878 at Leudersdorf, I1/4 M. to the W. of Ahiitte. From 
Ahiitte we continue to follow the pretty valley of the Ahbach to O/2 hr.) 
the picturesque ruin of Ifeu-Blankenhain. Thence we ascend a footpath 
to the O/2 hr. ; to the W.) road coming from the Nohn, which we may 
follow to Kirmutseheid, and then proceed to the right by Wirft and ffonne- 
rath to Adenau (p. 85). Or we may choose the route by Barweiler (Ser- 
vatius), a resort of pilgrims, Wiesenscheid, and Niirburg. 

From Hillesheim to Daun, 12'/2 M. The road leads by (4'/2 M.) Ober- 
ehe and (2>/2 M.) Dreis , between which places, to the right of the road, 
lies the Dreiser Weiher, a marshy meadow remarkable for its strong car- 
bonic acid exhalations. On the E. and S. sides of it are frequently found 
nodules of olivine, which have been thrown up by volcanic agency. The 
next village is (1 M.) Dotkweiler , to the S. of which rises the 'Erensberg 
(2267 ft.), an extinct crater, from which a thick stream of basaltic lava, 
beginning about 200 ft. below the summit, descends towards the N. to Dock- 
weiler and Dreis. The ascent of this hill is also interesting on account of 
the view it commands and the extensive millstone-quarries situated on 
it. The path diverges from the road at the point where it divides beyond 
Dockweiler. The Daun and Gerolstein road passes the base of the Erens- 
berg on the S. side. Daun, see p. 187. 

The most interesting part of the line begins below Hillesheim. 
The valley, which is exceedingly fertile and well cultivated, is en- 
closed by precipitous and partially wooded limestone rocks of most 
picturesque forms. To the right of the village of Pelm (Zur Cassel- 
burg , by the bridge), which the train passes, rises a wooded hill 

to Treves. GEROLSTEIN. 26\ Route. 183 

(1560 ft.) crowned with the mined *Cmselburg (ascent 30 min.), 
once the ancestral eastle of the knights of Castelberg. The principal 
tower, 164 ft. in height, is easily ascended, and commands asf lendid 
view of the Kyllthal and the Eifel. Key at the forester's house (re- 
freshments}. ■,.--■. "" 

The Papenkaul (see below) may be reached from the forester's house 
in.'/i hr. ; near, ttil.i cavern in which some colossal fossilised bones 
were lately found, from the Papenkaul we descend to Gerolstein in 
>/« hr., passing the lime-tree' mentioned below. 

The let Cavern ofMotfy a K . to the K.W. of the Casselburg, near the 
village of Both, is an old pit* on a volcanic hill, about 16 ft. deep, in 
which ice is found in summer. 

Tht valley of ##», to the S.E, of Pelm , contains an abundance of 

69M. Gerolstein (1300 ft. ; Bail. Rett; *Pott; Heck, well spoken 
of ; also private lodgings),, the finest point in the Kyllthal, and one 
Qf the most picturesque places in the, .Eifel , is confined within nar- 
row limits by the rocks and the river, and commanded by a ruined 
castle, built by Gerhard von Blankenheim in 1115, and afterwards 
in the possession of the .Counts of Manderioheid. A fine view of 
GjerolgtejjB, is obtained from a large lime-tree on the road leading to 
the N. from the station. On the top of the limestone rocks opposite 
the village is the Papenkaul, a small extinct crater, from which a 
narrow stream of lava descends by a grassy valley on the N. side 
into the Kyllthal. The entire neighbourhood of Gerolstein is very 
interesting in a geological point of view. Besides the volcanic for- 
mations , aqueous limestone , containing innumerable fossil shells, 
also occurs. The lateral valley which runs towards the S. from Pelm 
to Gees abounds in these fossils. From Gerolstein to the Cassel- 
burg '(see above) a walk of 1 hr; Diligence from Gerolstein to 
(13i/ r M.) Daun (p. 187) twice daily in2»/ 4 hrs. (fare 2 m. 20 pf. ; 
oarr. 12 m.). 

From Gerolstein to Pftuv, 12 H., diligence twice daily in 2'/* hrs. 
Priim (*Ooldener Stern, or Post), a district - to wn at the 6. end of the 
Schnei/el (p. 186) , situated on the brook of that name , was anciently the 
seat of a Benedictine abbey founded by the Merovingians in 720, and 
oncte in the enjoyment of political independence , but suppressed by the 
Branch in 1801. The present buildings, dating from 1766, art occupied 
by the local authorities. The church, with its two towers, has been fre- 
quently altered. 

Beyond Gerolstein the train passes Liisingen, with two castles, 
adjoining each other and still occupied. On the right bank of the 
Kyll, about lt/gM. above (74 M.) Birr eshorn, is situated the Mineral 
Spring of Birteaborn, the strongest and best-known of the chalybeate 
springs of the Eifel. The gaseous cavity or'mofette', called the 
Btudeldreis, on the left bank of the Kyll, is now covered in, and 
the gas ig conveyed dowh the hill in pipes. 

76 !/g M. Miirlenbach (•Krumpten), a small village with the ruins 
of a castle founded by the Merovingians, and re-erected in the 17th 
century. — 78 M. Densborn, with another ruined castle. The lime- 
stone-rocks are now succeeded by variegated sandstone. The line 

184 Route 26. BITBURG. 

traverses a pleasant wooded tract, and passes the villages of Zend- 
scheid and Vtsch and the suppressed Cistercian monastery of St. Tho- 
mas, now employed as a house of correction for Roman Catholic 
priests. The Gothic church was completed in 1225. Near the village 
of Neidenbach, 3'/2M. to the W., are extensive remains of the em- 
bankment of an old Roman road. 

84'/2 M. Kyllburg (*Schulte, moderate; Leinen ; Schweitzer; 
Marquet), another very picturesque place, with 1000 inhab., lies 
on an eminence partially enclosed by the Kyll, and is commanded 
by an old watch-tower (restored in 1881) and the handsome Gothic 
Church of St. Thomas, which contains some stained glass of 1534, 
from designs after Diirer. The fine adjacent cloisters and the sup- 
pressed abbey-buildings are of later date than the church. On a 
height on the Kyll, 1^2 M, below Kyllburg, rises the chateau of 
Malberg, incorporated with an old castle and commanding a fine 
view. — Diligence to Manderscheid, see p. 189. 

The brook now describes a circuit, which the railway cuts off by 
means of the Wilseck Tunnel, l 1 /^ M. in length. 88 M. Erdorf 
(AVeinert) is the station for Bitburg , a small town on the hill to 
the S.W., 4 M. distant (diligence four times daily). 

Bitburg C* Well) was the Bedae Vicus of the Romans, and a station on 
their road from Treves to Cologne , several of the milestones of which 
have been found in the neighbourhood. The Kobenhof, or house of the 
Kob von Rfidingen family, is a curious building of 1576. The castle to 
the N. of the town , on the road to Priim , was the ancient residence of 
the knights of Bitburg. At the Odrang, near Fliessem , 2V2 M. farther N. 
(reached from Erdorf in l'/z hr.) there are several fine Roman mosaic 
pavements (inferior, however, to that at Nennig, p. 169) and other anti- 

The line continues to follow the picturesque wooded * Valley of 
the Kyll, bounded by sandstone-rocks. The brook now becomes na- 
vigable for rafts. Tunnels and bridges follow each other in rapid 
succession, and numerous mills are passed. At Huttingen is a pic- 
turesque waterfall. 93 M. Philippsheim, the station for (IV2 M.) Du- 
deldorf, with an old castle. 95 M. Speicher ; the village lies on the 
hill, I7.2 M. to theE. 97 M. Auw, with a pilgrimage-church, erect- 
ed in 1708-46 in memory of three maidens, who here miraculously 
escaped their pursuers on an ass. 100 M. Cordel, with valuable 
quarries; the ruined castle of Ramstein, erected in the 14th cent., is 
situated at the station, which is a considerable way from the village. 
108 M. Ehrang, the last station, lies at the junction of the Kyllthal 
with the valley of the Moselle , and is connected by a line of rails 
with the Quint (p. 180). To the left , before Treves is reached, a 
line view is obtained of the town on the opposite bank. The station 
is on the left bank, near the bridge. 113 M. Treves, see p. 161. 


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THE VOLCANIC EIFEL. 26. Route. 185 

The Volcanic Eifel. 

Fbok the Eifel Railway. With the aid of the railway described in 
this route the finest points in this very interesting district may be. most 
conveniently visited as follows: 1st Day. Railway to BiUethmm or Gerol- 
ttein (p. 189)1;' walk by Beuingen or PeVni to the Caiielburg ittlVa'hr*. 
(p. 183) ; walk or .drive to Daan, 10 M. ; ascend the Erentberg and the 
Seharteberg by the way, if time permit. — 2nd Day. Walk by Gemiinden, 
the Dauner Maart, and the MSuteberg to Gillenfeld , in 2'/i hrs. ; to the 
Pulvermaar and baek, »/« hr.; Strohn, Sprink, l>/« hr. ; by the 'Belvedere to 
Mondericheid, 2 1 /* hrs. — 3rd Day. Walk over the Moienberg to Bettenfeld, 
17s hr. ; to Eitentchmitl. IV* br. ; walk or drive to Himmeroth, Grottlitgen, 
and (!) M.) WittUeh (p. 176), which is 2 M. from the station of that name 
on the Moselle railway. — Travellers who have not visited Kgllburg 
should proceed thither from Eisenschmitt. 

Fbom the Moselle Railway the Eifel is best explored as follows : 
1st Day. From Bullay to the Marienburg (p. 177), 20 min.; Alf (p. 176), 
■/« hr. ; Bertrich, 2 hrs. ; environs of Bertrich. — 2nd Day. To Hmfheim, 
■/4 hr. ; StrotebOtch, IV2 hr. ; walk to Strohn, and visit to environs, l'/i hr..; 
Gillenfeld, >/s hr. ;by Eckfeld and the Belvedere to Manderteheid, 2 hrs,.; 
the ascent of the Moienberg may be added. — 3rd Day. Walk by Bleck- 
hauten and (6 M.) Uedertdorf (route as far as this uninteresting) to Dawn', 
4 hrs. ; afternoon , environs of Daun. — 4th Day. By the Erentberg or 
the Seharteberg to Aim, 4 hrs.; by the CatteUwrg to Gerolttein, l 1 /* hr. 
— 5th Day. To Kyltbwg, where the railway is reached. 

The Eifel is a mountainous district situated between the Moselle,- the 
Rhine, and the Roer, about 45 M. in length, and 24 M. in breadth. The 
E. part is called the Hohe Eifel, neir Adenau and Kellberg, and com- 
prises the Hohe Acht (2410 ft.; p. 85), the Kurburg (2181ft.; p. 85), the 
Aremberg (p. 85), and the Erensberg (2267 ft.; p. 182); the W. part is the 
Skhneifel (i.e. Schnee-Eifel), in the neighbourhood of Prum (p. 183); and 
the S. part is the Vorder - Eifel , or Volcanic Eifel, extending as far as 
the Rhine (Laacher See, p. 88), and embracing Gerolstein, Daun, Mander- 
scheid (p. 189), and Bertrich (see below). The district, though somewhat 
bleak and barren, is very picturesque at places, especially in the Vorder- 
Eifel. The latter is also very interesting in a geological point of view 
owing to the numerous traces it bears of former volcanic agency, such 
as the streams of lava, slag-hills, 'Maare', or extinct craters filled with wa- 
ter, -Ac. — The Imt$ are unpretending, but as a rule comfortable and 
moderate (R., S., ft B. about 3m.). 

Fbom Aip (p. 176) to Bbrtkich, 4y 2 M., omnibus several 
times daily (fare 1 m. ; one-horse carr. 5, two-horse from 8 m. > fee 
extra). The road leads at first through the romantic Valley of the 
Alf, and then at (l 1 /* M.) a disused iron rolling-mill, ascends the 
valley of the Uetbaeh. At the top of the hill lie the ruins of Burg 
Arras, said to have been built by the Archbishop of Treves in 938 
for a charcoal-burner and his two sons, who had distinguished them- 
selves by their courage in the destruction of a band of Hungarians. 

Bertrich (525 ft. ; *Pitz, next door to the Curhaus, D. 27 2 m. ; 
*Adler, D. 2 m.; *Klerings, D. 2 m.; ^Schneiders, D. 1 m. 20 pf.), 
a watering-place , delightfully situated in a secluded valley, and 
visited annually by 1000 patients, may be described in respeet to 
the efficacy of its waters (especially fox cases of gout, rheumatism, 
and nervous, liver, .and bowel-complaints) as a kind of modified 
Carlsbad. The warms springs (90° Fahr.) contain Glaubers salt./ > 
Pleasant walks . have been laid out in all directions. On the fio- 
merkesiel, an eminence where the Roman relics now in the garden 

186 Route 26. WARTESBERG. Eifel. 

of the bath-establishment were found , stands a small Protestant 

About 1/2 M. to the W. of Bertrich the road crosses the Uesbach 
to the Elfenmiihle. Ascending to the left before reaching the mill, 
and after 20 paces following the lower path to the right , we reach 
the *Kaskeller ('cheese-cellar'), a grotto composed of basaltic col- 
umns, each formed of 8 or 9 spheroids, resembling cheeses. Near 
it is a scanty Waterfall, 16 ft. in height. A basaltic stream of lava 
is visible in several places in the bed of the Uesbach. 

A pleasant walk may be taken from the Kaskeller to the (1 hr.) Nan- 
tersburg; thence to the (l'/2 hr.) 'Rodelheck (1584 ft. ; refreshments at the 
adjacent forester's), which commands an extensive panorama; and lastly 
to the 0/2 hr.) "Reinhardslust, on the path leading from the Rodelheck to 
the mouth of the Uesbach (see above). 

If we follow the new road to Lutzerath on the left bank of the Uesbach 
as far as the kilometre-stone 9.29, in a part of the valley called the Maisch- 
wiese , diverge here to the right by the old road , and pass to the left of 
the Maischquelle , we reach (in 3 / t hr. from the Grotto) the * Falkenlei 
(1315 ft.), a semi-conical hill, the S. side of which is a precipice 170 ft. 
in height, exhibiting the geological formation of the interior. At the 
bottom lie solid masses of lava ; at the top scorise and slag. Numerous 
caves and clefts have been formed in the rock, in which the temperature 
seldom exceeds 48° Fahr. The rocks are thickly covered with yellowish 
red moss and lichens. The summit affords an extensive view of the vol- 
canic peaks of the Eifel ; the highest are the Hohe Acht (p. 85), the Niir- 
burg (p. 85) , with a tower on its summit , and the Hohe Kelberg ; to the 
N.W. the prospect is circumscribed by the long isolated ridge of the 
Mosenberg (p. 190) , a little to the left of which rises the Nerother Kopf 
with its ruin (p. 187). A very steep path descends to the high-road on 
the side of the hill opposite to that by which we ascended. Following 
the road to the right, we reach 0/4 M.) Kennfus and (3 M.) Lutzerath 
(1295 ft.), a post-station on the Coblenz and Treves road. Diligence twice 
daily between Lutzerath and Alf (12 31.), via Bertrich. Pleasant walk from 
the Kaskeller to the Endersburg, 1 hour. 

A road passing the Kaskeller (see above) leads to the W. to 
(2 M.) Hontheim (Zum Bad Bertrich), from which we proceed by 
footpaths to (372 M.) Schutzalf, a hamlet in the valley of the Alf- 
bach. We then ascend the picturesque valley, which here forms 
a deep cutting through the lava rocks and is sometimes called the 
'Strohn Switzerland', to Sprink and (40 min.) Strohn. (Another 
path from Hontheim to Strohn leads by Strotzbusch and Trautzberg 
in 2 hrs.) On the E. side of the Alfthal , between Sprink and 
Strohn, rises the Wartesberg (1597 ft.), one of the largest slag- 
hills of the Eifel, and probably an extinct crater, although not now 
distinguishable as such. From Strohn we ascend the valley to 
(V2 hr.) Gillenfeld (p. 189). 

From Gerolstein to Daun, 13y 2 M. The road traverses a 
district of great geological interest, about 60 sq. M. in area, ex- 
tending N.W. as far as Hilleslieim (p. 182) and Stefflen, and from 
the former towards the >S., down the Kyllthal to Birresborn (p. 183), 
to the E. to Daun (p. 187), and again to the N. to Dockweiler and 
Dreis (p. 182). Proofs of volcanic action , which are more mime- 

Eifel. DAUN. 26. Route. 187 

rous here than in any other part of the Eifel , are afforded fey pre- 
served craters, or portions of craters, overflowed by masses of slag 
and streams 'of lava overlying the grauwaoke and limestone-ioeks, 
and by conical basaltic formations which protrude from the surround- 
ing rocks. The scenery of the lower part only of the valley of the 
Kyll is picturesque, but this is well worthy of a visit. 

Petm arid the Casselburg, see p. 182. The old road (see below) 
leaves the Kyllthal here. The new road follows it a little farther, 
and then gradually ascends, passing near RoekesM/U, and by the 
villages of Euingen, Hohenfels, which lies in the basin of a crater 
surrounded by precipitous walls of slag, and Rett eldorf to DockweUer 
(8 M. from Gerolstein), where it joins the road coming fromHilles- 
heim (6 M. ; comp. p. 182). 

The old road, rougher, but more interesting than the new, 
ascends to the right from Felm, and reaches its highest point 
at Kirchipeiler, whence the Sternberg to the N. (p. 182) and the 
Scharteberg (2158ft.) to the S., both extinct craters, the latter 
most distinctly recognisable, may be ascended. The summit of the 
latter consists of blistered masses of slag which surround the circu- 
lar crater. About 100 ft. below the summit begin the lava streams 
which descend towards the N., S., and E. The last of these, al- 
though almost everywhere covered with 'rapilli' (or 'lapilli', small 
round nodules of lava) and volcanic sand , is traceable by the occa- 
sional protrusion of the rock through its superficial covering , and 
may be examined in the quarries worked in it in the direction of 
Steinborn, where a transverse section of two streams lying one 
above the other is exposed to view (near a mound of earth by the road 
side). The lowest stratum consists of porous and but slightly cleft 
basaltic lava ; above it lies slag, 3-4 ft. in thickness ; next comes 
a layer of rapilli and volcanic sand ; and finally , next the surface, 
basaltic lava again (comp. p. 89). A little farther S. is the Nerother 
KApf (2080 ft.), a hill of slag crowned with a ruined castle, 4t/ 2 M. 
to the "W. of Daun. Beyond Eirchweiler the hilly road to Daun 
next passes Steinborn , where there is a mineral spring (to the left 
the Feisberg, to the right the Rimmerieh, two craters with lava- 
streams), and Neunkirohen. 

Daun,— Hotels. *Ghethen; "Hohhes, B. 60 pf., D. lVa-2 m.; 
Scbbamm. — Herr Grethen, formerly landlord of the first-named hotel, 
is well acquainted with the district, of which he possesses a good map. 

Carriage to Gerolstein, Manderscheid , or Lutzerath, 10-12 m. — Dili- 
gence twice daily to (14 M.) Gerolstein, once to (lC/i M.) Manderscheid, 
once to (15 M.) Lutzerath, etc. 

Daun (1230 ft,), a small district-town , with 750 inhab., lies 
picturesquely in the valley of the Lieser, on the slope of a hill which 
is crowned- with the remains of the old Sehlom of the Counts of 
Daun, a celebrated family, several members <rf which distinguished 
themselves in the Austrian service. The castle was stormed im'1352 
by Baldwin of Treves and William of Cologne, The modern build- 

188 Eoute26. GEMUNDEN. Eifel. 

ing on the hill , which was formerly occupied by a bailiff of the 
Elector of Treves, is now the chief forester's residence. Adjoining 
it is the modern Protestant Church. The Roman Catholic Church, 
in the village, contains two painted coats-of-arms of the Counts of 
Daun. Several mineral springs in the neighbourhood. 

About 1/2 M. to the N.E. of Daun rises the F&rmerich (1614 ft.), the 
abrupt margin of a crater covered with slag. The crater itself, which is 
filled with volcanic ashes , is easily distinguished from the surrounding 
masses of lava. The Banner Leyen, a broad stream of lava, descends from 
it towards the W. The eminent geologist Dechen (p. 89) is of opinion 
that the columnar lava on which the castle of Daun stands belongs to this 
stream, that a passage was forced through it by the Lieser at a later 
period, and that the picturesque rocks of the Leyen and near the castle 
were thus exposed to view. — About 7 M. to the N.E. of Daun lies the 
Uelmener Maar , 13 acres in area, with [the village and ruined castle of 
Uelmen (Tranzen). 

To the S.W. of Daun rises the WehrljuBch (1555 ft.), another lava-hill, 
crowned with a conspicuous monument to the natives of the district of 
Daun who fell in the war of 1870-71. 

To the N.W. of Daun is the Worth (1623 ft.). The Nerother Kopf 
mentioned above, is 4 M. to the N.W. 

The *Dauner Maase , or crater-lakes of Daun (comp. p. 187), 
lie 2 1 /2 _, i M. to the S. of Daun in an extensive bed of vol- 
canic deposits, consisting of scoriae, rapilli, and occasional strata of 
volcanic tufa. "We descend the valley of the Lieser by the road 
to (I72 M.) Gemunden; here (guide advisable) we diverge from the 
road to the left, and in a few minutes reach the Gemunder Maar 
(1358 ft.), 126 ft. above the village. This is the smallest of the crater- 
lakes of the Eifel. It lies in a deep and partially wooded basin, and 
is about 18 acres in area and 200 ft. in depth. On the E. bank of the 
lake rises the precipitous and barren *Mauseberg (1844 ft.), which 
maybe ascended from Gemunden in l f%hx., and commands a very fine 
view of a great part of the Eifel. The E. slope of the hill descends 
abruptly to the Weinfelder Maar (1568 ft.), another of these crater- 
lakes, 40 acres in area, and 220 ft. in depth. — On the N. bank of 
the lake rises the Weinfelder Kirche (1686 ft.), the only relic of the 
village of Weinfeld , now used as a burial-chapel for the ceme- 
tery of Schalkenmehren (see below). The traveller should now 
follow the E. bank of the lake and traverse the natural barrier 
which separates the "Weinfelder Maar from the Schalkenmehrer 
Maar (1384 ft.), the third of the lakes of Daun, 55 acres in area, 
and 100 ft. in depth, drained on the S. side by the Alfbach (p. 176). 
The bed of peat on the E. side is believed by geologists to be the 
site of a still older crater, which was afterwards partially filled in 
consequence of an eruption from, the crater now occupied by the 
lake. This Maar, unlike the two already mentioned, is well stocked 
with fish and crayfish. The vegetation on its banks, also, is more 
luxuriant than that near the other lakes. At the S. end lies the 
village of Schalkenmehren (Inn, very poor), 3Y2 M. from Daun, 
and the same distance from Gillenfeld. 

A hilly and shadeless road leads from Schalkenmehren, follow- 

Eifel. MANDERSCHEID. 26. Route. 189 

ing the direction of the Alfbach, but at some distance from the 
brook, and passing through several curiously formed basins, to the 
•villages of Saxler and Gillenfeld (1335 ft. ; *Clasen, D. 2 m.) , the 
latter of which was almost totally destroyed, by Are in 1876. The 
*Pulvermaar (1348 ft.), the most beautiful and, after the Laacher See 
(p. 88), the largest of these crater-lakes, 90 acres in area, and 300 ft. 
deep, lies in a picturesque basin fringed with woods on a hill about 
1 M. to the E. of Gillenfeld. The banks consist of volcanic sand, 
tufa, and scoriae. On the S. side rises the Romersberg (1565 ft.), a 
considerable rock composed of slag, at the S. foot of which, scarcely 
Y2 M. from the Pulvermaar, lies the small Strohner Maar. — In 
the Alfthal, iy 2 M. to the S. of Gillenfeld, lies Strohn, see p. 186. 

Fkom Gillenfeld to Manderscheid, 6 M. The road leads 
past the Diirre Maar, with fine vegetation, and the Holzmaar, two 
very small lakes, and by the villages of Eckfeld and Buchholz. 
Near the church of the latter village is a finger-post pointing out 
the way to the right, through wood, to the *Belvedere , one of the 
most beautiful points near Manderscheid, which affords a striking 
view of the castles of Manderscheid rising from the valley below, 
with the Mosenberg and other hills in the background. An easy 
path, provided with direction-posts, and reached by retracing our 
steps for a few yards from the Belvedere, descends the ravine in 
windings , joining the road near the bridge over the Lieser. The 
path and the bridge afford very picturesque views. (A precipitous 
path leads direct from the Belvedere down the ravine to the Lieser, 
which can be crossed by means of stepping-stones if the water is 
low ; it then ascends, passing the more modern of the two castles, 
with a fine view, direct to Obermanderscheid.) The Tempelchen, 
near Manderscheid, commands a fine view. 

From Daun to Mandebsoheid, direct. The road descends the val- 
ley of the Lieser, passing (l'/s M.) Gemunden (p. 18S) and (l'/z M.) 
Weyersbach. On the right side of the valley, farther on, rise lofty and im- 
posing masses of lava, almost entirely encircling the village of (l'/2 M.) 
Uedersdorf, which lies 286 ft. above the Lieser. They are believed to 
have owed their origin partly to a volcano to the S. of Uedersdorf, which 
culminates in the Weberlei (1528 ft.), a slag- hill near the valley of the 
Kleine Kyll, and partly to a volcanic mountain (1770 ft.) rising towards 
the N.W. The last part of the road, after it has quitted the Lieserthal, 
is uninteresting; 3 M. Bleckhausen, 3 M. Manderscheid. 

Manderscheid (1214 ft. ; *Fischer ; * Zens'), a village of some im- 
portance , lies on a lofty plain between the Lieser and the Kleine 
Kyll. On the S. side, in a singularly picturesque situation, are 
two * Castles , perched on jagged slate -rocks rising precipitously 
from the Lieser, the ancient seat of the Counts of Manderscheid 
who became extinct in 1780. Pleasant walk to the 'Constantins- 
waldchen' (there and back 3 / 4 hr.), which affords a fine view. 

Travellers who wish to visit the above-mentioned Belvedere (35 min.) 
take the new footpath to the left, immediately beyond the bridge over 
the Lieser, which ascends the ravine and passes the ruins. 

From Manderscheid by Schwarzenborn (see below) to Kyllburg, 15 SI. ; 
diligence once daily in 3 3 /4 hours. 

1 90 Route 26. MOSENBERG. 

The most interesting volcanic mountain of the Eifel is the three- 
peaked Mosenberg, 1 hr. to the W. of Manderscheid. We first 
follow the Bettenfeld road (see below), and then turn to the right. 

The *Mosenberg (1719 ft.) is a long hill of lava extending from 
N. to $., with four craters, the lava-walls of which rise fantastically 
to a height of 50 ft. The basalt and slag which form the summit 
have here protruded 250 ft. through the grauwacke. The N. crater, 
formerly filled with water, was drained in 1846 , and now yields 
peat. The huge lava - stream which has issued from an opening in 
the S. crater may be traced as far as the ( 3 / 4 M.) Horngrdben (foot- 
path), where it reaches the Kleine Kyll, and rises in perpendicular 
lava-cliffs 100 ft. in height. The hill is surrounded with beds of 
slag and scoriae, and is but scantily covered with grass. View very 
extensive. The remains of a Roman villa were discovered near the 
footpath, but have been again covered in. 

On a lofty plain, 1 M. to the W. of the Mosenberg, lies Bettenfeld 
(Oierdev, clean and moderate), whence a path leads to (IV4 hr.) Eisen- 
schmitt (see below). The Kyllburg road leads straight from Bettenfeld to 
the S.W. through forest, crossing two other roads, and after 3 /i hr. descends 
into the Salmthal to the right. The (l'/2 hr.) Corneshtttte lies on the right. 
We then cross a small bridge, pass a stone cross, ascend a steep path 
through wood, reach another cross-road (guide-post), and in 3 /t hr. come 
to Ober-Kail (*Diedenhofen), with the scanty remains of a castle , said 
to have been erected by Maria Theresa. Thence a good high-road leads 
to (4V2 M.) Kyllburg (p. 184). 

About IV2 M. to the N. of the Mosenberg lies the Meerfelder Maar, 
formerly one of the largest of the Eifel lakes , now almost entirely drained. 
On the W. side of the Maar is the village of Meerfeld. 

From the Mosenberg a path to the S. descends into the valley to 
the Neumiihl (3 M.), where the Kleine Kyll falls into the Lieser, 
and here reaches the road which descends in numerous windings 
from (2i/ 2 M.) Manderscheid. The scenery of the valley here is pictur- 
esque and imposing. The road then winds up the left bank of the 
stream, and after 1 M. divides. The road to the right leads through 
wood to (2^2 M.) Eisenschmitt (Jung) and (l!/ 2 M. ; steep footpath 
in 20 min.) Schwarzenbom (Zens) , whence a diligence runs twice 
daily (seats not always obtainable) to Kyllburg (6y 2 M. ; p. 184). 

The branch of the road which at the above-mentioned bifurcation 
turns to the left soon descends from the wood into the valley, and passes 
the Eichelhiitte and the buildings of the Benedictine abbey of Hirnmerod, 
founded by St. Bernard of Clairvaux in 1139; the church was unfortun- 
ately almost entirely removed at the beginning of this century. The road 
then leads through "a bleak and hilly district to (4'/2 M.) Gross - Litgen 
(Heck), where it unites with the Wittlich and Kyllburg road , which as- 
cends towards the E. The country becomes more fertile. Beyond (2>/4 M.) 
Minder - Litgen (1151 ft.), whence a good retrospect of the Mosenberg is 
enjoyed , the road descends into the valley in windings , but a footpath 
V2 M. from the village cuts off nearly half the circuit of 3 M. which the 
road describes. The "View over the rich plain sloping towards the Mo- 
selle, and the mountains of the latter, rendered more picturesque by the 
red sandstone which here supersedes the grauwacke , forms a pleasant 
conclusion to the tour. 

Wittlich, see p. 176. Omnibus toWengerohr (p. 176) in y 2 hr.; 
diligence, via Schwarzenbom, to (171/ 2 M.) Kyllburg (p. 184), 4hrs. 


27. From Coblenz to Wetzlar. 

Ems and the Valley of the Lahn. 

Comp. Map, p. 102. 

64 M. Railway ("' StaatsbahrC ) by Niederlahnstein to Ems in Va- 3 A or. 
(fares 1 m. 50, 1 m., 70 pf.), to Wetzlar in 2-3 hrs. (fares 8 m. 40, 5 m. 60, 
3 m. 60 pf. ; express 9 m. 40 pf., 7m.). The trains starts from the Mosel- 
bahnhof (p. 90). 

[The Rhenish railway is not in direet connection with the Lahn Valley 
railway, hut travellers from Coblenz by the former line reach the latter 
at Niederlahnstein (p. 98), where they change carriages. Travellers arriving 
at Coblenz by the railway of the Left Bank, or at Ehrenbreitstein by the 
railway of the Right Bank, may either drive to the Moselbahnhof, or take 
the train to Niederlahnstein and there await the train for the Lahn Valley.] 

The train crosses the Rhine by the bridge mentioned at p. 94, 
and passes through a cutting on the landward side of Horchheim 
(comp. p. 126). 

3 M. Niederlahnstein (p. 98), the junction of the Staatsbahn 
with the Rhenish railway from Ehrenbreitstein and the Railway of 
the Right Bank (for Wiesbaden, p. 126). Travellers for these lines 
change carriages. There is generally considerable detention here. 

The train now runs along the hillside, affording a fine view of 
Lahneck (p. 100) to the right. It then crosses the Lahn, and 
ascends on the left bank. Several ironworks are observed. The 
river is provided with numerous locks to facilitate the navigation 
of the barges which convey to the Rhine the ores yielded by this 
district. Ems only becomes visible when the train is close to the 
town. The Four Towers and the Cursaal with its pleasure-grounds 
are the most conspicuous objects. 

12^2 M. Ems. — Hotels. 'Englischer Hof, at the lower end; "Russi- 
scher Hof, in the centre of the town, D. 2'/2 m. ; -'Vier Jahreszeiten 
Hotel & Eukopaischer Hof, near the Cursaal ; "Darmstadter Hof, near the 
bridge and the railway -station, D. 3 m.; these all of the first class. — 
"Hotel Schloss Langenau, at the lower end of the town; Hotel de 
Flandbe ; 'Hotel Guttenberg, R. 2'/!im., L. 50, A. 50, B. 1 m. 20 pf. ; 
"Hotel de France, the last three near the station, on the left bank of the 
Lahn; Hotel Johannisberg ; Hotel Reuter; Goldne Trahbe, well 
spoken of; "Weilburger Hof, moderate; Stadt Strassburg; Hotel 
Roth; Villa Bella Riva, in a shady situation on the left bank of the 
Lahn, opposite the new Roman Catholic Church, 'pens.' 5-8 m., well 
spoken of; Hotel Godeke, with good garden -restaurant, near the old 
bridge over the Lahn; Zur Sporkenburg and Rheinischer Hof (moder- 
ate), both in the village of Ems. 

There are also numerous Lodging Houses. Those on the left bank of 
the river are preferable in the height of summer, owing to their shady 
situation. Some of them are very comfortably fitted up. The more re- 
mote houses are of course the least expensive. Breakfast and tea are 
provided at all of these, but dinner rarely. The most important is the 
Curhai's , with several dependencies , where prices are fixed by tariff. 
At the Braunschweiger Hof, Prince of Wales, and Stadt London dinner 
is provided. Charges are somewhat high at Ems , as at all the principal 
watering-places , but have sunk a little lately and are reduced at the 
beginning and end of the season. 

Restaurants and Cafes. "Curhaus, with table d'hote, and Cursaal, both 
of the first class ; Villa Beriol, with a garden, on the left bank of the 
Lahn ; also at all the hotels. The Schweizerliauschen , halfway up the 

192 Route 27. EMS. From Coblenz 

hill on the left bank ; Silberau at the end of the Konig-Wilhelms-Allee ; 
Lindenbach (p. 194), l'/4 M. from the Cursaal. 

Beer in the gardens of the Cursaal, at the L8we (with rooms to 
let, plain but comfortable), Goldne Fass, Schiitzenhof, Cafi Alemannia, etc. 

Carriages with one donkey 2 m., with two 3 m. per hour. A drive 
within the precincts of the town 70 pf., after 9 p.m. l 1 /^ m. ; carriage with 
one horse to Kloster Arnstein and back, 10V2m., with two horses 15 m.; 
to Coblenz 10 or 15 , and back 12 or 18 m. ; to Ehrenbreitstein 8 or 12, 
and back 12 or 17 m. ; to Kemmenau and back 7Vj or 11 m. ; to Nieder- 
Lahnstein 6 or 9, Ober-Lahnstein 7 or 11 m. ; to Nassau and back 6 or 
10 m. — The drivers must exhibit their tariff when desired. 

Donkeys per hour I1/2 m. ; to the Oberlahnstein Forsthaus direct (and 
back, including a stay of 1 hr.) 2'/2 m. ; to the Sporkenburg 2'/2 m-; Kem- 
menauer Hbhe 2'/j m. ; Mooshiitte 1 m., summit of the same 1 m. 70 pf. ; 
by the new promenade to the Lindenbach I1/2 m. — All these charges 
include the return-route. 

Tariffs of the various charges , fares , and fees may be purchased for 
20 pf. — A tax of 15 m. is levied on each single patient after a stay of a 
week ; for 2 pers. 21, for 3 pers. 27 m. • — The charges for baths vary in the 
different houses from 1 m. to 3 in. — No charge is made for drinking the 
waters at the thermal springs , but a fee of 50 pf. per week is usually 
paid to the girl in attendance. 

Music 7-8.30 a.m., the hours during which the waters are drunk; 
4 to 5.30 p.m. in the public grounds; and 8 to 9.30 p.m. in the Cursaal. At 
the latter theatrical performances and concerts are also given. 

Post and Telegraph Office, adjoining the Darmstadter Hof, near the 
principal bridge. 

English Church Service in the English Church on the left bank at 11 
a.m. and 6 p.m. (communion at 8.30 a.m.). Chaplain , Rev, W. 6. Par- 
minter, of Stuttgart. 

Ems (221 ft. J was known to the Romans , as the vases , coins, 
etc., found in the vicinity, prove, but is mentioned for the first 
time as a warm hath in a document of 1354. It is now visited an- 
nually by 10-12,000 patients, besides 5000 tourists, while in 1823 
the number was 1200 only. The height of the season is from the 
middle of July to the end of August. From 1803 to 1866 it be- 
longed to the Duchy of Nassau, and is now Prussian. It is a 
curious fact , showing to what an extent Germany was formerly 
subdivided, that from the bridge over the Lahn, which commands 
but a limited view , the dominions of eight different indepen- 
dent princes could be seen. 

The town (6000 inhab., */g Rom. Cath.) is prettily situated on 
both banks of the Lahn in a narrow valley , enclosed by wooded 
and vine -clad rocky heights. It consists of a street of lodging- 
houses on the right bank of the river, the original c Bad Ems' ; of 
a new quarter on the left bank, named 'Spiess-Ems', with numerous 
handsome villas at the base of the Malberg ; and of L Borf Ems\ 
or the old village, at the lower end of 'Bad Ems'. The English 
Church is on the left bank. The banks of the river are connected 
by four bridges. 

The Cursaal, theCurhaus, and the Curgarten adjoining them 
form the great centre of attraction to visitors, the pleasure-grounds 
of the latter being generally thronged with a fashionable crowd while 
the band plays in the afternoon. 

to Wetzlar. 


27'. Route. 


/The Curhatu, erected at the end of last century, and frequently 
enlarged since then, contains the most important springs and abont. 
60 baths, the best of which are on the first floor. In the arcades, 
which were extended in 1854, ate the principal springs used for 
drinking : the Kesselbrunnen (125° Fahr.), in the uppGr arcade, 
and the KrShnchen (95-97°), the Furslenbrunnen (102-104°), and 
the KccittrqUeUe (81° ; the pleasantest to drink) in the lower. The 
waters are chiefly drunk between 6 and 8 a.m. — The Konig - Wtl- 
hHm)-Fhlsen-Quelle, the Augusta- Quelle, and the Vietotia-Quelle, 
three springs lately discovered, in the court of the Natsauet ttof, are 
used both internally and externally. The bath-house in connection 
with them is joined by covered passages with the Tier Jahreszeiten 

lip ' * ~ . 

ii, . mm 





Hotel and the Europaischer Bof. The bath-house Prmef of Wale»r 
also possesses springs of its. own. The chief ingredients of, the water,, 
which is chiefly beneficial in female and pulmonary complaints, 
are bi-carbonate of soda and chloride of sodium. About two, mil- 
lion, bottles are exported annually. V J 

The Cursaal, situated in the Curgarteji, is connected with the. 
Curhaus by means of a tasteful iron Colonnade, in which is a 
tempting bazaar. The Cursaal, erected in 1839, contains several 
magnificent saloons, a reading-room, a restaurant, and a cafe, which 
last, with its' numerous tables in the gardens adjoining, attracts 
crowds of, after-dinner loungers. 

.Near the pavilion of the band, at the upper end of the Our- 
garten, a marble slab in the ground indicates the spot, where, on 
13th July, 1870/ King William ordered his adjutant Count Lehn- 

Bab'* 1 ""' 01 " 1 * - 

..oak t?a:* 

194 Route 27. EMS. From Coblenz 

dorf to give his memorable answer to the obtrusive French am- 
bassador Benedetti. A covered iron bridge connects this bank of the 
Lahn with the new bath-house (see below).. 

In the shady grounds at the back of the Cursaal is the new 
Wandelbahn (generally called the Trinkhalle), or covered prome- 
nade for the use of visitors in wet weather. On the Lahn, at the 
lower end of the park, is the bath-house of the Four Towers ( Vier 
Thurme), built at the end of last century. Adjacent is the new 
Roman Catholic Church, near which an iron bridge, constructed in 
1878, crosses the Lahn. 

On the left bank of the Lahn, near the iron bridge, and also 
surrounded by pleasant grounds , is the New Bath House (Neue 
Badhaus), erected in 1853, each of its courts being embellished with 
fountains of mineral water worked by steam. The baths are supplied 
from the copious Neue Quelle, or New Spring, which was disclosed in 
1850, the warmest (135-137°) of all the waters of Ems. 

On the left bank there are also shady walks skirting the river, 
the chief being the Kbnig- Wilhelms-Allee, on which is a Russian 
Chapel, built in 1876. At the end ofthe Allee abridge crosses to the 
right bank. — Beautiful, shady walks intersect the slopes of the 
wooded Malberg, at the foot of which are the favourite Schweizer- 
hauschen and Villa Beriot cafes, commanding good views. The top 
of the hill , called the Malbergskopf, which may be reached in 
3 /4-l hr., is crowned with a belvedere and a restaurant. "We may 
now descend by the Lindenbach (*Inn), a silver-mine, 1^2 M. 
below Ems, where the Lahn is crossed by an iron bridge. 

The nearer peak of the Winterberg (Restaurant), a hill on the 
left bank to the E. of the Malbergskopf, Y2 nr - from Ems, com- 
mands a fine view of the valley of the Lahn. On the summit is a 
tower, built after a design on Trajan's Column , on the foundations 
of an old Roman tower which formerly stood here. The Pfahlgraben 
(p. 216), which was provided at intervals with similar towers, is 
still traceable on the right bank of the Lahn. 

On the right bank of the Lahn, immediately above the high- 
road, toweTS the abrupt *Baderlei, or 'Sieben Kbpfe\ a jagged rock 
of slate crowned with the Concordia Thurm (refreshments), a tower 
built for the sake of the view. Halfway up is the *Mooshutte, a 
pavilion commanding an admirable survey of Ems, below which is 
a monument to the warriors of 1870-71. We reach the summit 
in 8/4 hr. by following the Grabenstrasse, above the Curhaus, and 
then ascending by the broad path to the right. 

The * Kemmenauer Hohe, or SchBne Austicht , IV2 hr. to the N. of 
Ems, may either be reached by the footpath ascending a small side-valley 
to the left at the upper end of the Grabenstrasse , or by the road from 
the lower end of Dorf Ems (restaurant at the top). This is one of the 
highest points to the N. of the Lahn , and commands an extensive and 
interesting view of the valley of the Rhine , the Taunus , and the Eifel 
Mts. ; far below in the foreground stands the castle of Sporkenburg, and 
to the right ri9e the two curious trachytic Artbaaher KHpfe. An equally 

lo Wetzlar. NASSAU. 27. Route. 195 

!!B£ view towards the E-, embracing the whole duchy of Nassau as far 
as the Taunus ff@.,"ls obtained from' the neighbourhood of a large beech 
near the village ef Kenimenau,' 1 M< fej'the ST., 6a 'the way to Montabaur. 

On the bill between Bms and Brtmbach is i situated) the Tillage of 
Friicht, which contains-, the burial-vault of the famous Prussian minister 
Baron Stein (d. 18Bl},'ihe Jast scion of a noble family which had resided on 
the banks of the Lahn for seven centuries (see below). The epitaph contains 
a tribute to the upright andpitius character of the -deceased. .The forester 
at Friicht keeps the keys of the chapel ('/^rlVs la.}. — A. direct road leads 
from Ems to Fruiht (3 M.}; or we may descend on the left bank Of the 
lahn to-'HS««* (2 It.)' and ascend- thtuce through' the Sihmeittrthat, a 
vttfley with beautiful" woods and ' picturesque rock*, to Eriloht p/» hr.); 
the latter, route is specially recommended in returning.^s. about 
I'M. to the N. of the route from Buns to Braubach mentioned at p. 101'. 

Other excursions may be made to the Cdbltmtr Forithaut, to Matiau, to 
the monastery of Artutem , the castle of Schaumburg , etc. (see below). 

Railway to "Wbtzlab, Leaving Ems, the train passes Dause- 
nau (Lahnthal),. on the right bank, with an ancient octagonal 
tower, and still surrounded by old walls. The church dates from 
the 13th , its vestibule from the 15th century. Near Nassau the 
train crosses the Lahn. 

15Vs'H. (from Coblenz) Nassau (265 ft. ; .Krone; *AfiiU6r, at 
the station, R. & B, 21/^ m. ; Hotel Nassau, on the left bank of the 
Lahn ; Pension Villa Beilstem, board 3 m., R. extra ; Klip's Private 
Hotel ,- beer at KUp's; donkey from the suspension-bridge to Burg 
Stein 70 pL, to Burg Nassau ltyg m.), an ancient little town, be- 
lieved to have existed as early as 790 under the name of Naaanga, 
is prettily situated on the right bank of the Lahn . (which is here 
crossed by a suspension-bridge), and is much frequented, by sum- 
mer visitors. It was- the birthplace of the celebrated Prussian minr 
ister Baron Stein (d. 1831.; see above), whose family had resided 
here since the 16th century, His Sehloss, though modernised, dates 
from 1621, and now belongs to his grand-daughter the Countess 
Kielmannsegge. In 1815 Stein caused & Gothic tower to be added 
to commemorate the war of independence. This was a favourite 
resort of the illustrious proprietor ,. who embellished it with various 
reminiscences of that eventful period. Others connected with the last 
war have bean added. (Visitors deposit a donation for a charitable 
purpose in a box at the entrance.) . The Sehlasspark is open to the 
public daily, except Sundays and festivals, 8-12 a.m. aad2-7,p.m. 

To the W. of Nassau , on the road to Emit, axe Bad Nassau, a 
Hydropathic Establishment, on the left (food, baths, and medical 
attendance 572 m., R. 1-5 m. per day), and a new Roman Catholic 
Church on the right. 

On the opposite bank of the Lahn rises a. wooded eminence 
(ascended from the station in 25 min.), crowned by the ruined 
'Castle i of Nassau, erected in 1101 by Pudo IV., Count of Lauren- 
burg (p. 196), whose descendants henceforth assumed the name of 
Nassau; it has been suffered to "fall to decay since the end of the 
16th century. Lower down on the same hill are the ruins' of Burg 


1 96 Route 27. LAURENBURG. From Coblenz 

Stein (y 2 M. from the suspension-bridge), the ancestral seat of the 
Barons Stein, the earliest mention of which is in 1158, and which 
was inhabited, down to the end of the 17th century. The projecting 
rock in front of it bears a * Monument to Stein , consisting of a 
statue in marble one half over life-size, by Pfuhl of Berlin, beneath 
a Gothic canopy of red sandstone, 61 ft. in height, inaugurated in 
1872. The figure of the minister, who wears the costume of his 
age, successfully expresses his personal character. In his right hand 
he holds a scroll with the date 11th June, 1807, in allusion to his 
treatise regarding the reorganisation of the Prussian state. The 
terrace affords a survey of the valley of the Lahn. 

The rocks of the "Hohe Lei, reached from Nassau in 3 /i hr. (donkey 
2'/i m.), command a beautiful view, including the monastery of Arnstein. 
— Pleasant walks may also be taken to the ( 3 /i hr.) pavilion on the Mas- 
sauer Berg, the pavilion on the Hahnkopf, the Milhlbachthal, etc. 

Beyond Nassau the railway follows the right bank of the Lahn, 
and is soon carried through a series of tunnels. Before and beyond 
the second , a glimpse is obtained on the right of Burg Langenau 
(3 M. from Nassau, 1 M. from Obernhof), built in 1244, the ancient 
seat of an Austrian family, the Rhenish branch of which became 
extinct in 1603. The watch-tower and external walls are well pre- 
served ; within the latter a modern dwelling-house has been erected. 
Beyond the castle, on the opposite bank, rises the *Kloster Arnstein 
(from Nassau a pleasant walk of 4 M. on the left bank ; from 
Obernhof i / i hr. ; refreshments at the Klostermuhle) , with its 
church in the transition-style of the 12th cent, (enlarged in 1359), 
and other buildings, picturesquely situated on a wooded eminence. 
A castle of very ancient origin which once stood here was converted 
by the last Count of Arnstein or Amoldstein into a Premonstraten- 
sian monastery in 1208 (suppressed in 1803). Near (18 M.) Obernhof 
(Bingel; Lotz), where several trains stop in summer, are lead and 
silver-mines, the working of which has lately been resumed. A 
fine point of view in the vicinity is known as the Goethepunkt, 
from a visit made to it by Goethe in 1814. 

The line now passes through a long tunnel, and skirts the village 
of Kalkofen. Then a long curve. High up, on the slopes of the left 
bank, is situated the 'Alte Hems', a solitary fragment of wall belong- 
ing to the old nunnery of Brunnenburg. 

241/2 M. Laurenburg (Bingel), with silver-smelting works , a 
small chateau, and the ruins of the ancestral residence of the Counts 
of Nassau, who were originally Counts of Laurenburg (comp. p. 195) ; 
this castle is first mentioned in 1093 and was already a ruin in 1643. 

Before the church is reached, a road to the left ascends to (l'/j M.) Scheid, 
and about 8 min. farther again leaves the main road and descends to the 
left to (1 M.) Geilnau on the Lahn. The river describes a circuit of many 
miles between Laurenburg and Geilnau, which this route cuts off. The 
mineral spring of Geilnau is '/s M. above the village ; it is not resorted to 
by patients , but the water is exported. The valley between Geilnau and 
the (2V4 M.) ferry of Balduinstein is very picturesque. 

Beyond the Cramberg Tunnel the train stops at (28 M.) Balduin- 

to Wetslar. LIMBURG. 27. Route. 1 97 

stein (Noll) ; the imposing ruins of the castle of that name, built 
in 1319, rise in a narrow ravine behind the village. 

On the right, a little farther on, the loftily situated castle of 
*Schaumburg (915 ft. ; *Restaurant) overlooks the valley from a 
wooded basaltic peak. It was once the seat of the princes of Anhalt- 
Schaumburg , and afterwards that of Archduke Stephen (d. 1867), 
grandson of the last prince (d. 1812) ; it is now the property of Duke 
George of Oldenburg. The castle was built before 1194, but the 
oldest parts of the present building date from the 18th cent. ; the 
modern part, in the English-Gothic style, was erected for Archduke 
Stephen by the architect Boos of Wiesbaden. Fine view from the 
tower. The collection of minerals is worthy of notice. The hothouses 
contain a number of rare plants. The footpath from Balduinstein 
to Schaumburg is somewhat steep, l 1 ^ M. ; by the carriage-road 
the ascent is gradual (2 l / t M. ; carriages at the station). 

29 M. Fachingen (Anker) derives importance from its mineral 
spring, of which 90,000 bottles are annually exported. The pro- 
cess of filling and corking is interesting. 

32 M. Dietz (334 ft. ; *Hollandischer Hof; *H6tel Lorenz), a 
thriving little town with 4400 inhab., picturesquely situated on 
the hillside, close to the Lahn, is commanded by the Peterskirche, 
built in the 13th cent., and by an old castle of the Counts of Dietz, 
now a house of correction, where marble is cut and polished by the 
prisoners. The old stone Bridge across the Lahn is supported by 
buttresses erected on two others belonging to an earlier bridge 
(destroyed in 1552) which lie unbroken in the bed of the river. 

On the left bank , 1 M. from Dietz , and connected with it by a 
beautiful avenue of limes, is Schloss Oranienstein, erected in 1676, 
now a Prussian military school. 

From Dietz to Zollhaus, 7 M., railway in 25 minutes. The line ascends 
the pretty valley of the Aar, which falls into the Lahn at Dietz. To the 
left, near (2'/« M.) Flacht, stands the ruin of Ardeck. 3 M. Oberneisen; 
5'/2 M. Hahnstatlen (Nassauer Hof) ; 7 M. Zollhaus. Pleasant excursions may 
be made from the two latter to the ruined castles of Hohlenfels and Burg 
Schwalbach. A good road leads in the valley of the Aar from Hahnstatten 
to Hohenslein, Adolphseck, and (15 M.) Schwalbach (p. 129); diligence once 
daily in 3 1 /* hrs. 

31 y 2 M. Limburg (360 ft. ; *Preussischer Hof, near the post- 
offlce ; *NassauerHof, near the station, R. &B. 2m; HotelZimmer- 
mann ; beer at the Actienbrauerei, on the Wiesbaden road) , an old 
town with 5100 inhab., a place of some importance in the middle 
ages, and now the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop , is situated on 
the Lahn, which is crossed here by a bridge constructed in 1315. 
The * Cathedral , with its seven towers , the 'Basilica St. Oeorgii 
Martyris erecta 909' , as the inscription above the portal records, 
rises conspicuously above the river, from the right bank of which 
the best view of it is obtained. It was founded by Conrad Kurz- 
bold, the powerful Salic count of the Niederlahngau, whose Castle 
adjoins the church. The present structure , a remarkably fine ex- 

198 Route 27. WEILBURG. From Coblem 

ample of the transition-style , consecrated in 1235, was skilfully 
restored in 1872-78. It contains an antique font, and a monument 
to the founder (d. 948), with a recumbent figure, in front of the 
high-altar. The old paintings have heen renewed by Wittkopf . The 
valuable treasury of the cathedral, preserved in the chapter-house, 
is worthy of inspection. The sacristan lives opposite the entrance. 
The War Monument for 1870-71 is in the Gothic style. Limburg 
contains the workshops of the Berlin and Metz railway. 

From Limburg to Hadamar, 5 M., by a branch-line in 20 min. (fares 
65, 45, 30 pf.l. Hadamar (423 ft. ; "Nassauer Hof; Ross) is a pleasant little 
town with an ancient castle. About 6 M. to the X. is situated the basaltic 
Dornburg (1298 ft.), a cavern on the S. side of which contains a consider- 
able mass of ice remaining unmelted throughout the summer. — From 
Limburg to Wiesbaden, Hochst, and Frankfort, see E. 29 d. 

Beyond Limburg the banks of the Lahn become flatter for a 
short distance. To the left lies Dietkirchen , with the oldest church 
in the Duchy, built before 801, situated on a rocky eminence ris- 
ing abruptly from the river. 34'/2 M. Eschhofen ; then — 

36i/ 2 M. Eunkel (368 ft. ; WiecTscher Hof; Zur Lahnbahn), 
an ancient town situated on both banks of the Lahn, commanded by 
an extensive old castle of the princes of Wied , dating from about 
1159, perched on a rocky height, and now occupied by the local 
authorities. On the hill opposite lies the village of Schadeck, with 
an old castle , which commands a beautiful view (10 min. from 
the station). — Near (38'/ 2 M.) Villmar (Basting) are considerable 
marble -quarries ; then (43 M.) Aumenau, with ironstone-mines and 
slate-quarries. After a succession of tunnels, bridges, and viaducts, 
the train reaches — 

50 M. Weilburg (*Deutsches Haus ; *Traube ; Bohm), the resi- 
dence of the Dukes of Nassau- Weilburg down to 1816. Their cha- 
teau , begun in 1543 and enlarged in 1721, picturesquely situated 
on a rocky eminence, and still habitable , is worthy of a visit. To 
the S. is the entrance to the pretty Weilthal. — The wealth of the 
district consists in the presence of red ironstone, yielding 45-50 per 
cent of pure metal, between the layers of slate. About 200,000 tons 
of ore are mined in the Weilburg district yearly, in procuring which 
upwards of 2000 miners are engaged. 

52 M. Lbhnberg ; 55 M. Stockhausen; 58 M. Braunfels. In the 
neighbourhood are several iron mines , the ores from which are 
brought to the main line by small wire-rope railways. 

On a hill 2'/2 M. to the S. of the station of Braunfels is situated the 
small town of Braunfels (Solmser Hof) , the residence of the Prince of 
Solms-Braunfels , whose extensive Schloss , part of which dates from the 
late-Gothic period, contains interesting old armour and other curiosities. 
Pleasant grounds. 

From (61 M.) Albskausen (Deutscher Kaiser) we may walk in 
'/2 hr. to the suppressed Premonstratensian abbey of Altenberg, the 
beautiful early-Gothic church of which was completed at the end 
of the 13th cent., and contains ancient tombstones and wood- 

to Wetzlar. WETZLAR. 27. Route. 199 

64 M. Wetzlar (475 ft.; *Berzogiiehes Bans, in the town ; *H8tel 
Kaltwasser t -nest the station; *Orte»oacfc'g Restaurant, wine), with 
7000 inhab. , once a free imperial town, is picturesquely situated on 
the opposite the mouth of the Dill,^/^ M. from ihe station, 
near which are a rolling-mill and blast-furnace. The town extends 
along a height on the left bank. The most conspicuous building is 
the 'Cathedral, the oldest part of which (N. W/),. called the Heiden- 
thurm by the townspeople, dates from the 11th cent., while the N. 
side, the finest part, was erected in the 14th and 15th, and the 
portals in the 15th and 16th centuries. The terrace planted with 
limes is adorned, on the S. side, with a monument to soldiers who 
feU in the Franco-Prussian war, byLehr. To the S. of the cathedral, 
in the Bntterm'arkt, which is embellished with a bust of Goethe by 
Lehr , rises the guard-house , built of red sandstone. The Reiehs- 
kammergerieht (courts of justice) , with the imperial eagle , is 
opposite the Haus. The building of the Archives, near 
the Hauser Thor, finished in 1806, contains those state papers and 
documents of the, German Confederation which remained over after 
the distribution among the different states in 1845-52 , and also 
the share assigned to Prussia; the upper floors are occupied by 
courts of law. 

About !/g M. to the S. of Wetzlar rises the ruined castle of 
Kalsmunt, which is said to be built on Roman foundations. At the 
foot of the hill is the Schutzengarten. Kalsmunt and the Metze- 
burg (restaurant) are the finest points in the environs. 

Goethe resided at Wetzlar for some months in 1772 , when he 
was engaged in professional work at the Reichskammergericht, and 
is said to have occupied a house , indicated by a marble tablet, in 
the narrow Gewandgasse , near the corn-market. Various events 
here and in the environs suggested his 'Sorrows of Werther'. ^ 

The original of Werther was a certain Herr Jerusalem', secretary to 
the embassy, who shot himself in a house (with, two bow-windows) in 
the Schiller-Plate, near the Franciscan church. The Deutsches Haus,. or 
Lodge of the Teutonic Order (reached by the street to th,e left of the new 
guard-house, opposite the S. transept of the cathedral) was the residence of 
Charlotte's father, named Buff, the manager of the estates of the Order, 
and still contains a room with a few memorials of her. The house is 
distinguished by an inscription ; apply for admission, to the custodian, who 
lives behind the cathedral. Outside the Wildbacher Thor, is the 'Werther 
Brunnen 1 , shaded by a venerable lime-tree, a favourite resort of Goethe, 
by whom the pretty environs of Wetzlar have been highly extolled. A 
broad road ascends on the left bank of the Lahn to (t l /s ..■.) @mrbenheim, 
the Wahlheim of Werther, situated on a hill commanding a pleasant view 
of the valley.. Most of the old houses in the 'Werther-Hatz' \ri front of 
the church were burned down in 1866. A monument . here marks a 
favourite seat of the poet.. The traveller. may return by the Garbenheim 
watch-tower, commanding a fine view. On the slope of a hill, 3 M. from. 
Wetzlar, lies the pleasant village. of VotpertiJitnaai, in a house in which 
(formerly a shooting-lodge, now a school) the ball described in Werther 
took place. 

, From Wetzlar to Deutz or Qiessen, see R. 8 ; to Lollar, Ctosel, 
and Berlin, see Baedeker's Northern Germany. 


28. Frankfort. 

Bail-way Stations. Frankfort has seven stations. On the W. side of the 
town (PI. B, 5) are: — (1). Main - Wesee - Bahnhof , for Giessen, Castel, 
Hamburg, and Cronberg (R. 29b); (2). Taunus Bahnhof, for Castel (opposite 
Mayence), Wiesbaden (R. 29a) , Soden (R. 29c) and Limburg (R. 29d) ; (3). 
Main-Neckar-Bahnhof, for Darmstadt, Mannheim, and Heidelberg (R. 30), 
for Mayence and Mannheim (p. 240), and for the quick trains to Offenbach, 
Hanau, Bebra, Berlin, and Leipsic. — On the E. side of the town : — (4). 
Hanaukr Bahnhof (PI. K, 3), for Hanau, Aschaffenburg, and Bavaria, and 
for Limburg (R. 29d); (5). Bahnhof am -Fahethor (PI. E, 5), for Limburg. 

— At Sachsenhausen : — (6). Offenbachek Bahnhof (PI. D, 7), for the 
local trains to Offenbach; (7). Hanau-Bebraer -Bahnhof. the first stop- 
ping-place for the trains to Hanau, Fulda, Bebra, etc. The hotels do not 
send omnibuses to meet the trains. 

Hotels. "Frankfurter Hof (PI. a; C, D, 4), a large establishment in 
the Kaiser-Str., near the western stations; E.. with L. & A., on the first 
floor from 4, on the second from 3'/2, on the third from 3, on the fourth 
3-372 m., table d'hote at 1 p.m. 3V2, at 5 p.m. 4'/2m., other items discharg- 
ed as incurred, 'pens.' from 10 m.; post, telegraph, and railway-offices on 
the premises. "Hotel de Russie (PI. b ; E, 3), Zeil, R., L., & A.' from 3 m., 
B. 1 m. 40 pf., D. at 1.15 p.m. 3'/2, at 5 p.m. 4m., also 'pension'; "Eng- 
lish Hotel (PI. c; D,4), Rossmarkt; Schwan (PI. d; D, 3) , at which the 
peace of 10th May, 1871 , was concluded , Steinweg ; Romischer Kaiser 
(PI. e; F, 3), Zeil; the last four are good and expensive, charges similar 
in all. Hotel du Nord (PI. f; C, 4), Grosse Gallus-Str. 17, R. 3 m., well 
spoken of; Westendhall (PI. g; B, 5), near the western stations; Hotel 
de l'Union (PI, h; D, 3), Steinweg 9, near the Theater-Platz. — "Lands- 
berg (PI. i; E, 3, 4), near the Liebfrauenberg; H6tel Drexel (PI. k; 
F, 2, 3), Grosse Friedberger Strasse 20-22, these two commercial ; Pariser 
Hof (PI. 1; D, 3), Schiller-Platz 7; "Brusseler Hof (PI. m; C, 4), Grosse 
Gallus-Str., R. 272-3 m. ; "Hotel Ernst, R., L., & A. from 2>/2 m., B. 
1 m. 20 pf. ; Hotel Hohenzollern, these two near the western stations. 

— Second-class : Wurttemberger Hof (PI. n ; F, 4), Fahrgasse 41 ; Hotel 
Holland, Grosser Hirschgraben 2, quiet; Hotel Jacobi, Stift-Str. 6; 
Petersburger Hof, Romergasse 5 ; Augsburger Hof, Vogelgesang 3; Gru- 
ner Bavjm, Stadt Darmstadt, Bohm ('Zum Stiff; see below), Grosse Fischer- 
gasse ; H6tel Werner , at the Hanau Station ; Mainhotel, Mainquai 36. 

— H6tel Garni Zum Erlangee Hof, Borngasse 11 , unpretending ; Pen- 
sion Niederheitmann, Mylius-Str. 22; Pens. Vorster, Linden-Str. 17. 

Restaurants. "Cafe' Casino, opposite the Frankfurter Hof, dear ; Stein's 
Wiener Cafe' & Restaurant, Kaiser-Str. 13, ladies' room on the groundfloor ; 
Neue Borse, Cafi de Paris , Hold , near the theatre ; Bierbrauer, Grosse 
Gallus-Str. 5; Httels du Nord and Landsberg, see above; Hartmann, Zur 
Oper, both near the opera-house ; Restaurants in the "Zoological Garden 
and Palm Garden. For ladies only : Reilauration des Frauenbildungs- 
Vereins, Tongesgasse 40 & Holzgraben 11, entrance by the Zeil 37. — 
Cafes. Milani, Zeil 72; BrandVs Wiener Cafi, Zeil 58; Stein's Wiener Caft, 
see above; Kursaal, in the pleasure-grounds near the Friedberger Tbor; 
Goldschmidt, Allerheiligen-Str. 83. — Confectioners. A. Biitschly, Goethe- 
Platz, ices ; Kiefer, Schiller-Platz ; De Giorgi, Liebfrauen-Str. 3, chocolate; 
Koch, Kaiser-Str. 7; Kurtz, Steinweg 4; F. B. Biitschly, Kleiner Hirschgra- 
ben 8. — Beer. Bavaria, Schiller-Platz; Taunus, Grosse Bockenheimer-Str. ; 
Caft Neuf, Bibergasse 8 and Bbrsenplatz ; Teutonia. Paulsplatz 16 ; Eyssen, 
near the Main -Weser- Bahnhof; Pfeiffer, Schafergasse. — Wine. 'Ph. J. 
Bohm ('Zum Stiff), Grosse Fischergasse 7, near the Cathedral; Val. Bohm, 
Grosse Kornmarkt 10, with 'old German' drinking-room on the upper 
floor ; Encke ('Falstafi"), Theaterplatz 7 ; Prim von Arkadien, Grosse Bocken- 
heimer-Str. 9; Schmitz, Bibergasse 5, well spoken of; Bauer, Kaiserhof-Str. 3. 

Post Office and Telegraph Office (PI. 35; E, 3), Zeil 52; also several 

Universal Railway and Steamboat Office, in connection with the Con- 
tinent Daily Parcels Express, in the Frankfurter Hof- 



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€ 114- r,l w «- lU n T4 .1 .^ 

FRANKFORT. 25. Route. 201 

» Cabs. Each vehicle ought to contain a copy of the tariff. From any of 
the stations into the town, 1-2 pers. 80 pf., 3-4 pers. 1 m. 20pf. ; drive within 
the town, 50 of 70 pf. ; returning from the Palm Garden or Zoological 
Garden after 9 p.m., 90 pf. or 1 m. Eaeh box 20 pf.; small articles free. 
2g ttme: 15 min. 50 or 70 pf., 20 min. 70 or 90 pf., 25 min. 90 pf. or 
1 m., 1 hr. 1 m. 70 or 2 m. 10 pf. The fare to Sachsenhausen is calcu- 
lated by time with 40 pf. added. The so-called 'Thordroschken' have 
different charges. 

Tramway from Bockenheim past the Palm Garden and along the Zeil 
to the Zoological Garden and the Ost-Bahnhof, with branch-lines to the 
western stations, Sachsenhausen, and Bornheiin. Oomp. : the Plan. 

Baths. Warm at GrtVs, Leonhardsther , and at Alt's, Alte Mainser 
fiapse. refits .(Turkish, etc.) at Sachsenhausen. Biver Balks near the 
Cnter-Main-Briicke and the Ober-Main-Brucke. 

* T „ Ihe «^S»- ; °P era B ™> e (PI- B, C, 2; p. 209) and Toon Theatre (PI. 44; 
D, 3 ; p. 203), both the property of the town, performances suspended during 
August. Victoria Theatre, in the. Circus (PI. G, 3). 

British Consul: Mr. C. Oppenheimer, Kluber-Str. 7 (11-1). — United 
States Consul: Mr. F. Vogler. 

English Church Service in the Weissfrauen-Kirche (PI. 31 s D, 5) ; Cha- 
plain, Bev. G. W. Mackenzie, Eorner-Str. 13. * 

Collections and Exhibitions: — 
'Ariadneum (p. 208) , daily 10-1 , in summer (1st June to 30th Sept.) also 

3-5; fee 50-75 pf.; Sundays gratis. 
""TSsfhtbition of the Kunstgewerbe-Verein (p. 202), Ueue Mainzer-Str. 35; adm. 
' 50, Wed. 20 pf. , , 

'Goethe's House (p. 203), daily except Sun. afternoon, adm. 1 m. 
'*XtiUer*aal , In the Rdmer (p. 204), open free from the beginning of Hay 

till the end of Sept. On Hon., Wed., Frid. 11-1, and from October to 

the end of April on Hon. and Wed. only ; at other times fee (60 pf. 

to 1 m. for one or more persons). Visitors ring. 
'Museum, Historical (p. 206), in the new Record Office (PI. 1), Sun, and 

Wed. 10-1, free ; other days, 50 pf. 
*Palm Garden (p. 209), adm. 1 m., concerts in the afternoon and evening; 

monthly tickets issued to strangers. 
~ Panorama (p. 209), daily 9-5, adm. 2 m.. Sun. 1 m. 
'Picture Gallery of the Kunstverem (PI. 32; C, 3), Junghof-Str. 8, near the 

Gutenberg Monument, admission (9-6 o'clock) l.m., for which the 

visitor is entitled to a ticket for the annual December raffle of modern 
7 pictures and works of art. 
' Picture Gallery, StSdel, see below. 

, Senckenberg Natural History. Museum (p. 208) ; collections open Wed. 2-4, 
*»» Frid. and Sun. 11-1, gratis; on 'other days (8-1, 3-6) fee 75 pf. 
'St&del Institution (p. 209), adm. gratis. Sun. 11-1, Wed. 11-4,' Other days 11-2; 
■ ± engravings, Tues. ttftii. 11-1 *4r6, Hon. * Thurs. 11-1., 
' Town IMbrarp (p. 207), Hon. to Erid. 9-1, Wed. also 3-5. 
T&ooloaicol Garden (p. 209); adm. 1 in. ; concerts in the afternoon and 
.,-"' evening; monthly tickets for visitors. AqumHum 50 pf. extra. 

Information regarding the hours of admission, etc., to the various places 
of .'interest, theatres, and concerts is given gratis at the Universal Bail- 
way Office in the Frankfurter Hof (see above). 

Chief Attractions. Collections denoted by asterisks. Monuments of 
Goethe, Gutenberg, and Schiller (pp. 202, 203); Exchange and Opera-house; 
walk through the Zeil to the bridge over the Main. — The numbers of 
the houses in the streets running at right angles to the Hain are painted 
on a bine,', those in the streets parallel with the Hain on a red ground. ' 

Frankfort on the Main (300 ft.), with 137,600 inhab, (in- 
cluding a garrison of 1300 soldiers), formerly a free towfl of the 
Empire, and down to 1866 one of the: free towns of the German 
' l?«Bfedaration and the seat of the Diet , now belongs to, Prussia. 
Old watch-towers in the vieinity indicate its ancient extent. .The 

202 Route 28. FRANKFORT. History. 

city lies in a spacious plain bounded by mountains, on the right 
bank of the navigable Main. On the left bank of the river lies 
Sachsenhausen, a suburb connected with Frankfort by four stone 
bridges, and by an iron suspension-bridge. In a commercial and 
particularly a financial point of view , Frankfort is one of the most 
important cities in Germany. 

The old part of the town consists of narrow and unattractive 
streets, but the Zeil, the Neue Mainzer-Str., Kaiser-Str., Frieden- 
Str., etc., boast of many handsome modern buildings. The town 
is surrounded by 'Anlageri , or public grounds, where many taste- 
fully-built residences are situated. The air of wealth and impor- 
tance which pervades the city affords an indication of the success 
and extent of its commercial relations. 

Frankfort dates from the time of Charlemagne. In 794 that emperor 
held a convocation of bishops and dignitaries of the empire in the royal 
residence ' Franconofurd' (ford of the Franks). After the erection of a 
new palace (now the Saalhof) by Louis the Pious in 822 the town soon 
reached such a high degree of prosperity , that at the time of the death 
of Louis the German (876) it was already looked upon as the capital of 
the East Franconian Empire. Under this monarch , who frequently 
resided here , the city was considerably enlarged. During the reign of 
Lewis the Bavarian, who conferred on the town the freedom of the 
empire and many other privileges , Frankfort was again much extended 
and almost reached the present limits of the inner city. One of the most 
important of the privileges which it received was the confirmation of 
the Easter Fair in 1330; the Autumn Fair had been sanctioned by 
Frederick II. as early as 1240. To these fairs the town owed the im- 
portance it enjoyed during the 16th and 17th cent, as a centre of domestic 
and foreign trade. From the time of Frederick Barbarossa (1152) onwards 
most of the German emperors were chosen at Frankfort, and in 1350 it 
was recognised by the Golden Bull of Charles IV. (p. 206) as the perma- 
nent seat of the elections. On the dissolution of the Empire in 1806, 
Frankfort, with Aschaffenburg , Hanau, Fulda, and Wetzlar, was made 
over as a Grand-duchy to Carl von Dalberg, Primate of the Rhenish Con- 
federation , and previously Archbishop of Mayence. From 1814 to 1866 it 
was one of the four free cities of the German Confederation, and in 1866 
it was taken by the Prussians. 

New and imposing buildings are rapidly springing up near the 
railway-stations on the W. side of the town. The principal approach 
to the town is formed by the handsome *Kaiser-Strasse (PI. C, 
5, 4), which leads directly to the Rossmarkt. The first street run- 
ning at right-angles to it is the Neue Mainzer Strasse, in which, 
on the left (No. 35), is the old building of the Stadel Institution 
(p. 209), now containing the art-industrial exhibition of the Mit- 
telrheinische Kunstgewerbe -Verein (adm., see p. 201). 

The Rossmarkt (PI. D, 4), at the end of the Kaiser-Str., the 
largest Platz in the city, is an open space of irregular shape , in 
the W. half of which rises the "Monument of Gutenberg (PI. 13), 
erected in 1858, a fine group on a large sandstone pedestal, design- 
ed by Ed. v. d. Launitz. The central figure with the types in the 
left hand is Gutenberg, on his right Fust, on his left Schoffer. On 
the frieze are portrait-heads of fourteen celebrated printers, with 
Caxton among them. In the four niches beneath are the arms of 

Monument of Goethe. FRANKFORT. 28. Route. 203 

the four towns where printing was first practised, Mayence, Frank- 
fort, Venice, and Strasshurg. Round the base aTe figures represent- 
ing Theology, Poetry, Natural Science, and Industry. 

The Goethe-Platz, which adjoins the Rossmarkt on the N., is 
embellished with Schwanthaler's * Monument of Goethe (PI. 11; 

D, 3), erected in 1844. The reliefs on the pedestal in front are 
allegorical ; on the sides are figures from Goethe's poems. 

In the Theater - Platz (PI. D, 3) rises the Theatre (PI. 44), 
erected in 1782. Behind the theatre stands a building for contain- 
ing the theatrical scenery and other properties, adjoining which is 
the Neue Borse, or Exchange (PI. 4; D, 3), built by Burnitz, 
with a handsome Renaissance hall (business - hours 12-2). The 
Goethe-Strasse, to the W., contains the new Oewerbekasse, or Ar- 
tizans' Savings Bank, and the Elisabethenschule. 

To the W. of the Rossmarkt, Junghofstrasse 8 , is the Kunst- 
verein(V\. 32; p. 201), with its picture-gallery. Nos. 19, 20 in 
the same street form the Saalbau (PI. 9), in the handsome rooms of 
which the concerts of the Museums-Gesellschaft take place weekly 
in winter (orchestral and chamber music alternately). 

To the S. of the Rossmarkt, Grosser Hirschgraben 23, is the house 
in which Qoethe was born (PI. 19; adm., see p. 201), with an 
inscription recording that event (28th August, 1749). The house, 
where some of the interesting adventures mentioned in his 'Fiction 
and Truth' took place, was purchased by the 'Deutsche Hochstift' in 
1863, and has been restored. It contains some busts and portraits 
of Goethe, a few works of art, and various curiosities. 

Adjoining the Rossmarkt on the N.E. side is the Schillek- 
Platz (PI. D, 3), with the Hauptwaehe or guard-house (PI. 21), 
and a Statue of Schiller in bronze (PI. 16), from a model by Diel- 
mann, erected in 1863. To the right rises the Katharinenkirehe 
(PI. 25), built in 1680, the tower of which affords a good survey 
of the city. 

We now enter the *Zeil (PI. E, F, 3), a broad and handsome 
street, the busiest in Frankfort, consisting chiefly of attractive shops. 

The Liebfrauen - Strasse , the first cross - street on the right, 
leads across the Liebfrauenberg towards the Romerberg. The 
Roman Catholic Liebfrauenkirche (PI. 27) contains several old 
tombstones. The Liebfrauen - Str. is continued by the Neue 
Krame, in which , on the right , stands the old Exchange (PI. 3 ; 

E, 4), erected in 1844; the principal facade is turned towards 
the Pauls-Platz. — In the Pauls-Platz, opposite the Exchange, 
rises the Church of St. Paul (PI. 29; E, 4), a circular building 
completed in 1833. It was used in 1848-49 for the meetings of 
the 'German National Assembly for remodelling the Constitution', 
but was again fitted up as a place of worship in 1852. (Bell for 
the sacristan at the right side of the entrance.) 

The *Romer (PI. 36 ; E,4), the most interesting edifice atFrank- 

204 Route 28. FRANKFORT. Romer. 

fort in a historical point of view, is a late-Gothic structure, erect- 
ed as a town-hall by the architect Friedrich Kbnigshofen ahout the 
year 1406, and afterwards altered at various times. The principal 
facade, with its three lofty gables and broad pointed doorways, looks 
towards the Romerberg. The five windows in the centre belong to 
the Kaisersaal. The back of the building, in the Pauls- Platz, dates 
from 1602 and 1731. 

Entering the arcades of the ground-floor from the Romerberg, we 
ascend a handsome stair to the right, built in 1740, to the first floor, on 
which is situated the — 

"Kaisersaal (adm. see p. 201), where the new emperor dined with 
the electors and showed himself from the balcony to the people assembled 
on the Romerberg. The hall . which is covered with tunnel-vaulting in 
wood, was restored in 1843 and embellished with Portraits of the Emperors, 
presented by German princes, art-associations, and private individuals. 
The following are among the finest. On the central wall, opposite 
the windows, and larger than the others , Charlemagne (768-814) by Ph. 
Veit; then, beginning at the corner diagonally opposite the entrance, 
Conrad I. (911-918), by Ballenberger; Otho I., the Great (936-973), by 
Veit; Otho III. (983-1002), by Settegast; Conrad II. (1024-1039), by Clasen; 
Henry III. (1039-1056), by Stilke; Henry V. (1106-1125), by Kiederich; 
Lothaire (1125-1138), by Bendemann; Frederick I., Barbarossa (1152-1190), 
by Lessing, a figure full of majesty and repose, probably the best of the 
series; Philip of Swabia (1198-1203), by Rethel; Frederick II. (1215-1250), 
by Veit; Adolph of Nassau (1292-1298), by Miicke; Albert I. (1298-1308), by 
Steinle; Henry VII., of Luxembourg (130S-1314), by Veit; Frederick III. 
(1440-1493), by Jul. ffiibner; Maximilian I. (1493-1519), Charles V. (1519- 
1556), and Maximilian II. (1564-1576), by Bethel ; Rudolph II. (1576-1612), by 
Hemerlein ; Ferdinand III. (1637-1658) , by Steinle. — We next enter the — 

Wahlzimmer (election-room) , decorated in red , where the electors 
met to deliberate on the choice of an emperor, and which has been left 
in its original condition. It contains a portrait of Emp. Leopold II. 

The Romerberg (PI. E,4), or market-place in front of the Romer, 
which down to the end of last century no Jew was permitted to enter 
(comp. p. 207), was the scene of those public rejoicings after the 
election of an emperor which Goethe so graphically describes in his 
autobiography. The Justitia Fountain, designed by Northeim , is 
to be erected in the centre of the market-place. The southernmost 
of the three gables of the Romer belongs to the Haw Limpurg, 
which possesses a handsome vaulted gateway (at the side) and an 
imposing winding - staircase of the year 1607 (visible from the 
court). At the corner of the Romerberg and of the Wedelgasse is 
the Salzhaus, the ground-floor of which is provided with rustica pil- 
lars and handsome lattice-windows, while the upper story shows 
traces of rich painting. The narrow gable-sides are carved entirely 
of wood. — The S. side of the Romerberg is bounded by the 
Nicolaikirche (PI. 28), an elegant church in the early-Gothic style 
of the 13th cent., with one aisle only (N.), and a massive tower 
adjoining the choir. It was restored in 1847. Altar-piece, a Resur- 
rection by Rethel. 

A little to the S. of the Romerberg is the old Fahrthor, to the 
left of which rises the Rententhurm, erected in 1455. On the side 
of the tower next the Main is marked the height attained by an 

Saalhof. FRANKFORT. 28. Route. 205 

inundation. Opposite is an iron Suspension Bridge, -constructed in 
1869, on the approach to which are also marked exceptional heights 
reached by the river. 

* Adjoining the Rententhurm, farther up the fiver, rises the facade 
of the Saalhof (PI. 38; E, 5), built in 1717, and occupying the 
site of an imperial palace of that name, which was erected by Louis 
the Pious in 822. The palace was mortgaged by the emperors in 
the 14th cent. , and was frequently altered , particularly in the 
18th and 19th centuries, so that no external trace of the original 
edifice now remains. The old chapel in the tower (now a private 
room, visible from the side next the river) dates from the. begin- 
ning of the 13th cent., and once served as a receptacle for the im- 
perial jewels. The building is now occupied by the Conseroatotium 
of Music, which numbers among its teachers Madame Clara Schu- 
mann, Herr Raff, and other well-known musicians. 

On the Main, a little lower down, is the Roman Catholic 
Church of St. Leonhard (PI. 26 ; E, 5), begun in 1217, wit* a late- 
Gothic choir built by Agister Henehin in 1434, the whole com- 
pleted in 1507, and restored in 1808, The church is supposed to 
occupy the spot on which the palace of Charlemagne stood before 
the Saalhof was founded by Louis the Pious.. On the N. tower is 
seen the imperial eagle , said to have been bestowed by Lewis the 
Bavarian on the abbey in acknowledgment of services rendered to 
him in defiance of the papal ban. The chief objects of interest in 
the interior (N. aisle) are the two Romanesque portals, and the 
vaulting with the detached girders in the chapel to the left ; a Last 
Supper by Holbein the Elder ; and finely-coloured glass windows 
of the late-Gothic period. 

The street called the Mabkt (PI. E, F, 4), leading from the 
Romerberg towards the E. to the cathedral, contains several hand- 
some old dwelling-houses. No. 44, on the left, known as the Stei- 
nerneBaus, with round-area frieze, eorner-tunets, and handsome- 
ly vaulted gateway, dates from the 15th cent. ; nearly opposite, 
next the Romerberg, is the Ham zum Kleinen EngeL half Gothic, 
half Renaissance, of 1562. In the court of No, 30 (to the left) 
are two galleries bearing friezes of the 16th cent., representing the 
Fall and the Prodigal Son. No. 5, on the right,: called the Ooldene 
Waage, is embellished with rich rustiea-work and fine lattice- 

The Cathedral (St. Bartholomew, Rom. Cath.; Fl. 23; F, 4), 
a Gothic edifice , was founded in 1238 ; the choir was erected in 
1315*18. The church was seriously injured by a fire in August 
1867, but has since been restored under the superintendence of 
the architect Denainger. On that occasion the tower, left unfinished 
in 4514, and now 312ft. high, was completed from the early plans. 
dlXTKHOB.- Access to the. church is obtained by the N. portal (best <time, 
104). By the wall, to the right, are tombstones p£, the Hotehauaen and 
Sachsenhausen families,' of the 14th and' 15th centuries. ' The chapel ad- 

206 Route 28. FRANKFORT. Cathedral. 

joining the choir on the left contains a group of the Death of Mary, 
sculptured in stone in the 14th century. — At the high-altar the coro- 
nation of the emperors used to be solemnised by the Elector of Mayence. 
To the right is the Wahlkapelle (election-chapel), where the actual election 
of the emperors took place ; at the entrance stands the beautiful monument 
of the German king Giinther von Sehwarzburg, who died in 1349 at Frank- 
fort, where he had taken refuge from his opponent Charles IV. The armorial 
bearings around it belong to the families who erected the monnment. 
The original inscription is in old German, the new one in LaU . Mo fl t 
of the new stained-glass windows were executed from csrtoons hj bieinle. 
Many of them, and also a "Painting by Van Dyck (in the choir), were 
presented by the Brentano family. The old altar-piece, a Virgin enthroned, 
by Veit, is now also in the choir. — In the chapel adjoining the choir 
on the right is a Sepulchre with the sleeping watchmen beneath, of the 
15th century; also a fine Tabernacle of the same period. To the right 
of the S. portal is the tomb of Andreas Hirde, with a relief representing 
the Mocking of Christ (1518). 

On the outside of the N. wall of the choir is a large Crucifixion, 
executed in sandstone in the style of Diirer. 

At No. 4 in the Domplatz, to the E. of the cathedral, is a Statue 
of Luther, commemorating a sermon said to have been delivered 
here by the Reformer when on his way to the Diet of Worms. 

To the S. of the cathedral is the new building for preserving 
the Municipal Archives (PI. 1 ; F, 5) , completed in 1878 from 
designs by Denzinger. The ground- floor contains a "Historical 
Museum (adm., see p. 201), formed of the combined collections of 
the municipality and the Antiquarian Society. 

„ The Ante-Room contains armour, weapons and architectural fragments. 
— Room I. contains pictures from suppressed Frankfort monasteries. In the 
first cabinet, on the left: Pieta, a large group of the Cologne school; op- 
posite, C. Viol (?), Altar-piece; to the right of the entrance, "Holbein the 
Elder, Genealogy of the Virgin and the Dominicans. In the second cabinet, 
to the left : Old copy, by Johst Harrich of Nuremberg, of Diirer's celebrated 
Assumption, which was painted in 1509 for Jacob Heller of Frankfort, 
purchased in 1615 by Elector Maximilian of Bavaria , and destroyed by 
fire at Munich in 1674 ; the wings are the original productions of Durer's 
studio. On the right, two works in grisaille by Math. Oerung. In the 3rd 
Cab. : Two animal-paintings by J. H. and J. M. Roos; Ascension, by M. 
Merian the Younger. — Room II. contains the 'Prehn Collection 1 of cabinet- 
works ; to the right of the window , "Meister Stephan of Cologne (?), 
Virgin in a garden ; below, Uffenbach (Elsheimer's teacher) , The Magi. 
Among the Dutch paintings in the adjoining cabinet, the best are a 
"Physician by Tenters and two Church Interiors by Van Vliet. Another 
cabinet contains a "Panorama of Frankfort in 1812, by Morgenstern (pen- 
and-ink sketch). The last cabinet is devoted to modern works: on the 
right, Peter Cornelius, Holy Family; several fine landscapes. — The Anti- 
quarian Collection, including prehistoric , Roman , and Frankish anti- 
quities, is also interesting. The Doll's House of the 18th cent, is curious. 
Among the old documents is the 'Golden Bull' of 1356 (see p. 202). The 
Egyptian Collection was formed by Dr. Riippell. There is also an Ethno- 
graphical Collection. 

Adjacent is the old Leinwandhaus , or Drapers' Hall, dating 
from the 14th cent., which has recently been provided with turrets 
and pinnacles and is used for municipal offices. 

In the Fahrgasse, to the S.E. of the cathedral, is the Fursteneck 
(No. 17), a late-Gothic house, with a room on the rirst floor with 
late-Renaissance decoration (visitors admitted). At the 8. end of the 
Fahrgasse is the handsome old Bridge over the Main, constructed 

Town Library. FRANKFORT. 28. Route. 207 

in 1342. The middle of the bridge is embellished with a Statue 
of Charlemagne (PI. 15), erected in 1843. Near it is an old iron 
cross, with a still earlier figure of Christ. The presence of the cock 
which surmounts it is explained by the tradition , that a cock be- 
came the victim of a vow made by the architect , to sacrifice to the 
devil the first living being which crossed the bridge. 

On the left bank of the Main lies the suburb of Saehsenhausen 
(p. 202), said to have been founded by Charlemagne, and assigned 
by him as a residence to the conquered Saxons , from whom it 
derives its name. To the left, on the Main, is the Deutsch-Ordens- 
haus (PI. 18 ; G, 6), or House of the Teutonic Order, erected in 
1709 , and now a Roman Catholic Mission House. To the right is 
the Church of the Magi (PI. F, 6; Prot.), rebuilt from the designs 
of Denzinger. 

The quay flanked with lofty houses , which extends along the 
right bank of the river, is called the Schone Aussicht (PI. G, H, 5), 
and is traversed by the junction-railway. At the upper end of it, 
where the Ober-Main Bridge, completed in 1878, crosses the river, 
is situated the — 

Town Library (PI. 41, H 5; adm. see p. 201), built by Hess 
in 1825, with a conspicuous Corinthian portico. At the foot of 
the staircase is a marble *Statue of Ooethe, in a sitting posture, 
by P. Marehesi (1838), besides which there are numerous busts in 
marble of Frankfort celebrities. The library contains 150,000 vol- 

Behind the Library, Lange-Str. 4, is the Hospital mm Heiligen 
Geist, a model institution of its kind. Farther to the N. is the 
Rechnei- Oraben, opposite which is the Rechneigraben-Strasse 
leading to the Judenmarkt. At the N.W. corner of the market 
diverges the old and once picturesque Judenoassb (PI. G, 4), most 
of the dingy houses in which have been of late removed. 

Down to the regime of the Prince Primate (p. 202) in 1806, the Juden- 
gasse, or Jews' Street, was closed every evening, and on Sundays and 
holidays throughout the whole day, with lock and key, and no Jew might 
venture into any part of the town under a heavy penalty. In spite of 
this tyranny, many denizens of these squalid purlieus flourished, and among 
them the now enormously wealthy Rothschild family, who originally resid- 
ed at No. 148. Their offices are now in the corner-house, Fahrgasse 146 
and Bornheimer-Str. 16. 

At the end of the Judengasse stands the Synagogue (PI. 43 ; 
G, 3), erected by Kaiser in 1855-60 in the Oriental style, with a 
gilded dome and a handsome portal. The Bornheimer-Strasse 
leads hence, intersecting the Fahrgasse , to the new Market Ball 
(PI. F, 3), an iron and glass structure, 416 ft. long and 111ft. 
broad. From the Market we regain the Zeil. 

Nearly opposite the Constabler - Wache diverges the Schafer- 
gasse , in which is situated the old Pbtbe's Cemetery (PI. F, 2) 
containing the tombstone of Goethe's mother (d. 1808), to the right 
on entering, renewed in 1849, and several old monuments. In the 

208 Route 28. FRANKFORT. Hessian Monument. 

centre is the War Monument , erected in 1878 to the memory of 
the natives of Frankfort who fell in the war of 1870-71, cast in 
bronze from a model by Eckhard. 

The flight of steps at the N. end of the cemetery ascends to the 
Bleich-Strasse, in which, a little to the W., is the Senckenberg 
Institution (PI. 39; adm. see p. 201), founded in 1763 by Jo- 
hann Christian Senckenberg, a physician of Frankfort. It com- 
prises a line Natural History Collection, a Library, a Botanic Garden, 
an Anatomical Theatre, and a Hospital. 

Adjaoent, at the end of the Grossb Eschbnhbimbr Strassb, 
rises the circular Esehenheimer Thurm (PI. E, 2), erected in 
1400-27 on the site of a square tower of 1346, the only one of the 
ancient tower-gateways of the city now extant. The large house at 
the corner of the Stifts-Strasse and the Eschenheimer-Str.(No. 74), 
the residence of the Archduke John in 1848-49, when 'Regent of 
the Empire', now belongs to the Bilrgerverein, or citizens' club 
(PI. 7). On the same side, No. 26, is the Palace of the Prince of 
Thurn and Taxis (PI. 45), built in 1740, which contained the 
assembly-hall of the German Diet down to 1866. 

Around the city, with the exception of the side next the Main, 
extend pleasant, park-like *Anlagen, or promenades, adorned with 
several monuments , including those of the patriotic Bethmann 
(PI. 10), who died in 1826, Ouiollet (PI. 12) , who laid out the 
promenades , Senckenberg (PI. 17) , the founder of the hospital, 
Borne, the poet, and Kirchner, the historian. 

The Hessian Monument (PI. 14 ; G, 1), outside the Friedberger 
Thor, was erected by Frederick William II. of Prussia to the Hes- 
sians who fell on 2nd Dec, 1792, in the attack on Frankfort, then 
occupied by the French under General Custine. It consists of 
masses of rock, bearing a pillar surmounted by a helmet, sword, 
and battering-ram. 

On the opposite side of the Friedberg road is the Ariadneum, 
or Bethmann s Museum (PI. G, 1 ; adm. seep. 201), a circular build- 
ing containing the exquisite group of * Ariadne on the panther, the 
master-piece of Dannecker (d. 1841), a sculptor of Stuttgart, who 
is likewise famous for his bust of Schiller. This work was purchased 
for 20,000 fl. The building also contains a few casts. 

At the N. corner of the Esehenheimer Anlage (PI. F, 1) a 
finger-post indicates the way by the Esehenheimer Strasse (in which 
No. 57, on the left, in the Greek style, contains Vanni's exhibition 
of casts) to the (1 M.) *Cemetery, which is entered by a Doric 
colonnade and contains a number of well-executed monuments. 

The Aecades on the E. side contain the vaults of some of the prin- 
cipal families of Frankfort. Nearly in the middle of them is a relief by 
Pradier of Geneva. The last vault to the left, belonging to the v. Beth- 
mann family, contains some admirable "Beliefs by Thorvaldsen to the 
memory of a Hr. v. Bethmann who died at Florence (1813) of an illness 
caused by his exertions on the occasion of a fire at Baden near Vienna. 
The hurried presentation of an oak-wreath to the dying man in the 

Stadel Gallery. FRANKFORT. 28, Route. 209 

larger relief is an allusion to a letter of thanks written to him by the 
Emperor of Austria. The vault is closed. Custodian (50 pf.) at the 
entrance to the cemetery (right). 

On the wall, immediately adjoining this vault, is a monument to Frau 
v. Bethmann-Hollweq, with a relief in marble of the angel announcing the 
Resurrection to the women , by Launitz. Opposite is a kneeling angel, 
also by Launitz. 

On the N. side rises the Mausoleum of Elector William II. of Hessen 
(d. 1847) by Hessemer, containing a crucifix in marble by Zwerger, and two 
marble sarcophagi with life-size figures of the prince and his wife by 
Launitz. Two other monuments near it are to the memory of the soldiers 
and insurgents who fell in 1848. To the left of the main entrance is the 
tomb of the philosopher Schopenhauer (d. 1860). 

Immediately to the E. of the new cemetery is the Jewish Burial 
Ground, open daily except Saturdays. On the N. side is a large marble 
sarcophagus with Hebrew inscriptions, by Launitz, to the memory of Carl 
M. v. Rothschild (d. 1855). 

Outside the Eschenheimer Thor, near the Eschenheim road, 
is the Jrrenanstalt or lunatic asylum, a large Gothic edifice. To the 
right, nearer the town, is an Institute of Deaconesses. 

Near the Bockenheimer Thor (PI. B, C, 3), rises the magnificent 
new *0pera House, designed by Lucae (d. 1877), and opened in 
1880. The sculptures in the pediment in front are by Kaupert, 
those at the back by Bumpf, both of Frankfort. Most of the mural 
paintings in the interior were executed from cartoons by Steinle ; 
the drop-scene, representing the Prologue to Faust, is by Beer and 

On a height to the right of the Bockenheimer Landstrasse, 1 M. 
from the town, is situated the *PaIm Garden, a pleasant park con- 
veniently reached by tramway, containing extensive hot-houses. 
Concerts every afternoon and evening, adm. 1 m. The grounds in- 
clude a skating-rink (adm. 50 pf.) and a restaurant. 

In the Cornelius-Strasse, to the left of the Bockenheim road, is 
a fine *Panorama of the Battle of Sedan, nearly 400 ft. in circum- 
ference and 42 ft. high , painted by Prof. L. Braun of Munich. 
Adm., see p. 201. 

The ^Zoological Garden (PI. K, 2,3; *Restaurant), with its ex- 
tensive grounds, is situated on the Pfingstweide, on the E. side of 
the town. The tower commands a fine *View. In the ruin is a 
salt-water aquarium (50 pf.). Admission, see p. 201; tramway, 
p. 201; comp. Plan, p. 200. 

The * Stadel Art-Institute (PI. 40; C, 7), an establishment to 
which Frankfort owes its high rank in the artistic world , was 
founded by Joh. Fred. Stadel (d. 1816) , a citizen of Frankfort, 
who bequeathed his piotures and engravings , his houses , and 
1,200,00011. (100,000J.) to the town, in order to found a School 
of Art (now attended by about 200 students). The former directors 
were Veit and Passavant (d. 1861) ; the present director is Herr 
Steinle. The collection consists of pictures, engravings, drawings 
by eminent masters, and numerous casts. The handsome building 
now occupied by the collections, situated on the Sehaumain-Quai at 

Baedeker's Rhine. 8th Edit. 14 

210 Route 28. FRANKFORT. Stadel Gallery. 

Sachsenhausen, was erected ■with the surplus funds of the institu- 
tion from the designs of Oscar Sommer, and was opened in 1878. 
It consists of a large central building in the Italian Renaissance 
style, with a fine portal approached by a broad flight of steps , a 
dome, and two projecting wings. The material is gray sandstone. 
The six large reliefs above the round -arched windows are very 
effective. Admission, see p. 201 ; catalogue 1 m. 

Ground Floor. The entrance opens on an octagonal Ante-Chamber, 
which contains casts from the tomb of Maximilian I. at Innsbruck. — 
The rooms to the left of this are devoted to the Library and the collec- 
tions of Drawings and Engravings ; the latter collection, containing 30,000 
specimens, is one of the linest in Germany. — The rooms on the right 
contain Casts of ancient, mediseval, and Renaissance sculptures. In the 
first room there is also a "Terracotta Altar by Giorgio Andreoli of Gubbio 
(1511), in the last room, a "Shield of Hercules in bronze, modelled by 
L. von Schwanthaler from Hesiod's description. 

Upper Floor. From the staircase we first enter an Ante-Room con- 
taining a bust of J. Fr. Stadel, the founder of the Institute, by Zwerger, 
and a few ancient sculptures. The other rooms are occupied by the — 

""Picture Gallery, the most important municipal collection in Germany. 
The Early Italian Schools are somewhat poorly represented, but there 
are a number of good works by the Venetian masters. The best of these is 
the Four Fathers of the Church by Moretto (da Brescia, properly Alessan- 
dro Bonvicino, d. 1560). The St. Sebastian attributed to Anlonello da 
Messina is probably a copy of the picture at Berlin. — A most attractive 
work , notwithstanding its insignificant size , is the Cardinal Borgia of 
Velazquez, finely coloured and admirably individualised. — Among the 
finest works of the Early Flemish School of the 15th cent, are a Ma- 
donna by John van Eyck, the Tiburtine Sibyl showing the Emperor 
Augustus a vision of the Virgin in Heaven by Dierick Bouts, and the softly 
coloured portrait of a man by Memling. A number of later Flemish works 
have also recently been purchased by the directors. The St. Jerome be- 
fore the crucifix and the Annunciation , the latter perhaps by Gerard 
David, are works of more than mediocre value. — Among the works of 
the Early German School several by the Cologne Masters, by DUrer, and 
by the two Holbeins are conspicuous, but the genuineness of the Ftirleger 
and of the elder Durer is disputed. The Passion Scenes by the Elder 
Holbein are genuine, but harsh and repellent in style. On the other hand 
the profile of a young man with a carnation (Simon George of Cornwall) 
by the Younger Holbein is remarkable for delicacy of conception. — The 
gallery has also been much enriched of late years by the purchase of 
works of the Dutch School of the 17th cent., the merits of which have 
recently begun to be duly appreciated. The most valuable of these is 
Rembrandt's Parable of the labourers in the vineyard , painted in 1656, 
and purchased from the King of Holland's collection. The picture 
at first sight presents a monotonous appearance, but on closer inspection 
we observe that the master has most skilfully relieved the prevailing 
yellow tone with shades of brown and gray, delicately blended with 
red. Frans Hals of Haarlem, the greatest of the other Dutch masters, 
is admirably represented by a large portrait of a lady and the busts of 
a young married couple. — Most conspicuous among the Modern Pictures 
in the Stadel Gallery are numerous works of the older Dusseldorf School, 
and of the so-called 'Nazarenes', of whom Overbed at Rome was the chief. 
That master's large picture representing the Triumph of Religion in the 
Arts, which would have been more suitable as a mural painting, forms 
an excellent exponent of the views of his school. Though executed but 
a few decades ago, many of these works are almost more foreign to mod- 
ern taste in their style and touch than the pictures of the old Dutch 
masters. Not only do the works of Olivier, Ramboux, Pforr, Passavanl, 
and the earlier Diisseldorf masters present a most primitive style of 

Stadel Gallery. 


26\ Route. 21 1 

execution, but their subjects are of a character which is now but little 
appreciated. There is also a marked difference between the various 
schools in their colouring, as for example in the treatment of the red 
used by Lessing in Ms Council of Constance, as contrasted with that used 
by the Belgian painter Gallait, and particularly that used by Velazquez. 

Room I. Netherlandish Masters of the 17th century. To the left of 
the door: 193. Aart de Gelder, The artist painting a woman; 256, 258. Aart 
van der Neer, Moonlight scenes; 182. Rembrandt, Portrait of a lady (1635); 
'181. Rembrandt, Parable of the Labourers in the vineyard (1656); "175. 
Frans Hals, Portrait of a lady; 143. Van Dyck , Young man; 153. Dav. 
Tenters, The smoker; 131. Rubens, Child in a small chair; "217. Pieter de 
Hooch, Interior; "173, "174. Frans Hals, A Dutchman (1638) and his wife; 
269. /. Ruisdael, Brook after a thunder-storm; 260, 261. Everdingen, Storm, 
Mill ; 127. Rubens, King David playing on the harp ; 290. Hobbema, Margin 
of a forest. 

Room II. Italian and Spanish Masters. To the left: "44. Moretto, Ma- 
donna enthroned, with SS. Anthony and Sebastian; 30. Sassoferrato, Girl 
praying; 49. P. Veronese O), Mars and Venus; 11. Sandro Botticelli, Por- 
trait ('a tempera') ; Velazquez, "57. Cardinal Gaspar Borgia , 58. The In- 
fanta Maria Marg. Theresa, daughter of Philip IV. and consort of Emp. 




Modern Masters 



Bunt of 
v StSdol y 







Netherlands Masters, 





Leopold I.; 1. Barnaba da Mcdena , Madonna ('a tempera'); 39. Cima da 
Conegliano, Madonna; 59. Spagnoletto, Susannah; 41. Early Copy from 
Giorgione, Portrait of Giorgione as St. Maurice; "35. Giov. Bellini, Madonna 
and Child, with John the Baptist and St. Elisabeth ; '44. Moretto, Madonna 
with the four Latin Church Fathers, SS. Gregory, Jerome, Ambrose, and 
Avigustine (originally in S. Carlo al Corso in Rome); 16. Perugino, Madonna; 
42. Seb. del Piombo', Portrait of one of the Medici; 19. Macrino d'Alba, 
Triptych for an altar, Madonna, with SS. Joachim and Anna on the left, 
and St. Joachim teaching a child on the right ('a tempera'); 32. An- 
lonello da Messina, St. Sebastian; 9. F. Pesellino, Virgin and Child; 7. 
Giov. da Fiesole, Madonna enthroned ('a tempera'); 12. Sandro Botticelli, 
Madonna ('a tempera'); "29. Guido Reni, Christ scourged ; 26. Innocenzo da 
Imola, Assumption; 18. Mantegna, St. Mark ('a tempera'). 

Room III. (to the left of Room II.). Later Italian and French Masters. 
61, 52. Canaletto, Palace of the Doges at Venice. 

Room IV. (to the right of Room II.). Earlier Flemish and German 
Masters. To the left: 62, 63. School of Cologne (ascribed to Stephan Loch- 
ner, p. 25), Martyrdom of the Apostles (twelve scenes) ; 101. Roger van der 
Weyden, Three sections of an altar-piece of St. John ; 102-106. School of 
R. van der Weyden, Trinity (in grisaille), St. Veronica, Madonna and Child, 
The Malefactors crucified with Christ, Crucifixion; 99. Petrtis Cristus (a 
pupil of Hubert van Eyck), 'Madonna of Lucca', so-called from the Duke 
of Lucca, its former proprietor (the date, 1447, erroneously changed to 1417) ; 
73. Hans Baldung Grien, Heavenly and earthly love ; 110. Gerard David, An- 


21*2 Route 28. FRANKFORT. Stfidel Gallery. 

nunciation ; "71. Holbein the Younger, Simon George-of Cornwall ; 97. Dierick 
Bouts, The Sibyl foretelling the birth of Christ to the Emp. Augustus. 

The following five cabinets contain Netherlandish and German works 
of the 16th and 17th centuries. The enumeration in each begins to the 
right of the door. Cab. V. : 64, 65, 66. H. Holbein the Elder, Scenes of 
the Passion; 115. Netherlandish School (beginning of the 16th cent.), 
Entombment; 93. Master of the Death of the Virgin (Jan Joest), Pieta, 
St. Veronica, Joseph of Arimathsea (a triptych). — Cab. VI. : 67, 68, 69, 70. 
Holbein the Elder, Passion Scenes; 84. Diirer, Portrait of his father (forged 
inscription); 107. H. Memling, Portrait; 88. L. Cranach the Elder, Nude 
woman with a veil; 113. Quinten Massys, Portrait; 108. Memling, St. 
Jerome before a crucifix ; 72. Holbein the Younger (?), Man with a sick 
child. — Cab. VII.: 209, 210. C. Bega, Women conversing, Peasants; 204. 
Oerard Terburg, Woman drinking wine; 177. School of Frans Hals, Por- 
trait ; 310. Ph. Wouwerman , Cavalier at the door of a tavern (purchased 
for 770J.). — Cab. VIII. : 206. Oer. Dou, Girl with a candle preparing 
supper (513!.); A. Elshaimer, 337. Paul and Barnabas at Lystra, 338. 
Landscape with Bacchus and nymphs ; 284. W. van de Velde, Sea-piece ; 
147, 148. A. Brouwer, Operations on peasants ; 215. Jan Steen, Man jesting 
with a girl. — We now traverse Cab. IX., and reach — 

Boom X., the copying-room, which contains a bust of Prof. J. Becker, 
by Kaupert. 

The following five cabinets contain examples of Flemish and Dutch 
masters of the 17th and 18th cent., and of the cognate Frankfort paint- 
ers of the same period. Cab. XI.: 213. Jan Weenix, Tinker. — Cab. XIII. : 
232. Mieris, Old woman with a flask ; 373, 374. Seekatz (p. 221), Boy and 
girl by candle-light. — Cab. XIV.: 398, 399. Tischbein, Portraits; 375. Seekatz, 

Room XVI. is devoted to modern German masters from 1810 to 1840. 
To the left of the door: 423. Fohr, Cascades at Tivoli; 415. Ramboux, Ca- 
puchin preaching in the Colosseum at Rome. To the right of the door: 
411. Passavant, St. Hubert; 409. Olivier, Pilgrims in the desert; 412. Pforr, 
Rudolf of Hapsburg presenting his horse to the priest ; 422. Schnorr von 
Carolsfeld, The Good Samaritan; 404. J. A. Koch, Noah after the Flood. — 
: "413. Overbeck, The Triumph of Religion in the Arts (1840). One of its 
chief points of interest is its wealth of allusion, to understand which the 
visitor should consult the catalogue." 

Room XVII. The whole of the farther wall is occupied by a large 
'Fresco by Philip Veit (No. 416) , representing the 'Introduction of the 
Arts into Germany', with figures of 'Italia' and 'Germania' on thrones. 
This work, the masterpiece of the painter, completed in 1836, was skil- 
fully sawn out of the wall in the old building and transferred hither. — 
The room also contains ten Biblical cartoons (Nos. 503-512) by Sleinle. 

Boom XVIII. "414. W. Schadoa , The Wise and Foolish Virgins. * 
We now retrace our steps through Room XVII., and enter — 

Room XIX., the principal room of modern works. To the left of the 
door: 444. E. Steinle, The Tiburtine Sibyl; *453. A. Achenbach , Storm at 
sea ; '437. C. F. Lessing , John Huss at the Council of Constance, 11 ft. 
high, 14 ft. long, one of the most celebrated works of the Diisseldorf 
school; 442. A. Zimmermann, Mountain - torrent after a thunderstorm; 
439, 440. Lessing, Woodland scenes; 448. Pose, Schloss Eltz (p. 172); 438. 
Lessing, Ezzelino in prison, refusing spiritual consolation and resolv- 
ing to die of hunger; !! 430. M. v. Schwind, Contest of singers at the 
Wartburg, a replica in oils of his fresco at the Wartburg; 461. H. Leys, 
Scene in front of a Dutch inn ; 450. C. Morgenstern, Italian coast-scene ; 
"447. J. Becker, Shepherd struck by lightning ; 419. Ph. Veit, Eepose on 
the Flight, into Egypt; 456. 6. Saal, Hardanger-Fjord by evening-light; 
405. Koch, Landscape, with the rape of Hylas by nymphs, perhaps Koch's 
best work; 431. M. von Schwind, Dance of elves; 433. J. Hiibner, Job and 
his friends ; 463. A. Calame, Alpine scene ; 436. H. Funk, Ruin on a lake 
by morning light; 460. Gallail, Abdication of Charles V., a small replica 
of the large picture at Brussels ; 441. Lessing, Centenarian oak ; 454. A. 
Rethel, Daniel in the den of lions. 

GERNSHEIM. 28. Route. 213 

Room XX. 472-481. Ramboux . Ten coloured sketches from Dante; 
471. Overbeck, Joseph sold, and 482. Ph. Veit , The seven years of plenty, 
two cartoons of the famous frescoes in the Casa Bartholdy at Rome. The 
remainder of this room, and Rooms XXI., XXII. contain a selection 
(changed weekly) of engravings and drawings , including drawings and 
coloured sketches of Raphael's frescoes in the Vatican. Room XXI. also 
contains the design for VeiCs ceiling - painting of the 'Shield of Achilles' 
as described by Homer, in one of the rooms in the old building. 

Room XXIII. 485-495. Schnorr, Cartoons for the frescoes in the Villa 
Massimi at Rome -, 470. Cornelius, Last Judgment, coloured sketch for the 
picture at Munich. 

From Fkankfobt to Mayence (HessischeLudwigsbahn), 22'/2 M. , 
in 3 / 4 -l hr. (fares 2 m. 95, 1 m. 95, 1 m. 30 pf . ; express 3 m. 25, 
2 in. 45. 1 m. 30 pf.). — The train starts from the Main-Neckar 
station (p. 200), crosses the Main, and joins the line from Sachsen- 
hausen near (% l fa M.) Niederrad. It runs at first through wood, hut 
afterwards affords a view of the Taunus to the right. The inter- 
mediate stations, all of which express trains pass without stop- 
ping, are Goldstein (see below); 7 M. Schwanheim; 9 M. Kelster- 
bach ; 14 M. Raunheim; 16 M. Russelsheim; I8V2 M. Bischofsheim 
(p. 224). The train then crosses the bridge mentioned at p. 146, 
and reaches Mayence (p. 136). 

In addition to the Main-Neckar Railway described in R. 30, 
Frankfort is connected with Mannheim by the 'Riedbahn', one of 
the lines of the Hessische Ludwigsbahn (50 M., in l 8 /^ 1 ^ hrs. ; 
fares 6 m. 25, 4 m. 15, 2 m. 70 pf.). From Frankfort to Niederrad, 
see above. 4 M. Goldstein; 9 M. Walldorf; 11 M. Morfelden. From 
(17 M.) Dornberg a branch-line diverges to Grossgerau (p. 224). 
19 M. Dornheim; 20'/2 M. Leeheim-Wolfskehlen. 22 M. Goddelau- 
Erfelden is the junction for the Darmstadt and "Worms railway 
(p. 224), which coincides with the Mannheim line as far as Biblis 
(see below). 23 Y2 M. Stockstadt, on the Rhine; 26 M. Biebes- 
heim. 28 M. Geriisheim (Karpfen ; Weisses Ross), a small and busy 
town on the Rhine, mentioned in history as early as 773 and de- 
stroyed by Me'lac in 1689. It contains a monument to Peter 
Schoffer, one of the inventors of printing, who was born here. 
33 M. Biblis, where the line to Rosengarten and Worms diverges 
to the ri-,ht (p. 224); 36 M. Burstadt, the junction of the Bens- 
heim and Worms railway (p. 228). At (40 M.) Lampertheim the 
Riedbahn divides , the right branch leading by Waldhof to the 
(48 M.) Neckar suburb of Mannheim, while the left passes Wald- 
hof and Kaferthal and leads to the central station at Mannheim 
(p. 240). 

29. The Taunus. 

The name Taunus, in the wider sense, applies to the whole of the 
mountainous region between the Main , the Rhine, and the Lahn , but is 
usually restricted to the southern mountains of that district, sloping down 
to the Main and Rhine, and extending from Nauheim on the E. to Ass- 
mannshausen on the W. The highest points of this range are the Great 
Feldberg (2900 ft.), the Little Feldberg (2713 ft,), and the AWconig (2386 ft.). 

One and a half or two days suffice for a glimpse at the most inter- 
esting spots in this district : Railway to Homburg, where the night is spent, 
50 minutes. Next morning by an early train to Oberursel and thence to 
the lop of the Feldberg 3 hrs., or from Homburg to the Feldberg direct, 
also in 3 hrs. ; descent to Konigstein i l /j hr. ; thence by Falkenstein to Cron- 
berg l 1 /? hr. 5 or by the Rossert to Eppstein in 2'/2 hrs., at either of which 
the railway is again reached. 

a. Taunus Bailway from Frankfort to Castel (Mayence) and 

Railwat to Castel (20>/ 2 M.) in 3/ 4 -l hr. ; fares 2 m. 80, 1 m. 90, 1 m. 
20 pfc, express, 3 m. 10, 2 m. 30 pf. (fares to Mayence, including the 
steamer across the river, 2 m. 95, 1 m. 95, 1 m. 30 pf., or 3 m. 25, 2 m. 
45 pf. ; see below). To Wiesbaden (26 M.) in I-I1/2 hr. (fares 3 m. 40, 
2 ra. 30, 1 m. 50 pf. ; express 3 m. 80, 2 m. 90 pf.). 

The Taunus Railway, one of the oldest in Germany, was opened 
in 1839. Leaving the town, the train passes the Gallenwarte on the 
left, and Bockenheim on the right. The Homburg line diverges to 
the right (p. 215). The Nidda is now crossed, and the train reaches — 

51/2 M. Hochst (290 ft.; Frankfurter Hof ; Goldner Adler ; 
Landsberg, at the station), a thriving little town, with 4000 inhah., 
and possessing an interesting church of St. Justinus , erected in 
1090, with a Gothic choir added in 1443. A palace of the Eledtors 
of Mayence here was destroyed by the Frankforters in 1634, but 
the handsome tower is still standing. 

From Hochst to Soden , see p. 217. — From Hochst to Hofheim, Epp- 
stein, and Limburg, see p. 219. 

91/2 M. Hattersheim. A good view to the N. is obtained of the 
principal peaks of the Taunus Mountains. The white Hofheimer 
Chapel (p. 219), on the hill-side, is also conspicuous. 

At (1372 M.) Florsheim (Hirsch), a village on the Main, omni- 
buses and carriages are in waiting to convey travellers to the 
(ii/ 2 M.) baths of Weilbach (sulphur-springs), with its Curhaus and 
pleasant grounds. The village of Weilbach lies about 1 M. to the N. 
of the baths. Pleasing view from the '■KanzeV (pulpit), a hill with 
four trees, '/ 2 M. above Diedenbergen, and 3 M. to the N. of Weil- 

17!/oM. Hochheim (407 ft.; *Schwan), a small town, celebrated 
for its wines. The most esteemed is yielded by the vineyards of 
the old Domdechanei (deanery) , now a shooting-box of the Duke 
of Nassau. The sparkling 'Hock made at Hochheim, whence the 
name, is much prized, and is chiefly exported to England. 

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Taunus. HOMBURG. 29. Route. 215 

the tete-de-pont of Mayence on the E. bank of the Rhine, the line 
intersects the fortifications. The station is near the bridge. 

Steamboats from Caste] to Mayence start close to the station; see 
p. 136. Cab to Mayence (preferable for travellers continuing their journey 
at once by steamer), one-horse, 1-2 pers. 1 m., 3-4 pers. 1 m. 40 pf. ; two- 
horse, 1 m. 40 or 1 m. 80 pf. ; each box 20 pf. ; bridge-toll included. 

From Castel to Wiesbaden. The train again intersects the 
fortifications of Castel. 24 M. Curve, where the through-carriages 
to the Rheingau are detached (p. 128), and which is connected by 
a short branch-line with Biebrich (p. 121). In 8 min. after leaving 
Curve the train arrives at (26 M.) Wiesbaden, see p. 130. 

b. From Frankfort to Homburg and Cronberg. 

Railway to ffomburg, 11 M., in 30-50 min. (fares 1 m. 80, 1 m., 60 pf.); 
to Cronberg, 9Vii M., in 30-40 min. (fares 1 m. 30, 90, 50 pf.). — The trains 
start from the Main-Weser Station. 

Soon after quitting the town the train diverges from the Taunus 
line (p. 214) and crosses the Nidda. 3 M. Rbdelheim, junction of 
the Cronberg line (p. 217); 7 M. Weiskirchen. 9 M. Oberursel 
(Schiitzenhof ; Bar), a very old town, is much visited by the Frank- 
furters in summer , and possesses a Gothic church consecrated in 
1481. (Ascent of the Feldberg from Oberursel, see p. 219.) 

11 M. Homburg. — Hotels. * Vier Jahreszeiten, Russischer Hof, 
'Victoria, "Beli.evue, "Hessischer Hof, Ecropaisoher Hof, Rheinischer 
Hof, well spoken of, R. at these from l'/2, D- at 1 o'clock 2 l /4-3 , /2 m. ; Ho- 
tel be France; Hotel Windsor, new; Englischer Hof; *Adler, Eiskn- 
bahn-Hotel (at the station), and Goldenk Rose (unpretending), convenient 
for a single night. 

Restaurant at the 'Curhaus, D. at 1 o'clock 3, at 5 o'clock 4 m. — 
Beer. Ooldene Rose; Sauer, in the main street; Kladderadatsch, opposite 
the Cursaal. 

Music in summer, 7-9 a.m. , by the Elisabeth-Brunnen; at 3 p.m. on 
the terrace of the Curhaus. Also a theatre, concerts, and balls. 

Tax for persons staying more than five days: 1 pers. 12 m., 2 pers. 
18 m., 3-4 pers. 24 m., for a larger party 30 m. 

Carriage with one horse from the station to the town , 1-2 pers. 60, 
3-4 pers. 80 pf., box 20 pf. ; within the town, including the mineral 
spring, the park, and the Ferdinands-Anlage, for 'A hr. , 80 pf. or 1 in. 
20 pf. ; outside the town , for y 2 hr. ■> 1 m. 20 or 1 m. 70 pf. (with two 
horses 2m. 60 pf.); to Cronberg with one horse 9, with two horses 12 m., 
to Konigstein or Soden 10'/2 or 13'/2 m. ; to Saalburg 6 or 8 m. 

Homburg vor der Hon , a town with about 8000 inhab., situated 
on a spur of the Taunus Mts. , the residence of the Landgraves of 
Hessen-Homburg, a collateral line of the grand-ducal family of Hes- 
sen, from 1662 to 1866, when this branch of the family became ex- 
tinct, is one of the most popular watering-places in the Rhine-land 
(11,000 visitors annually). In the Louisen-Strasse, the main street, 
which runs to the N.W. of the station , are situated the principal 
hotels, the theatre, and the Curhaus. 

The Curhaus , the chief rendezvous of visitors, built in 1840 
and extended in 1863 , contains a number of very handsome apart- 
ments, a well-supplied reading-room, and the 'Saalburg Museum' 
(adm. 50pf.), a collection of antiquities found on the Saalburg (see 

216 Route 29. SAALBURG. Taunus. 

below). A terrace on the N. side, partly covered, with glass, is a 
favourite resort in fine weather, and the corridors of the ground- 
floor afford a sheltered promenade during rain. The large adjacent 
Bath House contains baths of every kind. 

At the back of the Curhaus, to the N.E., extend beautiful 
*Pleasure Grounds, in which , to the right (E.), we observe the 
sparkling chalybeate and saline Sphings (chiefly prescribed for 
bowel-complaints), 3/ 4 M. from the Curhaus. The chief of these is 
the Elisabeth - Brunnen , farthest to theE., the water of which, 
containing more salt than the Rakoczy mineral water at Kissingen, 
is exported in considerable quantity. Near the adjoining 'Trink- 
halle' are well-kept flower-beds , a palm-house , and an orangery. 
The Stahlbrunnen and the LouisenqueUe are less saline than the 
Elisabethbrunnen, but are much richer in iron, especially the first- 
named. The Kaiserbrunnen and the Ludwigsbrunnen are used 
chiefly for bathing. 

At the W. end of the town (ascend the main street and turn to 
the left) rises the Schloss, which formerly belonged to the land- 
graves. It was erected at the beginning of the 18th cent. , and has 
been recently fitted up for the use of the Emperor and Crown- 
prince of Germany. The Weisse Thurm, which rises in the court at 
the back to a height of 188 ft., commands an extensive view (fee 
50 pf.). Above a gateway here is the front half of an equestrian 
statue, and opposite to it a bust of Prince Frederick, who, under the 
leadership of the Great Elector, decided the victory of the Bran- 
denburgers over the Swedes at Fehrbellin in 1675 by the spirited 
charge of his cavalry. The Palace Garden (open to the public) con- 
tains an orangery, some fine old cedars, and a fish-pond. 

Walks. Besides the pleasure-grounds above mentioned, the traveller 
may also visit the Hard or Hariwald, adjoining the Curhaus grounds ; the 
Qrosse Tannenwald, l /t hr. to the N.W. of Homburg, and the Kleine Tan- 
nenwald , 20 min. to the W. ; the Luthereiche , '/j hr. beyond the Grosse 
Tannenwald; the Wildpark, 1 /t hr. from the Grosse Tannenwald, with 
its numerous deer; the Holltiein; the Rabenstein, etc. 

Archaeologists should visit the Saalburg, the remains of the walls of 
a Roman castle, brought to light by excavation, situated on a wooded 
height of the Taunus, l»/4 hr. to the N. of Homburg , 1340 ft. above the 
sea-level, and a few hundred paces to the left of the Usingen road. Walk- 
ers should follow the Elisabethenschneisse and the Lindenweg (also call- 
ed the KaiBer Wilhelmsweg; comp. Map of the Taunus). The Saalburg 
formed one of the forts belonging to the Pfahlgraben . an extensive line 
of intrenchments constructed to protect the Roman provinces against the 
warlike Germans, which extended from Ratisbon past Lorch and Aschaffen- 
burg to the Vogelberg, then turned S.W. to the Saalburg, and finally 
stretched northwards to Ems and Niederbiber (p. 63). — The Saalburg is 
the largest, so far as is known, of the forts on the Pfahlgraben, measur- 
ing 720 by 480 Roman feet, and was probably founded by Drusus in the 
year A.D. 10, during his campaign against the Chatti. After the battle of 
the Teutoburgian Forest the fort was destroyed, but Germanicus recon- 
structed it in A.D. 15, and it was afterwards frequently altered. The 
antiquities found here are preserved in the Homburg Curhaus. The Pfahl- 
graben itself is distinctly recognisable at a point about 300 yds. to the N. 
of the Saalburg, reached by following the alley cut through the wood. 

Taunus. SODEN. 29. Route. 217 

Another fort has been partly excavated near KUppern , about 6 M. to the 
E. of the Saalburg. Tavern at the forester's house. 
Ascent of the Oroise Feldberg, see p. 219. 

The Cronbebg Railway diverges from the Homburg line at 
Rodelheim (p. 215). Stations (5i/ 2 M. from Frankfort) Eschbotn 
and (7 M.) Nieder-Hochstadt. 

9'/ 2 M. Cronberg (^Frankfurter Hof, with good paintings by 
Frankfort artists in the dining-room ; *Schutzenhof, both at the lower 
end of the town, with gardens and views ; Hahn's Restaurant, at 
the station; Oermania, restaurant in the upper part of the town, 
on the road to Konigstein), a small town with 2500 inhab. , is 
picturesquely situated on a hill, surrounded by productive gardens, 
and commanded by Schloss Cronberg, with its conspicuous and lofty 
tower. This castle was built in the 13th cent, by the Counts of 
Cronberg, who resided here down to 1704, when the family became 
extinct. Part of it is still occupied. The old chapel contains tomb- 
stones of the 14th cent. ; the windows of the tower (132 steps, 
fatiguing) command a beautiful view. Cronberg is a favourite sum- 
mer-resort of the citizens of Frankfort, including quite a colony of 
artists, who possess a number of pleasant villas in the environs, 
and, like Konigstein, it is also well adapted as head-quarters for 
excursions into the Taunus region. — To Falkenstein 2M. ; to Ko- 
nigstein also 2 M. (omnibus ; see below). 

c. From Frankfort to Soden. Konigstein. Falkenstein. 
Great Feldberg. 

Railway to Soden, 10 M., in >/* hr - > fare s 1 m- 30, 90, 50 pf. 

From Frankfort to Hochst, see p. 214. — Thence by a short 
branch-line to — 

Soden. — Hotels. "Curhaos; "Eukopaischer Hof; s H6tel Col- 
loseus, K. 2-2'/2, D. 2-2'/2 m. ; "Frankfurter Hof, quiet; "Hollan- 
discher Hof, small; 'Hotel Uhrig, with restaurant. — Beer at P/aff's. 

Carriage per hour 3 m., to Konigstein 8 1 /!, to Cronberg 4>/s, to the top 
of the Feldberg 20 m. 

Visitors' Tax for 1 pers. 12, for 2 pers. 18, for 3-4 pers. 24 m. 

/Soden(460ft.)., a small town with 1500inhab.,liesat thefootof 
the Taunus Mts. in the sheltered valley of the Sulzbach. On the 
Konigstein road, which intersects the-town from S.E. to N.W., are 
most of the hotels, the post-office, and the pleasant Curpark, with the 
Curhaus and the New Bath House, admirably fitted up. The baths 
are visited by about 2500 patients annually. The Springs, twenty- 
three in number, and varying in temperature from 52° to 81° Fahr. , 
contain salt, iron, and carbonic acid gas, and are chiefly prescribed 
for nervous complaints and derangement of the mucous membrane. 
They are used both for drinking and bathing, and rise in different 
parts of the valley. The M ilehbrunnen, Warmbrunnen, Soolbrunnen, 
and Champagner-Brunnen, which are chiefly used for drinking, rise 
in the so-called Haupt-Strasse, near the old Bath House. 

218 Route 29. GREAT FELDBERG. Taunus. 

Walks. To the Drei Linden, a good point of view, 20 min. to the 
N., near Neuenhain (see below); to the Altenhainer Thai, Vs ur - to the 
N.W. ; to the village of Snlzbach; to the Sodener Waldchen, etc. 

From Soden to Ceonbekg, 3 SI. — The road diverges to the W., at 
the lower end of the Curpark. About '/< M. from Soden there is a finger- 
post indicating the footpath and the carriage-road to Cronthal , which 
possesses two saline springs (water exported), and to Cronberg. 

From Soden to Konigstein, 3 M. (post-omnibus 2-3 times 
daily). The road ascends gradually, and passes (1 M.) Neuenhain, 
where there is another chalybeate spring used for sanatory purposes. 

Konigstein. — Hotels. Zur Post, or Lowe, with a large garden, 
omnibus to Cronberg 70 pf. ; *Stadt Amsterdam, also with a garden; 
"Hirsch, unpretending. — Hydropathic Establishment of Dr. Pingler. — 
Baths and pension at the Hainbad. 

Konigstein (1190 ft. J, a picturesquely-situated little town with 
1500 inhab., and a number of pleasant villas in the environs, is 
one of the most popular resorts in the Taunus region. To the W. 
of the town rise the imposing ruins of the Castle of Konigstein 
(1490 ft.), which was destroyed by the French in 1796. This 
stronghold is mentioned in history for the first time in 1225 ; in 
1581 it came into the possession of the Electors of Mayence, whose 
armorial bearings are still to be seen over the entrance ; in 1792 it 
was captured by the French, and in 1793 by the Prussians. The 
vaults and casemates are still partly preserved. Fine view, especially 
from the tower, the custodian of which lives in the town. 

From Konigstein to Eppstein, 5 M., by a road turning to the 
right (W.) at the lower end of the town, see p. 220. 

The wooded hill to the N.E. of Konigstein is crowned with the 
ruin of Burg Falkenstein (1490 ft.), the path to which (35 min.) 
is indicated by a finger-post at the lower end of the town. This 
castle, the ancestral seat of the powerful Archbishop Kuno of Treves, 
was erected in the 14th cent, on the site of the ancient fortress 
of Nuring, and was destroyed in 1688. *View from the tower, 
a key of which is kept at Konigstein, and another at the village 
of Falkenstein (Inn 'Zur Schonen Aussicht'), on the S. side of the 
hill. Adjoining the village is the Curanstalt Falkenstein (1310 ft. ; 
R. for a week or upwards l-9'/2 m - P er day, board 6 in. per day), 
to which an omnibus plies regularly from (2 M.) Cronberg. 

The highest point of the Taunus Mts. is the *Great Feldberg 
(2900 ft.), the top of which consists of quartzose rock, while the 
slopes are composed of clay-slate. The whole mountain, except the 
flat grassy plateau on the summit, is clothed with beautiful woods. 
The *Feldberghaus, an unpretending inn at the top (R. 1 m. 20 to 
lm. 70pf., D. at 12.30p.m. lm. 75pf., 'pension' A i / 2 m. ; ascent 
of the tower 20 pf.), commands an admirable panorama in clear 
weather (see Ravenstein's panorama in the dining-room ; also some 
good pictures by Frankfort painters). The block of quartz, 12ft. in 
height, near the inn, is mentioned in a document as early as 812, 
where it is called the Brunhildenbett. 

Taunus. EPPSTEIN. 29. Route. 219 

To the S. of the Feldherg rises the Altkonig (2386 ft. ; ascent 
more fatiguing). The summit is enclosed by a double girdle of 
loose stones, with a rectangular outer rampart on the "W. side, 
which were probably thrown up by the aboriginal inhabitants of 
the Main Valley so as to form a place of defence in time of war. 

Ascent of the Feldbebg fkom K6nigstein, 3 hrs. (carriage 12 m. ; 
guide unnecessary , 1 m. 70 pf.). We ascend the Frankfort and Lim- 
burg road as far as (i 3 /t M.) a finger-post, which indicates the road to 
the right to Reiffenberg and the Feldberg; this road passes the Seelen- 
born , and reaches the (13/4 M.) so-called Rothe Kreuz (finger-post), 
where the Feldberg road diverges to the right. About 1 M. farther we 
reach the saddle between the Great and the Little Feldberg, where our 
route joins the road from the Fuchstanz (see below). In l /\ hr. more we 
reach the top. 

From Falkenstein (2 hrs.). A broad road ascends gradually from 
the upper part of the village in 1 hr. to the Fuchstanz, an open space 
in the wood, where several paths meet, and whence the top is reached 
in 1 hr. more .(finger-post). We may avoid the long circuit made by 
the road by following the path to the left at the church of Falken- 
stein, which ascends the course of the Reichenbach and then joins the 
footpath to the Fuchstanz (not easy to find without a guide). — [The 
path to the Altkonig diverges from the Feldberg path about 20 min. 
before the latter reaches the Fuchstanz.] 

From Oberuhsel, (3 hrs.). Leaving the station (p. 215), we pass 
through the village and follow the road ascending on the left bank of 
the brook. Beyond the (l'/z hr.) Hohe Mark spinning-mill, we quit the 
road at the finger-post inscribed 'Feldberg iiber den Buchborn% whence 
the ridge is reached in 40 minutes. We then follow the Pfahlgraben, 
passing the Stockborn, a Roman tower, after '/a hr., and attaining the top 
in V2 hr. more. 

From Homborg (3 hrs). Leaving the W. exit of the Schlossgarten 
we follow the poplar avenue and the ' Elisabethenschneise' (a cutting in 
the wood) in a straight direction. At the top of the hill called the t Sand- 
placken' (2'/4 hrs.) a finger-post indicates the way to the Feldberg to the 
left. [A finer route, but less easy to trace, leaves the Schlossgarten about 
V4 M. from the exit, diverging to the left on this side of the bridge, and 
ascending via. the Frankfurter Forslhaus.] 

d. From Frankfort to Eppstein and Limburg. 

46>/ 2 M. Railway in 2'/ 2 hrs. (fares 6 m. 80, 4 m. 70, 2 m. 70 pf.). 

The train starts from the Ost-Bahnhof, stopping at the (2'/.2M.) 
Fahrthor Station (comp. p. 200). 6 M. Griesheim, 9 M. Hochst, see 
p. 214. The line now describes a curve and crosses the Taunus 
railway. I21/2 M. Kriftel. 

14 M. Hofheim (* Krone; Hydropathic Establishment of Frau 
Ripps, 'pens'. 40-60 m. per week), a pleasant village at the entrance 
to the Lorsbacher Thai, a grassy valley, enclosed by wooded slopes 
and watered by the Schwarzbach. The lofty *Hofheimer Capelle 
(750 ft.), reached by the new promenades in about y 2 hr., af- 
fords an admirable survey of the extensive valley of the Main, the 
Taunus Mountains , the Bergstrasse , and the mountains of the 

The line ascends the Lorsbacher Thai, and crosses the Schwarz- 
bach several times. 16 M. Lorsbach (Taunus Inn), a prettily-situat- 
ed village. — 18'/ 2 M. Eppstein (605 ft. ; Hotel Seller, at the station ; 

220 Route 30. DARMSTADT. From Frankfort 

*Zur Oelmuhle , outside the village , on the road to Konigstein, 
high charges ; Zum Taunus, in the village, well spoken of), an 
ancient little town with scarcely 800 inhabitants. On a precipi- 
tous rock above the place rises the picturesque Castle of the same 
name, mentioned in history as early as 1120, the ancestral seat 
of a celebrated family , five members of which were archbishops 
and electors of Mayence between 1060 and 1305. It is now the 
property of Count Stolberg. The Protestant church contains several 
tombstones of the old family, -which became extinct in 1535. A 
good *View of the castle is obtained from the hill opposite to it, 
to the S., reached by the 'Kriegerweg'. 

The "Rossert (1700 ft.), which is easily ascended from Eppstein in 
1 hr. by a path turning to the left just beyond the 'Oelmuhle' (but from 
Fischbach very steep), commands a fine view of the valleys of the Rhine 
and Main. From the Rossert to Konigstein l'/« hr. — The view from the 
Stavfen (1489 ft.), 3 A hr. to the E., is partly intercepted by underwood. 

Immediately below Eppstein the Konigstein road diverges to the 
N.E. from the Lorsbach valley, ascending the Fischbachthal to (i 3 /t M.) 
Fischbach. It then traverses a lofty plateau to (2 1 /* M.) Schneidhain, and 
ascends thence to (lVa M.) Konigstein (p. 218). 

Just beyond Eppstein the train passes through a tunnel. — 
23 M. Niedernhausen , whence a branch-line, opened in 1879, 
diverges to Auring-Mederibach, Igstadt, Erbenheim, and Wiesbaden 
(p. 130). — 28 M. Idstein (Lamm, well spoken of; Merz), a small 
town of 2500 inhab., with many old houses, was formerly the 
residence of a collateral branch of the Nassau family ; the chateau 
dates from the 16th cent., the church, richly adorned with marble, 
from 1667. — 31 M. Wbrsdorf; 34 M. Camberg. — 361/2 M. Nieder- 
selters (Caspari), formerly belonging to the Electorate of Treves, 
has been celebrated since the 16th cent, for its mineral waters, in 
which carbonate of soda and salt are agreeably blended, and widely 
known under the erroneous name of 'Seltzer Water'. The build- 
ings of the spring are near the station. From 3'/2 to 4 million 
bottles are annually exported. 39 M. Oberbrechen, with large marble 
quarries ; 40 M. Niederbrechen. 46!/ 2 M - LimMrg, on the Lahn, 
see p. 197. 

30. From Frankfort to Heidelberg and Mannheim. 

Railway (station, see p. 200) to Darmstadt (17 M.) in 1/2- 3 /* hr - (fares 
1 m. 90, 1 m. 25, 85 pf.; express fares 2 m. 30, 1 m. 55, 1 m. 10 pf.). 
From Darmstadt to Heidelberg or Mannheim, 38 M., in l>/4-2 hrs. (fares 
4 m. 25, 2 m. 80, 1 m. 85 pf. ; express fares 5 m. 10, 3 m. 40, 2 m. 45 pf.). 
Seats on the left (E.) side of the train should be selected for the view. 

From Frankfort to Mannheim by the ' Riedbahn 1 ', see p. 213. 

The country between Frankfort and Darmstadt is unattractive. 

17 M. Darmstadt (see Plan, p. 226). — Hotels. "Tbaube (PI. a; 
C, 3), R. & A. 2, B. 1 m.; "Darmstadtek Hof (PI. b; B, 3), K. & L. 3 m.; 
"Railway Hotel, at the Hessian Station, R. 2, D. 2 m.; "Hotel Kohler 
(PI. c ; A, 3), near the station ; Prinz Carl (PI. d ; D, 3) , unpretending ; 
Post (PI. e -, C, 3), with restaurant. 

Restaurants. *Saalbau (PI. B, 4), concerts almost daily; Schmitt, near 
the station; Dane, Louisen-Str., all with gardens. — Cafe': Eichberg, Rhein- 

to Heidelberg. DARMSTADT. 30. Route. 221 

Str. — Beer: Formhals, Grafen-Str. — Jochheim's Baths, next door to the 
Prinz Carl Hotel. 

Darmstadt, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Hessen , with 
50,000 inhab. (including the suburb of Bessungeri] , a town with 
handsome broad streets, spacious squares, and tasteful pleasure- 
grounds , was, though the capital of the Counts of Katzenellen- 
bogen and afterwards of the Landgraves of Hessen - Darmstadt, 
a place of no importance down to the close of the 18th century. 
The Grand Duke Ludwig I. (d. 1830) erected the new part of the 
town, and to him Darmstadt is indebted for its prosperity. A Sta~ 
tue(¥l. 17; C, 3), by Schwanthaler, erected to him by his 'grateful 
people' in 1844, is borne by a column, 140 ft. in height, the sum- 
mit of which affords a fine view. 

The Residbnzschloss (PI. 29 ; C, 2, 3) was begun by the Land- 
grave George I. at the end of the 16th cent. ; the portals, belonging 
to that period, but finished after the Landgrave's death, are a good 
specimen of the German Renaissance. The present building dates 
chiefly from the beginning of last century, but did not quite attain 
its present dimensions till 1833. The tower contains a chime of 
bells. The valuable Library consists of 500,000 vols., 4000 MSS., 
and numerous typographical curiosities (open 9-12 a. m. and 
2-4 p. m.). The other *Collections (pictures, antiquities, natural 
history, costumes, and coins) are open free on Tues., Wed., Thurs., 
and Frid. 11-1, and on Sun. 10-1 ; also at other times for a fee. 
Visitors ring on the first floor. Short Guide to the Collections 20 pf. 

The *Picturb Gallbky occupies the upper floor of the palace. 
Catalogue 1 m. 50 pf. 

The collection has been almost entirely formed during the present 
century, the nucleus having been the collection of a Hr. v. Hiibsch. The 
chief boast of the gallery is the large Rubens (Nymphs and Satyrs with 
fruit and game) from the old Diisseldorf gallery, presented by King Max 
Joseph of Bavaria. Van Dyck's portrait of a lady with a fan, dating from 
1635, and Rembrandt's Scourging of Christ, painted in 1668, the year 
before his death , are also very valuable works. The portrait of a wo- 
man, No. 348, is an early work of Rembrandt, whose pupils (Eeckhout, 
Flinck, etc.) and contemporaries {Van der Heist, Pieler de Hooch, and 
others) are also well represented. To an earlier period of art belong a 
Madonna by Lucas van Leyden, a portrait of Cardinal Albrecht of Mainz 
by Lucas Cranach, a landscape by P Brueghel, and several works of the 
Early Cologne School (Presentation in the Temple, etc.). The Italian 
works are chiefly of the 'Academic School' of the 17th century. 

Room I. : Modern pictures from the middle of last century to the pre- 
sent day, by Schmidt, Seekatz (d. 1768, who occupies among the artists 
of Darmstadt a similar position to that of Dietrich among those of Dres- 
den), Schiitz , Morgenstern , &c. , the earlier of which should be inspected 
in order to contrast them with the most modern school. To the left on 
entering (1st transverse partition) : 126. Schilbach, Roman landscape. Second 
partition: 136. Schirmer, Heidelberg Castle; 148, 149, 150, 151. Achenbach, 
Four small Dutch landscapes. Principal wall : (W.) 56. Seekatz, Twelfth 
Night ; 157. H. Hofmann, Betrayal of the Saviour ; 129. Steinbriick, Genovefa ; 
(N.) Radl, 121. Cronberg, and 122. Falkenstein, both in the Taunus; 59. 
Seekatz, Children in the poultry-yard; (E.) Schonberger, Sunset. 

Room II. : Partition: 146. Enhuber, Court-day; 137. Lessing, Evening 
scene on the Moselle; 145. Schon, Sunday morning in the Black Forest. 

222 Route 30. DARMSTADT. From Frankfort 

Principal wall: (W.).134. Morgenstem , Scene on the Isar; 155. Noaci, 
Religious disputation between Luther and Zwingli at Marburg ; (N.) Lucas, 
132. Italian harvest-scene, 130. The Melibocus seen from the Odenwald; 
156. Schweich, Autumn morning ; 154. Becker, Glacier-lake in Norway. 

Room III. Old German School. The pictures in this room form one 
of the best collections of the works of this school. In the doorway : 224. 
Holbein the Elder, Body of Christ at the foot of the cross. Partition : Lucas 
Cranach, 244. Portrait of Cardinal Albert of Brandenburg in the character 
of St. Jerome, 249. Virgin and Child. 226. Holbein the Younger(7), Bust 
of a youth, 1515; 188. Claeissens , Mary and Child; 231. Wohlgemuth (7), 
Christ in Gethsemane. Principal wall : (W.) 189. School of Memling, perhaps 
Gerard Horebout (1538), Enthroned Mary and Child; 185. Unknown Master, 
Dying Mary ; 168. Stephan Lochner, the master of the Dombild at Cologne, 
Presentation in the Temple; (N.) 216. Reliquary from the church of Wolfs- 
kehlen, date 1500; (E.) 217. M. Schongauer (1), Scourging of Christ. 

Room IV. Netherlands Masters. Partition: *321. Van Dyck (d. 1641), 
Portrait of the painter Erasmus Quellyn; 339. Sal. Ruysdael, Dutch street; 
"361. Adr. van Ostade , Peasants dancing, an early work, dated 1635; 
"356-358. Thos. de Keyser, Portraits; 335. Wynants, Landscape, 1676; "271. 
P. Brueghel the Elder, Landscape with peasants dancing, 1568; 345. Adr. 
Brouwer, Two peasants singing; 350a. Sandvoort, Portrait of a girl; 395. 
P. Potter (?), Stable ; 354. Ferd. Bol, Holy Family ; "296. Rubens, Satyrs 
and Nymphs with game and fruit; the nymph with the red robe is the 
master's first wife, the one with the hare his second (copy in Dresden). 
386, !, 387. Oerbr. van den Eeckhout, Portraits. 

Room V. 433. Fred. Vroom, Portrait of himself; 425. Egb. van Heemt- 
kerk, Saying grace ; 363. D. Tenters the Younger, Old man ; *348. Rem- 
brandt, Portrait of his wife Saskia; 376, 377. Qonzales Coques, Portraits. 

Room VI. Front of partition : 370. Van der Heist, Bust of an old man ; 
315. Honthorst, Portrait of a lady. Back of partition: 378. Govaert Flinch, 
Woman cleansing her boy's head; 405. P. de Hooch, Interior. Principal 
wall: (N.) 347. Rembrandt, Christ about to be scourged (1668); "369. Van 
der Heist, Portrait of a lady; 350. A. van Gelder (pupil of Rembrandt), 
Presentation in the Temple; (S.) 424. Schalcken, William III. of England 
by torch-light ; 349. Eeckhout, The disciples at Emmaus; 389. A. van Ever- 
dingen, Landscape. 

Room VII. French works of inferior value : 482. J. Jouvenet, Madonna 
and Child; 475. Le Sueur, Christ restoring the Young Man of Nain; 489, 
490. Van Loo , Portrait of Louis XV. and his Queen Maria Lesczinska ; 
511. Sonntag , View of Darmstadt "in 1746 (taken from the window op- 
posite); 488. Rigaud, Portrait of Cardinal Fleury; 492. F. Boucher, Sleeping 
nymphs and satyrs. 

Room VIII. Spanish and Italian Masters : 269. Netherlandish School, 
Madonna with the Holy Child and John the Baptist; 547. Carlo Caliari, 
Venus and Adonis; 527. Ascribed to Correggio, Young shepherd (really a 
later work of no great value) ; 67. Raphael Mengi, St. Sebastian ; i: 638. 
Velazquez, Portrait of a girl; 586. Cignani, Madonna; 520. Titian, Sleeping 
Venus (according to Mr. Crowe an original, ruined by restoration). 

Room IX. 554. Schidone, John the Baptist in the desert; 6U. Murillo, 
Carthusian monk ; 623. Pompeo Batloni, Portrait; 268. Netherlandish School, 
Madonna and Child ; 535. Copy of Paolo Veronese , Wedding at Cana 
(original in the Louvre) ; 642. Spanish School, Angel and Maiden ; 523. The 
Baptist in the wilderness, a weak copy of Raphael ; 533. Tintoretto, Portrait. 
By the windows ; : 639. Velazquez, Mother of a dead child kneeling before 
a bishop; 570. Velazquez, Portrait; ,:, 529. Paris Bordone, Portrait of a 
general, in admirable preservation ; 571. Pietro da Gortona, Angel appearing 
to Hagar and Ishmael; "519. Tintoretto (wrongly attributed to Titian), 
Portrait of a nobleman, dated 1562. 

The two adjoining rooms contain the valuable collection of objects 
of Natural History. Halfway up the staircase to the next floor are 
two rooms containing Plaster Casts. 

The other Collections are on the second floor. 

to Heidelberg. DARMSTADT. 30. Route. 223 

Room I. Roman Antiquities: a 'Mosaic Pavement, 30 ft. in length, 
20 ft. in breadth , excavated near Vilbel in 1849 ; model of an apparatus 
for evaporating salt, excavated at Nauheim in 1854, with a clay vessel which 
formed part of it; bronze tools and a helmet from a tomb near Nauheim; 
smaller Germanic and Roman antiquities. — Room II. Cork Models of 
Roman edifices, ancient ornaments in gold and silver, goblets, enamels 
of the early Lower Rhine School and of Limoges, beautiful ivory carving, 
stained glass , coins. — Room III, IV. Collection of the .weapons, flags, 
and equipments of the Hessian regiments from the earliest times to the 
present day. — Room V. * Armour and weapons, curious helmets, shields, 
and targes. — Room VI. Model of the palace, costumes and utensils of 
foreign nations, &c. — Room VII. Drawings and Engravings, ancient and 
modern; among the former are'the sketches of Rottmann for the Italian 
landscapes in the arcades at Munich, an early sketch in sepia (afterwards 
considerably altered) by Ph. Veit, for his large fresco in the Stadel Insti- 
tute at Frankfort (see p. 213), and a cartoon of 'The Last Judgment', also 
by Veit. ' 

Other rooms contain the valuable Collection of Minerals, Conchylia, 
and * Fossils, skeletons of antediluvian animals found near Eppelsheim in 
Rheinhessen, the skeletons of a mastodon, 13 ft. in height, purchased at 
London in 1857, and of a gigantic stag (Cervus Irlandicus). 

To the N. of the Palace, at the entrance to the Herrengarten, or 
public grounds, is the Thbatrb (PI. 31; D,2), rebuilt since its 
destruction by Are in 1871, with a portiGO belonging to the older 
building. To the left is the Exerzierhaus (PI. 32), now an artillery- 
arsenal. In front of it stands the War Monument, commemorative 
of the campaign of 1870-71, cast in 1879 from the model of Herzig. 
Between the Exerzierhaus and the Theatre are Statues (PI. 18, 19), 
by Scholl, of the Landgrave Philip the Generous (A, 1567), and his 
son George I. (d. 1596), founder of the grand-ducal family. 

In the Herrbngartbn (PI. C, 1, 2), which is well laid out, 
with pleasant walks, to the right, is the tomb of the Landgravine 
Henrietta Carolina (d. 1774; PI. 8), mother of the queen of Fred- 
erick William II. of Prussia ; the unpretending urn erected by Fred- 
erick the Great bears the inscription : 'Femina sexu, ingenio vir . 

The Renaissance Rathhaus (PI. 28), in the Maekt (PI. C, 3), was 
built by George I. The Stadtkirche (PI. 15 ; C, D, 3), in the Kirch- 
Strasse, possesses a Gothic choir and some Renaissance monuments. 

The modern Roman Catholic Church (PI. 12 ; usual entrance 
at the S.E. angle), in the Wilhelminen-Platz, contains the well-exe- 
cuted marble sarcophagus of the Grand Duchess Mathilde of Hessen 
(d. 1862), with a recumbent figure of the princess by Widnmann. 
On the W. side of the Platz is the new Palace of the Grand Duke 
(PI. 24), in the Italian Renaissance style. The Palace of Prince 
Alexander (PI. 21 ; B, 3) contains a fine collection of coins. 

The Palace op the Widow of Prince Charles (PI. 22 ; C, 5), 
in the Wilhelminen-Strasse, contains the celebrated **Madonna 
with the family of Burgomaster Meyer of Bale , by Holbein the 
Younger, executed in 1526, and ascertained since the Holbein Ex- 
hibition at Dresden in 1871 to be an original work of the master. 
(Visitors apply for admission in the passage, to which a short flight 
of steps ascends ; fee 1 m.) 

224 Route 30. BERGSTRASSE. From Frankfort 

There is an excellent collection of early German, Dutch, and 
other paintings at No. 8 Zimmer-Str., the property of Dr. Schafer. 

The Technical School (PI. 26; D, 3, 4), in the Capell-Str., is 
admirably equipped with teaching apparatus, but is architecturally 
uninteresting. Opposite to it rises the Neue Realschule, a more im- 
posing edifice, beyond which stands the i Padagog\ built in 1627 
for the gymnasium founded in that year. The modern - Gothic 
Stadt-Capelle (PI. 14) in the adjoining grounds is an elegant struc- 
ture. — Opposite the Station (Hess. Ludwigs-Bahnhof) are the 
Bank fur Handel und Industrie and the Bank fur Siid-Deutschland, 
both built in 1875 (PL 2, 3 ; A, 2). In front of the stations is a 
monument to Liebig, the chemist (b. at Darmstadt in 1803, d. 1873). 
In the Rhein-Strasse is the large new Post Office. 

At Rosenhbhe (p. 230), 3 / 4 M. to the E. of Darmstadt, is the 
Grind-ducal Mausoleum , containing the remains of the Grand 
Duke Lewis III (d. 1877) and the Princess Alice of England (d. 
1878), wife of the Grand Duke Lewis IV. The *Tomb of the Prin- 
ces'; Elizabeth, who died at the age of 5 J /2 years, with a recumbent 
figure in marble, is by Rauch (1831). 

The extensive woods near Darmstadt afford numerous pictur- 
esque walks, the favourite of which are to the Karlshof (^'/jM.; 
whip, PI. D, 2), to the Fasanerie (l!/ 2 M., comp. PL D,2), to the 
shooting-lodge of Kranichstein, to Einsiedel (6 M.), and to the Lud- 
wigshbhe (2 M.). 

From Darmstadt to Worms, 27'/2M., railway in l-li/ihr. (fares 3 m. 80, 
'2 m. 55, or 1 in. 65 pf.). (i M. Griesheim, with an extensive artillery- 
range and camp. 9 M. Wolfskehlen; 10 M. Goddelau-JSrfelden, the junction 
of the Frankfort and Mannheim line (p. 213), which coincides with the 
Worms line as far as (21 M.) Biblis. 23>/2 M. Hofheim., the junction of the 
Bensheim and Worms line (p. 226). 26 M. Rosengarten, where passengers 
cross the river by a steam-ferry. 26'/2 M. Wormi-Hafen. The train now 
makes a circuit round the N. side of the town. 27'/2 M. Worms, p. 244. 

Fkom Darmstadt to Mayence , 20 M. , railway in 35-55 min. (fares 
2 m. 80, 1 m. 90, 1 m. 20 pf. ; express 3 m. 40, 2 m. 25 pf.). — 4>/2 M. Wei- 
ters'adt. 9 if. Grossgerau, whence a branch-line diverges to Domheim on 
the 'Riedbahn 1 (p. 213). 10'/2 M. Nauheim. 15'/2 31. Bischofsheim , the 
junction for the Frankfort line (p. 213). The train now crosses the Rhine 
and the Ludwigshafen railway (p. 243) and reaches (20 M.) Mayence (p. 136), 

From Darmstadt to Mannheim by the 'Riedbahn', 38'/2 M. ; fares 
1 m. 35, 2 m. 90, 1 m. 90 pf. To Goddelau-Erfelden, see above; thence to 
Mannheim, see p. 213. 

From Darmstadt to Eberbach, see p. 230. 

20'/ 2 M. Eberstadt-Pfungstadt ; the latter, a busy little manu- 
facturing town , lies iy 4 M. to the W. , the former i M. to the E. 
of the station. Near this point begins the Bergstrasse, an old 
road originally constructed by the Romans , skirting the fruit and 
vine-clad W. slopes of the Odenwald (to which the name 'Berg- 
strasse' is sometimes applied in a wider sense), and leading to Hei- 
delberg. — On the hills to the left rises the handsome ruined castle 
of Frankenstein (1110 ft), commanding a splendid *View (Inn). 


to Heidelberg. AUERBACH. 30. Route. 225 

25 M. Blckenbaeh is the station for (l 3 / 4 M. distant; post-omni- 
bus three rimes, daily, 40 pf. ; daring summer' carriages await every; 
train) Jng^kgdm{*Lms,*Bindfmt, 'pension' at both^/gm. ; Belie- 
ime, well spoken of), a favourite summer-resort, -with pleasant villas. 
Tour in the Odenwald, see p. 228. — Ascent Of the Melibocus, 
see below. At Seehetm (*Hufnagel, 'pens.' 4m. ; carriages at the 
station}; 1 M. to the N. of Jugenheim, there is a grand-ducal 
chateau, the garden of which is open to the public. Aboye Seeheim 
rises the rained castle of Tannenberg, destroyed in lS99; it is 
sesreely visible from below. — To the left of the railway, farthe* 
on, rises the pinnacled tower of the Alibaeher Sebloas , which may 
be reached in 'tyj hr, from Zwingenberg. „ 

•27 M. Zwingenberg (*Z.ou>e, with garden, R. 1 m. 20, D.'lm, 
70 pf., 'pension' 4 m.), an old town, with 1700 inhabitants. 

The Ascent of the Mkmboct's takes 1 hr. from Zwingenberg, and 
'i hr. from Jugenheim. guide .(unnecessary) 1 m. ; carriage to fee top 
-13 jn. — Fbom Jugenheim via ph& . Melibocus and the Auerbacher 
Schloss to Auerbach 3 hours. Besides the old and the new path ascending 
the mountain , there is a third, slightly longer, via the ruined castle of 
Jouai The three paths unite halfway up the hill p/« hr. from Jugenheim). 

From Zwinoenbekg, the road leads E. from the 'LOae' and ascends 
the hill; after 8 min. the path follows the water-eonduit to the right, 
leads over the Lutieberg, and in 25 min. more regains the carriage-road, 
which is furnished with direction-posts. 

The Melibocus, or Ilalehen (1878 ft.), is the highest point of the Berg- 
sirasse and consists entirely of granite. On the summit is a tower (80 ft. 
high), erected in 1777 by Louis IX., Landgrave of Hessen (key and 
refreshments at the forester's ; fee 25 pf.', for a party 1 m.)- The view 
embraces the valley of the Rhine from Speyer to Mayenee , the Vosges, 
the Donnersberg, and the Main as far as the Taunus and VogelSberg, and 
the Odenwald. — From the Melibocus a rOad, furnished with ' way-posts 
at all doubtful places, leads direct in >/« hr. to the Auerbacher Schloss. 
Descent from the Schloss to the'village of Auerbach in '/a'*/* hour. — From 
the Auerbacher Schloss direct to the Furstenlager, see below. 

29 1 /jfM, Auerbach {Krone, established originally in the 17th 
cent.; also lodgings; restaurants, Mohr and He**, with gardens; 
carriage-tariff at the. station), a picturesque village of 1500 inhab., 
mentioned as early! as 795, is a favourite summer-resort, and affords 
good head-quarters for excursions in the "W. part of the Odenwald 
(p. 227). Good wine is produced in the neighbourhood, the best 
quality being called Rottwein. 

The * Auerbacher Schloss (S/ 4 hr. from the Melibocus, carriage 
road; same distance N. of Auerbach, path not to be mistaken), 
situated on an eminence Tl 053 ft.), is said to have been founded by 
Charlemagne. After 1257 it appears as a fortress of the Counts of 
Katzettellenbogen, held at first as a flef of the monastery of Lorsch 
(see below), and then Of 'the Electorate of Mayenee. 1 The' present 
building dates from the 15th cent. ; in 1674 it was blown 
Tttrennfi 1 . "View from the towers less extensive,' but more pictur- 
esque than that frdm the Meliboeus. 

Environs. Qne.,6f the prettiest points near Auerbach is the Fursten- 
lager, a small cMteau built , during fast century by the Landgraves of 
Hessen, and enlarged by Lewis I: of Bavaria, with a chalybeate spring 

Baedeker's J&hine»__8lh Edit. 15 

226 Route 30. WEINHEIM. 

and charming grounds. It may be reached by the road in 20 min. from 
the 'Krone' inn (or, pleasanter , by turning to the right by the Rathhaus 
and ascending past the church). — The walk from the Auerbacher Schloss 
to the Furstenlager is also pleasant: we follow the broad road to the E. 
as far as the mineral spring in the Hochstatter Thai (refreshments at the 
forester's), pass the mill, and turn to the W. to the Neun-Aussichten 
('nine views 1 ), a clearing in the wood, where nine different picturesque 
views are obtained through the nine forest-paths which converge here. 
Farther on we reach the Furstenlager (l'/j hr. in all). — About '/« hr. to 
the E. of the Furstenlager lies SchSnberg (Rettig, Serine, Gottschalk; Villa 
Schlapp, with restaurant, 'pens.' 4m.), which also attracts visitors in 
summer, with a chateau of Count Erbach-Schonberg. The Schlossgarten 
and the village churoh command pretty views. From Schonberg to Bens- 
heim through the Schonberger Thai, l>/2 M. 

30 M. Bensheim (Traube, *Deutsches Ham, in the town ; *Eeu- 
ter's Motel , at the station , small ; carriages according to tariff) , a 
busy town in a picturesque situation , with 5000 inhab. , dates as 
far back as the 8th century, and till 1802 belonged to the Electo- 
rate of Mayence. The two churches, Roman Catholic and Protes- 
tant , are both modern. The Rinnenthor, near the station, is an 
interesting relic of the old fortifications. 

Fkom Bensheim to Lindenfels (11 M. ; p. 229) by Schonberg and Rei- 
chenbach (3'/2 M.), diligence once or twice daily. 

Fkom Bensheim to Rosengarten (Worms), railway in 35 min. (comp. 
p. 224). 3 M. LorBch (H8tel Schermuly), on the Weschnitz, with ruins of a 
monastery ( Laureshamense Monasterium) , founded in 763 on an island in 
the Weschnitz and afterwards removed to its present site. In 788 Charle- 
magne assigned it as a place of banishment to Tassilo, Duke of Bavaria, 
who had been condemned to death as a traitor. The Church was conse- 
crated in 1130, but portions of the nave only are now extant. Adjacent 
is the ' Michaelskapelle^ (so called only since the end of the 17th cent.), 
which is now recognized as the chapel erected by Lewis III. between 
876 and 882 as a mausoleum for his father, Lewis the German. The 
chapel, with curiously formed imposts and inlaid walls, is one of the 
most elegant and best-preserved specimens of the architecture of the 
period. Lewis III. himself and Cunigunde, wife of Emp. Conrad I., are 
also interred here. The stone coffins seem to belong to the Carlovingian 
era. The Nibelungen-Lied represents the vaults at Lorsch as the burial- 
place of Siegfried and Queen Ute (mother of Chriemhilde). 

8 M. Bilrstadt. lO'/s M. Hofheim. 13 M. Rosengarten, see p. 224. 

Near (33 M.) Heppenheim (*Halber Mond, R. 1 m. 50, B. 70 pf.), 
to the left of the road, rises the Landberg , a hill crowned with 
three trees, where the provincial tribunals were held in the middle 
ages. The church was founded by Charlemagne, according to an 
old inscription. The present edifice is of Gothic and later times. 

The Starkenburg (932 ft.) is reached by a good path from Heppen- 
heim in 1/2 hour. It was erected in 1064 by an abbot of Lorsch, captured, 
by the Swedes and Spaniards in the Thirty Years' War, besieged in vain 
by Turenne in 1674, and was only recently quite abandoned. It gives 
its name to a province of Hessen. Fine view from the lofty square tower. 

The train now enters the dominions of Baden. Beyond (37 M.) 
Hemsbaeh it crosses the small river Weschnitz, and reaches — 

39V2 M. Weinheim (*Pfalzer Hof, with garden, R. 2 m., B. 
70 pf., 'pension' 5 m. ), a small town of 7100 inhab., lying at the 
union of the pleasant valleys of Gorxheim and Birkenau , and the 
most important and mo ? t beautifully situated town on the Berg- 

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THE ObENWALD. 31. Route. 227 

strasse. It formerly belonged to the Abbey of tiOrdch, Utti is of an- 
cient origin , '^hoti'g& bwing to jits' destruction during the Thirty 
Years 3 War,' and again in the devastation of the Palatinate ft* 1689, 
there are few old buildings of any importance. A few tower* be- 
lorigMg to the former fortifications, the Rouse offheTeutonii Oriiir 
(Mbw a 1 'government-office), and the Gothic" Rathtiaui are the only 
relics oT its former prosperity. The Cfothie towers of the Roman 
(arthritic* J efhurch and 'the Berkheim'sche 'Schloss are modern. BeS»^ 
d&Vfk&bol for Boys attracts numerous 1 pupils from "differetft parts 
orGerrafenyi — Huboerger, the best wine of the B6rgstr&sse7< is 
Bfioauced ! near Weinheim. in ■»» i •: V/ j , 

To the E. rises the old castle of WindecH (pS& ft), with its 
high conical 'Bergfried' tower, the property b*f the monastery of 
Lorsch in' the 12th cent. , afterwards that of the Palatinate , com- 
manding a beautiful view.' - — From Weinheim to Piirtti, lO'/g M; , 
diligence twice a day, see p. 229. * ' *j 

At (43 M.) Qross-Sachsen ; a village said to have been founded 
by Charlemagne , the line leaves the Bergstrasse. — 46 M. Laden - 
burg (Rose), the Roman Lupodurium , the Walls , tbwe'ts, and fine 
old Gothic church (14th cdnt.) Of which give it an air 6f importance. 
The Neckar is crossed here by a bridge of red sandstone. ■, . ■ 

48 M i Friedrkihsfeld, where the lines to Heidelberg and Mann- 
heim (each about 15 min. distant by train) separate. — A branch- 
line leads hence to (3 ! /f M.) Schwetzingen (p. 240); t ff 

M-i/jM, Heidelberg, step, 232. —54 M. Mannheim, see p. 240. 

.TMe Bergstrasse is most' attractive' "Weinheim and HeidelbeTg 
(iSnk.y, and i» recommended to the notice Of pedestrians. The 'Hi6p 
Road leads through (3 M.) Qrott-Sadum (good red Wine) and M.) 
IkfoiuMelM', wKere the Strahlinburg (898 ft;) is seen in 1 the "background. 
TtHtt (3"»AM.) Huridtcknctiiheim (Zuin rothen . Ochsen, mttch frequented by 
Heidelberg students), and (l'/jB.) Neuenheim (Rose), where the WecKar is 
reached, and Heidelberg (R. 33), with its castle and the Konigsstutl- in She 
rear,flAt becomes visible. Best view from the new bridge (p.-^M^).-' 

31. The Odenwaid. 

, Odenwald, the wooded mountain-district between Dari|attadtjM§[ 
_._erg, is about 40 ,J(. in length and 24-30 H. in breadth'. Tee 
-„-ist points are the Utatietdiuclcel (1959 ft., see p. 239), the Neunlircher 
HShe (1869 ft., see p.'228"|j the Dromm (1834 ft., see p. 229), the ' JMibocta 
(1679 ft., see p., 225},. and' the. feUierg (1624'ft., see below). This* district 
is picturesque and interesting at places, although, like its, inns,, inferior 
to the Black 1 Forest. 

a. Western Portion. 

.One Dai: From Siekenbae^ to the Feliberg 2 hrs:, thence to Linden- 
fels 3*/* hrs. (diligence from Benshepn, see p. 226),. and drive in 2 l /« hrs, 
through the valley of the Weschnitz to Birkenau and' WeinHeim; or, if pos- 
sible, walk from Birkenku to Weinheim over 'the' WUgmMr§,'i*/i hour, 

i. Two Dam: 1st- As- above jto ^Lindenfeli; 2nd. Cross- the -Brow/ft to 
WafdmichetbacTi ip. 3'/s hrs, , thence by.Ober- and IJnterrScluinmQtienwag tp 
Hirschharn- 3V« hrs. (or byjScA3ffla« to iVecfajrsieinoeA 6 hrs.), and ' by the 
new Ntfekar railway to Heiefelbttg.- 

228 Route 31. REICHENBACH. Odenwald. 

Bickenbach (p. 225) is the best starting-point for a ramble in 
this district. Thence to the E. to (1 3 / 4 M.) Jugenheim (p. 225), in 
the middle of which a road to the right ascends through well-kept 
grounds , passing (t/ 4 hr.) a ruined Monastery (a few paces to the 
right), with some tombstones of 1480 in the wall. (Near the mon- 
astery is an old lime-tree, the 'Centlinde', marking the place of 
meeting of a 'Centgericht', or Court of a Hundred; in front of it 
is a conspicuous gilded Russian cross.) Beyond the monastery the 
route soon reaches the (7 min.) chateau of Heiligenberg , the resi- 
dence of Prince Alexander of Hessen (fine view from the ter- 
Tace). We next ascend to the right through the grounds , and, 
at the finger-post indicating the way (' Wilhelminenweg' ) to the 
Felsberg , turn to the left round the hill , whence a pleasing 
glimpse of the chateau and the plain of the Rhine is obtained. 
Following the direction indicated by various way-posts, we reach, 
in 1^2 nr - from Jugenheim, the forester's house on the *Felsberg 
(1624 ft. ; refreshments and a few beds). The view to the E. 
embraces a great part of the Odenwald, and extends to the Spessart 
and Aschaffenburg (much more extensive than from the Melibocus). 

From the Melibocus to the Felsberg (I1/2 hr.). The path (sign- 
posts) ascends from the Balkhauser Thai , which separates the two hills, 
on the N.W. side of the Felsberg. 

From Auerbach (p. 225) to the Felsberg (2-2>/2 hrs.). We may either 
ascend through the Hochstatter Thai (to the left on entering the village) 
past Hochstatten, or by the path over the Fiirstenlager. The last route is 
somewhat more difficult to find , but both are furnished with guide- 
posts. In returning we take the beautiful road called the '■Neun Krumme*, 
leading first through wood , then across fields to Balkhansen , and to 
the left through a wood which it afterwards skirts, and finally reaching 
(IV2 hr.) the Auerbacher Schloss. 

From the Felsberg to Gross-Bieberao (p. 230), in 4'/2 hours. The 
road passes Brandau, the Neunkircher Hohe (1869 ft.; View; Inns, poor), 
Steinau, Billings, Oberhausen, Niederhausen , and the foot of the Lichten- 
berg (p. 230). 

About Y4 M. from the Forester's house lies the Altarstein, a 
block of syenite, nearly cubic in form, bearing traces of an attempt 
to hew it into lengths for a huge architrave ; lower down, in a small 
gully, is the ' Riesensaule', a column of the same material, 30 ft. in 
length, and 3-47 2 ft. thick, with a notch li/ 2 inch deep in the 
middle. There is no doubt that an old Roman quarry once existed 
here, which perhaps also furnished the columns on the Schloss- 
brunnen at Heidelberg. The Felsenmeer ('sea of rocks') , on the 
side of a hill on the road to Reichenbach , near the Riesensaule, 
consists of rounded blocks of syenite scattered in huge and con- 
fused masses, covering an area of 500 paces by 200. 

The path now descends rapidly to Reichenbach (Krone, Traube, 
Zur Riesensaule) , a village on the Lauterbach, 2'/2 M. from the 
Felsberg, and 4i/ 2 M. to the N. E. of Bensheim (p. 226). 

We cross the brook here , and follow the high-road which 
leads up the valley to Lindenfels , but quit it after % m., and 
ascend a path to the right, past some old copper-mines, to the 

Odenwald, DROMM. 31. Route. 229 

(10 min.) Hohenatein, a group of quartzose rocks commanding a very 
.pleasing prospect. After 5 min. more, we ascend to the left, then 
(25*nin.) pass some houses of Unter-Reidelbach, an*; near Gadern- 
heim, return to the above-mentioned main road ('/* hr.), which is 
not again to be quitted. The walk from Reichenbach to Lindenfels 
is picturesque, but without much variety. 

About i/j M. from the point where we regain the high-road, 
we pass through the hamlet of KoVmhach (good wine at the burgo- 
masters) , and about S/|» Mif> farther reach a group of trees with a 
bench, whence a 'remarkably fine view is enjoyed. 

The road now leads through beautiful beeth- wood, interspersed 
with boulders of granite, to (2*/$ M.) Lindenfels (Hessiaehes Mam ; 
Harfe; Odenwald), a favourite summer-resort (1Q0Q inhab.), the 
finest point in the Odenwald, picturesquely situated on an emin- 
ence. It is commanded by a large ruined 'Chateau, formerly the 
property of the Palatinate. The old town-gates are still extant. 

On the beautiful wooded mountain to the E. is the *Ludwigft- 
hohe, a small temple, 1 M. from Lindenfels, commanding a fine view. 
The prospect is more, extensive from a point 74 nr - higher up. 

From Lindenfels to Bensheim (p. 226), 11 M., diligence twice 
daily in 2 hours. ' 

From Lindbi?pbls to Wbinhbim, a drive of 2 l / B hrs, (earr. iOr 
12 m.) by the high-road through the valley of the Wtaeknits. Ped" 
estriaris should descend to the 8. of Lindenfels ; after lOmin. the 
path leads to the left through wood, and, in 2$ min. more, over a 
slight, fir-clad eminence ; 10 min. , Forth (Lowe), a small town on 
the Weitehnit*, through the valley of which the road winds. 

Diligence from Fiirth to Weinheim, once daily, passing (3 M.) 
Rimbaeh (Nio. (jeist), (3 M^MSrlenbach (Krene), (2y # Sl.) Beitten, 
and (2 1 /* M.) Birkenau (Riinig zum Birkenauer Thai), one of the 
prettiest spots in the valley,, with the chateau and park of Baron 
von Wambolt. — 2y t M. Weinheim, see p. 226. 

Walkers from 'Mrkmau to WeinTieim (l'/a hr.) should take the route 
over the 'Wagenberg (guide necessary to the point where, the wood is 
quitted), as it commands the finest views; .. ■ , , 

' Travellers desirous of spending several days in the Odenwald should 
proceed from Mrth (see above) in a S.E. direction: to the (l'/2 hr.) Dramm, 
by a foptpata. which can hardly be mistaken (safer to take 1 a' guidH). The 
Sromm (1834 ft.), one of the highest points of the Odenwald, commands 
a good survey of the valley of .the Weschnitz; the best point qf View is 
the 'Stein', a riven mass of rock to the right of the path. Thence de- 
scend by shady paths to Waldmichelbach (IApps SehSne AuisicM)', a small 
town with 3000 inhab., if/% M. from the Dromm ,9 M. from -Idkdenfels, 
and 14 M. from Weinheim (by. Oberabtsteinach and Birk,enau). 

[About 8;M. to the X. lies Qraspllenliaeh. (Bauer), in the wood on the 
hill above which Q/i hr.) is a spring, popularly supposed to be the spot 
where Siegfried was slain by Hagen, as narrated in thfe 'Nibelungen-Lied'. 
A small monument was erected here in 1851.] 

.From Waldmichelbach we follow the high-road to Ober-SchSmtmtitm- 
wa0, and the*, descend the gr&ssy valley ;of the Lite ibj Uhter-BiMnmatUn- 
nag, Coriika, Heddttbach, and Lmngtnthal to (LO'/t H.) Mirichkom (p. 239). 

230 Route 31. HOCHST. Odenwald. 

Another road leads from Waldmichelbach by Siedelsbrunn and Heilig- 
kreuzsteinach to (12 M.) Schonau (Lowe), an old town standing on the ruins 
of a once rich and celebrated Cistercian monastery, founded in 1136, and 
presented in 1560 by Elector Palatine Frederick III. to some French 
refugees, who built the village. The church of the monastery was destroyed 
during the Thirty Years' 1 War; the present Protestant Church was formerly 
the refectory. From Schonau through the romantic valley of the Sleinach 
to (3 M.) Jfeckarsteinach (p. 239). 

b. Eastern Portion. 

Odenwald Railway (Hess. Ludwigsbahn). From Darmstadt to Eberbach, 
50 M., in 3 hrs. (opened in May, 1882). 

The train skirts the N. and E. sides of Darmstadt, passing sta- 
tion Rosenhohe (p. 224), and then turns to the S., traversing ex- 
tensive woods. — b l J2 M. Nieder - Ramstadt- Traisa, places much 
visited from Darmstadt; fine view from the station. The train now 
reaches the mountains , and turns to the E. — 7 J /2 M. Ober-Ram- 
stadt ; 12*/2M. Reinheim, an old town with 1500 inhab., at the con- 
fluence of the Gersprenz with the Wembach. 

From Reinheim to Lindenfels, 5'/2 hrs., a pleasant excursion up the 
busy Gersprenzthal (diligence to Brensbach, 51., twice daily; to Reichels- 
heim, 11 M., once daily). At (l 3 /i M.) Gross-Bieberan ('Ruths), a favourite 
summer resort, walkers quit the road, which goes on to Brensbach (Post), 
Gersprenz, and Reichelsheim in the valley of the Gersprenz, and ascend the 
valley of the small Fischbach to the S. The shady path passes through 
the Leidert and leads via, Rodau to (l 1 /* hr.) the chateau of '-Lichtenberg, 
the greater part of which was built in the Renaissance style about 1570-80 
(fine view). We then descend by Obemhausen to ( 3 /4 hr.) Nonrod, whence we 
proceed, with the aid of a guide, through the lower woods on the left to 
Erlau, the ruined castle of Rodenstein (see below), situated at the bottom 
of the valley, and (1 hr.) Frankisch- Crumbach (Horr), the property of Baron 
Gemmingen, and once the seat of the barons of Rodenstein, several of whose 
tombstones are preserved in the church. Thence in '/« hr. more to Rei- 
chelsheim (p. 231), where we rejoin the road, which leads us to (4>/2 M.) 
Lindenfels (p. 229). — [A route ltys hr. shorter, and better shaded, but 
not easily found, leaves Gross-Bieberau opposite Ruths' Inn, crosses the 
Fischbach, and ascends direct to the S., through the wood, without touch- 
ing Lichtenberg, to (IV2 hr.) Nonrod. Thence in 1 hr. to the Rodenstein 
and in l 3 / 4 hr. by the Freiheit and the Winterkastener Hbhe to Lindenfels.] 

16Vs M. Lengfeld, whence the Otzberg (1200 ft.), to the S., may 
be ascended in 3/ 4 hr. ; at the top, near which lies the little town 
of Hering ('Hoh'ring') , is the well-preserved castle of that name, 
with a massive tower (extensive view). Descent via Zipfen (*Inn), 
or to Wiebelsbach, the following railway-station (lT^M-)- Branch- 
line thence to the N. to Babenhausen and Aschaffenburg. 

25 M. Hochst (*Zur Post; Burg Breuberg ; Zur Eisenbahn), a 
town with 1500 inhab., lies in the valley of the Mumling, which 
the train now ascends to Erbach. 

About 2'/2 M. lower down the pleasant Miimlingthal (diligence twice 
a day) lies Neustadt-an-der-MumUng (Zum Ochsen), above which rises the 
ruined castle of Breuberg (450 ft. ; restaurant), with extensive fortifications 
of the first half of the 16th century. 

22^2 M. Mumling <- Grumbach ; 25 M. Kbnig (Biichner), with a 
loftily situated church ; 27 M. Zell. The valley contracts. We 

.Odenwald. MICHELSTADT. 31. Route. 231 

next pass the village of Steinbach , with a ruined monastery, the 
church of which , founded in 821 hy Eginhard , the biographer of 
Charlemagne, is still tolerably preserved ; then Schloss Furstenau, 
with four towers and a shady park, which has been the seat of the 
Counts of Erbach-Purstenau since the 14th century. 

29'/2 M. Michelstadt (862 ft. ; *Lowe, in the market; Schwan; 
Dr. Spiess's Hydropathic Establishment), a town with 3200 inhab., 
the capital of the Odenwald, mentioned in history as early as 741, 
lies in one of the prettiest parts of the Miimlingthal. The Parish 
Church, a late-Gothic building of the 15th and 16th cent., con- 
tains numerous tombstones of Counts of Erbach of the 14-17th cen- 
turies. The Rathhaus and some other buildings are interesting 
examples of timber-architecture. The Market Fountain dates from 
1541. A few relics of the old fortifications still exist. 

A road and a footpath lead from Michelstadt to the W. to (10 M.) 
Reichelsheim ("Voile), a prettily situated village, commanded by the conspi- 
cuous ruin of Reichenberg. In a sequestered hilly and wooded region, '/« hr. 
to the N. of this point, rises the ruined castle of 'Rodenstein, from which, 
according to the popular legend, when a war is about to break out, the wild 
huntsman and his train gallop with fearful din to the castle of Schnellerts, 
4 M. to the E. — From Reichelsheim to Lindenfels (p. 229), 4>/2 M. 

From Michelstadt a road ascends to the E., passing Dorf Erbach and 
(4>/2 M.) Count Erbach's shooting-box Eulbach, with its fine deer-park, to 
Amorbach (Badischer Hof; Becht), a town with 3300 inhabitants. It is the 
residence of Prince Leiningen, and contains a suppressed Benedictine abbey, 
with a library, the buildings of which chiefly date from last century. 
[Excursion, via. Emsllhal (Inn), with its large brewery, to Watd-Leiningen, 
a modern chateau in the English-Gothic style.] 

From Amokbach to Miltenbeeg, 5>/2 M., railway in '/s h r - (fares 70, 
45, 30 pf.). — l s /4 M. Weilbach. 

5'/2 M. Hiltenherg (Engel; Riese), a busy little town with 3400 inhab., 
charmingly situated on the Main, with extensive quarries of red sandstone, 
which were known to the Romans. The old Chdteau of the Electors of 
Mayence, built in the 15th cent, and destroyed by Albert of Brandenburg 
in 1552, has been recently restored, and contains a line collection of anti- 
quities and objects of art (visitors admitted); it commands an admirable 
view. The town contains several curious timber-dwellings (e.g. the 'Riese 1 
Inn) and gate-towers. — Opposite Miltenberg lies the Franciscan monastery 
of Engelsberg, another good point of view. 

From Miltenberg to Aschaffenburg, 22'/2 M., railwav in 1 hr. 10 min. 
(fares 3 m., 2 m., 1 m. 30 pf.). — l»/i M. Klein-Heubach (Adler), with the 
chateau and beautiful park of Prince Lowenstein. The chapel of the cha- 
teau is decorated with admirable frescoes by E. Steinle. In the woods, 
l 1 /* M. to the S. of Kleinbach and about the same distance from Milten- 
berg, are the so-called Bain- or Bunnen-Saulen ('columns of the Huns'), 
twelve gigantic columns of syenite , the remains of a quarry of the Ro- 
man period, which appears to have been suddenly abandoned. 

4 M. Laudenbach. 6 M. Klingenberg ; the small town, known for its 
red wine and fire-proof clay, lies on the opposite bank. 7>/2 M. Worth, 
a small town with an old chateau. The train now crosses to the right 
bank of the Main. Stations Obernburg, Kleinwallstadt, Sulzbaeh, Obernau. 

22 l /2 M. Aschaffenburg (Freihof; Adler; Goldnes Fass; Oeorgi; Rail- 
way Hotel), with 6000 inhab., was for centuries the summer-residence of 
the Electors of Mayence, but since 1814 has belonged to Bavaria. It pos- 
sesses a handsome Schloss, built in 1605-14, with valuable collections; a 
Romanesque * Stiftskirche, founded in 980, containing a few monuments; 
and the Pompeianum, erected by Lewis I. in 1824-49 in imitation of a 

232 Route 32. HEIDELBERG. Hotels. 

house at Pompeii. — Railway from Aschaffenburg to Frankfort via Hanau 
and Offenbach, 25'/2 M., in l-l>/ 2 hr. ; to Darnutadt, 27 M., in */ t -P/ t hr. 

31 M. Erbach (815 ft. ; Burg Wildenstein,- Preiss; Adler; Zum 
Odenwald, wdl spoken of), a town with 2600 inhab., situated in 
the Miimlingthal, is the principal place in the dominions of Count 
Erbach. The *Schloss, rebuilt in the Renaissance style in the 
16th cent, on the site of a very ancient castle, and partially restored 
in the 18th cent., contains an interesting *Collection of armour 
(that of Wallenstein , Gustavus Adolphus , Franz von Sickingen, 
Gotz von Berlichingen, etc.), old fire-arms, valuable stained glass 
of the 13th- 17th cent., Etruscan vases, and a number of other 
antiquities. In the chapel is shown the stone Sarcophagus which 
once contained the remains of Eginhard (see above) and his wife 
Emma, brought from the church of Seligenstadt in 1810 (fee 75 pf.). 

The train now crosses the Miimling and gradually ascends the 
E. side of the valley, high above the river. Near (35 M.) Hetz- 
bach-Beerfelden it traverses the Himbachel Viaduct , 825 ft. long 
and 145 ft. high. The busy little town of Beerfelden (Krone) lies 

2 M. to the S,, at the head of the picturesque Gammelsbacher Thai. 
The line now turns to the S.E., penetrates the Krahberg (on the 
summit of which is a shooting-lodge of Count Erbach-Fiirstenau) 
by a tunnel 3400 yds. in length, and follows the winding course of 
the Jtterbach. 381/2 M. Schbllenbach ; 42 M. Kailbach ; 46 M. Gai- 
muhle. 50 M. Eberbach, see p. 239. 

32. Heidelberg. 

The Railway Station (PI. B, C, 6) is on the W. side of the town. The 
express trains alone have through-carriages, and as these are often shifted 
the traveller should observe the number of his compartment on alighting. 
Omnibuses from the hotels in waiting at the station. The railway which 
ascends the Neckarthal to Wiirzburg has a second station outside the 
Carlsthor; see p. 239. 

Hotels. Near the Station: "EubofIischer Hof (PI. a; B, 5), in the 
Anlage, R. from 3 m., L. 1 m., B. 1 m. 40, A. 75, D. 3 m. 50 pf. ; "Grand 
Hotel, Hotel Schbiedeb (PI. b; C, 6), both belonging to the same land- 
lord; "Victoria (PI. g; C, 5), in the Anlage, also a 'pension', R. 3'/2m., 
L. 50, A. 60, B. 1 m. 20 pf. ; Dabmstadter Hof (PI. k •, B, 6) , at the en- 
trance to the town; Baieischeb Hof (PI. i;B, 6), at the station. Wiener 
Hof, Hauptstrasse 11, R. l-l'/2 m. — In the Town (1 M. from the sta- 
tion): "Prinz Carl (PI. c; B, 2), in the Kornmarkt, near the lane ascend- 
ing to the castle, which it partly faces, D. 3 m.; "Adler (PI. d; B, 2), 
also in the Kornmarkt; "Badischer Hof (PI. f ; B, 3, 4), W. Hauptstrasse, 
in the centre of the town ; "Hollandischeb Hof (PI. h ; A, 2), near the old 
bridge, with de'pendance (Neckar HStel), beyond the old bridge, command- 
ing a fine view of the castle ; charges in these, R. from 2-3 m., D. 2>/j-3 m. 
— Second-class: "Ritteb (PI. m, B, 2; p. 235); Rheinischer Hof, at the 
corner of the Haupt-Str. and the Bienen-Str. (PI. B,4), Ii. from l'/uin. Sil- 
beenee Hirsch, in the market, good wine ; Pfalzer Hof, Goldenes Hebz, 
in the Hauptstrasse. — On the Hill, near the Castle: "Schloss Hotel and 
Pension, with fine view, R. 2-4 m., L. 60, A. 60 pf., B. 1 m. 20 pf., D. 

3 m., omn. to meet the trains, with luggage, l 1 /* in., carr. from station 
3 in. 30 pf. — Pension Ellebman, Anlage 18, 'pens.' 21-28 m. per week; 
Pension Von Mulleb, Haupt-Str. 248. 



\jh>at<mrie ... 

2 ~Amtsgericht . . . 
S.Amtekaus . . . 
3? JBotumsch^T Garten/ 
5 . Giem Jioborcctorium- 
§ .Oefriaupriss . 
o .hath .Jifl.fpittii , 

9 JEngLEhrche. . . 

ID J7/.7Zz0 tfpiit SnWie 

lX.Jemtitf?n, IGrchs . , 

IZtPetersJizrekc ( T 7ruvtr .j a aB* 

XbJ^rovuLcnz Kirche. . I* 

MJCtn-staZl . . .Jill 

V.i.J&c&'eum . . M 

16 .JTaturwissenjtMUnsd'i 

\1 .IiatlJimi.s . . 

18.2Wfer .... 

19.Krrrw«J6oDfr. , 

ZUVrede's Dtiikmal 


a JC-uropaischer Sof 

'bJLoteL Schrieder . 

cJbuix Carl . . 


e JhissisckerJrof 
f JSattischerJBirf 
g yuforia, JEfcel 
'h^BoUihidischer Sfff . 
i Jtaycrtscher Sot . 
bJkirmsta&fcer ITof 
\Jteckers Motel 


n^-wiz Jfcur 


0-r 3 «: s.j"h. . in.«+sl'; -r 


Eittory. HEIDELBERG. 32. Route. 233 

Beitaurants aitd Cafes. *Haberlein, in the Anlage (p. 233), with a 
ladies' room; "Caff Leers, W. Hauptstrasse ; Wachter, in the Market; 
Restaurant at the Hollandischer Hof, Badischer Hof, and Rheinischer Hof, 
see above. Also at the Schloss and the Molkencur (comp. p. 238). Beer 
at the Frankfurter Bierhalle , with garden , in the Anlage ; Rother Ochse, 
E. Hauptstrasse; Kleinlein, W. Hauptstrasse. 

Cabs. (All with two horses). To or from the Railway Stations, or 
for a drive within the town , or beyond the bridges to Neuenheim and 
the Hirschgasse: 1 pers. 50, 2 pers. 90, 3 pers. 1 m. 5, 4 pers. 1 m. 20 pf. ; 
between 11 p.m. and 5 a.m. double fares ; each heavy box 20 pf. — By 
time: per hour 2m., 2 m. 20, or 2m. 60 pf. — To the Castle (direct) 3m.; 
Castle and Molkencur 5 m. ; Castle, Molkencur, and Wolfsbrunnen, 6 m. 
50 pf. ; Castle, Molkencur, Konigsstuhl, and Wolfsbrunnen, 13 m., return 
fare '/ith or '/sth more ; Neckursteinach, whole day, there and back, 14, 
half day, 6, there and back 9 m. 

Donkey to the Castle 70 pf. ; to the Castle and Molkencur 1 m. 40 pf. 

Guide (unnecessary) to the Castle l'/2 m. ; to the Konigsstuhl 3 m. 

Baths. Warm baths at * Sailer's Budeanstalt, in the Plock-Strasse 
(PI. B, C, 4, 5) ; river-baths in the Neckar; by the Zimmer-Platz (PI. A, 4). 

Post Office, Sophien-Strasse, at the station ; Town Post Office (PI. n. ; 

B, 3), Marstall-Strasse, with telegraph-office. — Telegraph Office, Leopold- 
Strasse 12, near the Anlage. 

Photographs at Miinnich^s. 

English Church (PI. 9 ; B, 4), in the Plock-Strasse ; services at 11 a.m. and 
6 p.m. (communion at 8 a.m). Chaplain, Rev. C. O. Culvert, Anlage 20. 

Principal Attractions. If time be limited , proceed at once from the 
station to the Molkencur and Castle (ly« hr.) as follows : by the '■Anlagen' 
as far as the Victoria Hotel (PI. C, 5), then by a footpath to the right wind- 
ing through the ' Wolfshbhle" in 20 min. to the Rondel ('crescent'), whence 
a broad road to the left leads to the C/4 M.) Kanzel ('pulpit'; p. 238). 
All descents to the left are to be avoided. I 1 /* M. the Molkencur; 3 / t M. 
the Castle; ! /4 M. the Great Terrace. In returning, descend by the Burg- 
weg (p. 235) or the new Schloss-Strasse (p. 234), and walk along the 
Haupt-Strasse to the (20 min.) station. Or we may make a pleasant de- 
tour in returning by descending from the Heilig-Geistkirche to the Old 
Neckar Bridge, and then following the right bank to the New Bridge, which 
crosses to the station. 

Few towns can vie with Heidelberg in the beauty of its en- 
virons and its historical interest. Count Palatine Otho ofWittelsbach 
(1228-53) transferred the seat of his government from Stahleck 
(p. Ill), near Bacharach, to Heidelberg, which thus became the 
capital of the Palatinate, and continued so for nearly five centuries, 
until the Elector Charles Philip in 1721, owing to ecclesiastical dif- 
ferences with the Protestant citizens, transferred his seat to Mann- 
heim. Since 1802 Heidelberg has belonged to the Grand-Duchy 
of Baden. It now contains 24,400 inhab. (9000 Roman Catholics), 
and carries on a considerable trade. 

Heidelberg forms, as it were, the key of the mountainous valley 
of the Neckar , which below the town opens into the plain of the 
Rhine. The castle-hill leaves but little space between its base and 
the river for the farther extension of the town, which, apart from 
the recently-built quarters near the station, consists of the so-called 
Haupt-Strasse, a street about I72M. in length, with a few unim- 
portant cross and parallel streets. On the N. side flows the Neckar. 

On the S. side of the town, extending from the Station (PI. B, 

C, 6) along the Leopold- Strasse, runs the Anlage, or public 

234 Route 32. HEIDELBERG. University. 

promenade , planted with trees , and flanked with modern hotels 
and handsome dwelling-houses. Near the centre of the Anlage, and 
near the Chemical Laboratory (PI. 5 ; B, 5) built in 1852, is a Sta- 
tue of the Bavarian Field Marshal Prince Carl v. Wrede (PI. 21 : 
1767-1838) by Brugger, erected in 1860 by Lewis I., King of Bavaria. 
Near the E. end of the Anlage , on the left, is the Protestant 
Church Of St. Peter (PI. 12; B, 3), where Jerome of Prague, the 
companion of Huss, expounded Ms doctrines in 1406 ; the build- 
ing, which has lately been entirely restored, has a fine open-work 
Gothic tower. Opposite, on the other side of the railway , is the 
Klingenthor (see p. 238), near which a bust was erected in 1880 in 
memory of Karl Metz (d. 1877), founder of the German volunteer 
fire brigade system. From this point the new and winding Schloss- 
Strasse, commanding a fine view, and the shorter but less agreeable 
old road (the 'Schlossberg') ascend to the entrance of the Schloss- 
garten at the Elisabethen-Pforte (see p. 237). — Turning to the 
left at the choir of St. Peter's Church, we reach the Ludwigs-Platz, 
with the University Buildings (PI. 19, B, 3), erected in 1711-15. 
The University (600-700 stud.), the famous Ruperto-Carola, the 
eradle of science in S. Germany, and after the universities of Prague 
and Vienna the oldest in Germany, was founded in 1386 by Elector 
Rupert I. Its period of greatest prosperity was in the latter half 
of the 16th, and the beginning of the 17th cent., when, under 
Electors Otho Henry, Frederick III., and Frederick IV., it was the 
centre of 'Humanism', and the chief Reformed seat of learning in 
Germany. During the stormy times of the Thirty Years' War and the 
devastation of the Rhenish Palatinate by the French it survived 
with difficulty. It is indebted for its modern development to 
Charles Frederick of Baden, who in 1802 provided it with eminent 
professors and scientific collections. 

The Library, in a separate building, contains 300,000 vols., 70,000 pam- 
phlets, 3000 MSS., and 1000 diplomas. It is open daily 10-12, and on Wed. 
and Sat. 3-5 also. Scarcely one-third of the MSS. in the famous Bibliotheca 
Palatina, which was transferred to Rome as a present from the Elector 
Maximilian of Bavaria after the capture of Heidelberg by Tilly, have 
been returned. (Thirty-eight were restored in 1814, and eight hundred 
and thirty - eight in 1816 , including some original MSS. of Luther.) The 
other collections and scientific institutions, which possess little interest for 
the passing traveller, consist of an Archaeological Institute, with a small 
but excellent collection of casts and a number of Roman antiquities found 
in the neighbourhood (near the University), a Zoological Museum and an 
extensive Collection of Minerals, both in the Friedrichsbau (PI. 16), a Bota- 
nical Garden, a Chemical Laboratory, Clinical Institutions, etc. 

The Museum (PI. 15; B, 3), the property of a club, is also situated in 
the Ludwigs-Platz. The third floor contains a small collection of pictures 
belonging to the town, in which Rottmann, Feuerbach, Fries, and other 
Heidelberg artists are well represented (adm. on Sun. & Wed. 11-1, 50 pf. ; 
at other times by fee to the attendant). 

The Jesuitenkirche (PI. 11 ; B, 3) has lately been decorated with 
fine polychrome ornamentation by Mayerhauser of Carlsruhe, and 
contains a new marble pulpit by Steinhauser. 

Castle. HEIDELBERG. 32. Route. 235 

In the Market Place rises the Gothic Stiftskirche, or Heilig- 
Geistkirche(Pl. 10; B,2), erected at the beginning of the 15th cent, 
under Count Palatine Rupert. In 1705 the Roman Catholic Count 
Palatine Johann Wilhelm caused the nave to be separated from the 
choir by a wall, in order that the Roman Catholics might worship in 
the latter (now used by the 'Old Catholics'), while the Protestants 
retained the nave. The choir contains the tomb of King Rupert 
(see below) and his wife Elizabeth, sister of the first Elector of 
Brandenburg. — Opposite the church is the inn *Zum Ritter, erected 
in 1592 in the Renaissance style, one of the few houses which 
escaped destruction during the devastations of 1693. 

A few paces hence is the old Neckar Bridge (p. 238). 

The last of the side-streets to the right of the Market Place is 
the Oberbad-Gasse (adjoining the 'Prinz Carl'), from the end of 
which we may reach the new Road to the Castle (p. 234). — 
Pedestrians continue to follow the Hauptstrasse, cross the Korn- 
markt (PI. B, 2) diagonally to the right, and ascend the Burgweg, 
which leads in 12 min. (passing under a long vaulted gateway near 
the top) to the great balcony and the court of the castle (p. 237). 

The ** Castle (670 ft. above the sea-level; 330 ft. above the 
Neckar), situated on the 'Jettenbuhl', a wooded spur of the Konigs- 
stuhl, was founded by the Count Palatine Rudolph I. (1294-1319), 
who erected his new chateau below the old castle on the Jettenbuhl 
(p. 238). The building was extended by Rupert I. (1353-90) and 
Rupert III. (1399-1410), who was elected Roman king at Rhens in 
1400. The castle was then strongly fortified by the electors Frederick I. 
'the Victorious' (1449-76), and Lewis V. (1508-44). The palatial 
parts of the edifice were afterwards erected by the electors of the 16th 
and 17th cent., particularly Otto Heinrich (1556-59), Frederick IV. 
(1583-1610), and Frederick V. (1610-21), King of Bohemia (hus- 
band of Elizabeth, daughter of James I. of England). In 1622, when 
Heidelberg was taken by Tilly, the castle escaped almost uninjured. 
It was afterwards restored by Carl Ludwig (1631-80), during whose 
reign the country also recovered from the other disasters of the 
Thirty Years' War. After the death of Carl (in 1685), the last 
Protestant Elector, Louis XIV- preferred a claim to the Pala- 
tinate, and began the cruel and destructive war which involved the 
Castle of Heidelberg and so many others in one common ruin. On 
24th Oct. 1688 the town and castle capitulated to Count Melac, 
the French general, who spent the following winter here. On the 
approach of the German armies, however, he determined to evacuate 
the place , and on 2nd March , 1689 , he caused the whole of the 
fortifications to be blown up , the palace to be burned down, and 
part of the town to be set on fire. Those parts of the castle and 
town which escaped the French on this occasion were destroyed 
by them four years afterwards. Thirty or forty years later the 
greater part of the castle was rebuilt by the Elector Carl Theodor 

236 Route 32. HEIDELBERG. Cattle. 

(1716-1742), but in 1764 it -was struck by lightning and finally 
reduced to the ruinous condition in which we know it. 

The walls of the castle are of vast extent, and form the most mag- 
nificent ruin in Germany. The ivy-clad ruins are moreover linked 
with innumerable historical associations , and the striking contrast 
here presented between the eternal rejuvenescence of nature and 
the instability of the proudest of human monuments has called forth 
many a poetic effusion. As the external walls (with the exception 
of that on the N. side, facing the town and the Neckar) served only 
for purposes of defence, all architectural ornament was reserved for 
the inner facade towards the ^Schlosshof, or castle-yard. 

Tickets admitting to the interior of the Schloss are procured at the 
corner marked 14 in the plan: charge, including the 'Great Tun', for 
1 pers. 1 m., 2 pers. l'/2 m., 3 pers. or more 50 pf. each. Visitors are 
conducted over the Otto-Heinrichs-Bau, ascend the octagonal tower, pass 
from the Ruprechts-Bau by the extensive, partly subterranean passages to 
the 'Thick Tower 1 , and lastly inspect the castle chapel and cellar. Charge 
for seeing the 'Great Tun' only, for 1 pers. 20, two or three pers. 30, 
more than three pers. 10 pf. each. 

The **Otto Heinrichs-Bau (PI. 15), erected in 1556, the finest 
example of Renaissance architecture in Germany, first attracts the 
eye and merits careful inspection. The facade, partly of the Ionic 
and partly of the Corinthian order, rises in three stories above a 
lofty cellar floor, and. is richly adorned with beautiful sculpturing. 
The cornice of the magnificent portal, to which a double flight of 
steps ascends, is supported by Caryatides. Above it is the bust of 
the founder, the Elector Otto Heinrich, with armorial bearings 
and inscription. In the niches of the facade are a number of sta- 
tues by A. Colins of Malines, all having a symbolical meaning : in the 
four lower niches are Joshua, Samson, Hercules, and David ; in the 
middle niches, allegorical figures of Strength, Justice, Faith, 
Charity, Hope ; in the upper niches, Saturn, Mars, Venus, Mer- 
cury, Diana ; on the parapet, Apollo and Jupiter. In the window- 
arches are medallions of the heads of eminent men of antiquity. 

The *Friedrichs-Bau (PI. 9), dating from 1601-7, is built in a 
massive rococo style , and consists of four stories (Doric, Tuscan, 
Ionic, and Corinthian). In ornamentation it is inferior to the Otto- 
Heinrichs-Bau, which it perhaps surpasses in structural grandeur. 
In the niches are statues of Charlemagne, Otho of Wittelsbach, and 
the Counts Palatine down to Frederick IV. 

In the corner to the left is the entrance to the cellar (PI. 10), con- 
taining the famous Heidelberg Tun, a monster cask capable of holding 
49,000 gallons. The tun was originally constructed in 1664 under Electoi 
Lewis , but in its present form dates from 1751 , when Elector Charles 
Philip almost entirely renewed it, in repairing the damage it had re- 
ceived in 1688 and 1693. By the tun stands a grotesque wooden figure oi 
Perkeo, court-jester of Elector Charles Philip. Another large tun bears 
humorous inscriptions. 

The Municipal Collection of Pictures and Antiquities in the Fried- 
richsbau (entrance PI. 14 ; adm. 50 pf. , for parties of 6 and upwards. 
30 pf. each) contains an extensive collection of portraits of Palatine 
princes, statesmen, generals, and professors ; documents, coins, relics, wea- 

Castle. HEIDELBERG. 32. Route. 237 

pons, ornaments; .view*, of the castle at, different periods; a cork model 
of the castle; a relief-plan pf tbe environs of Heidelberg, etc. 

A vaulted passage leads under the Friedrichsbau to the *Great 
Balcony, constructed in 1610, which commands a beautiful vie%, 
The footpath (Bur gweg ,• p, 235) to the town begins at the base of 
this platform. 

■ Adjoining the Friedrichsbau on the left is the so - called 
Rupreehts- Halle, or Bandhaus (Pi: 8), probably erected by Ru- 
pert I., but afterwards altered. Farther back is the so-called Alte 
Ban (PI. 7), the remains of a building erected by Rudolph I, 

Beyond the Alte Ban is the Rupreehtibm* (PI, 6), a simple Go- 
thic structure erected by Rupert III, The imperial eagle with the 
arms of the Palatinate recall the election of that prince to the sceptre 
of the Roman kingdom. .Over the entrance is a rosary borne by two 
angels. The large hall in the interior is used on festive occasions. 
'Opposite, adjoining the Ludvrigabau , which was erected by 
LudwigV., is a covered Fountain (PI. 23), with four columns of 
syenite (perhaps from the Felsberg, p, 228), which once adorned 
the palace, of Charlemagne at Ingelheim, and were brought here by 
the Count Palatine Ludwig. 

Passing through the gateway under the square Watch Tower 
(PI. 5), and crossing the bridge over the castle-moat, we reach the 
*Schloss-Gabtbn, laid out on the ruins of the fortifications, and 
used as a nursery .of foiest-trees in connection with the university. 
These pleasant grounds contain many different species of pines. 

To the right, near the W. entrance to the garden, at the. end' of 
the new road to the Castle (pp. 234, 235), is the Eluabethen-Pfturte 
(PI. 1), erected by Frederick honour of his consort (p. 235), 
This gateway forms the entrance to the Stuckgarten, an old bastion, 
which together with the corner- tower, the so-called Dfo&e Thurm 
(PI, 2), defended the castle on the W. side. Between the Dicke 
Thurm and the Friedrichsbau is the Englische Ban, or Elisabethen- 
baii (PI, 3), which was also erected by Frederick V. 

The l Qe*peengte Tfttjrm' (Mown-nip-tower ; PL 18) at the E. angle 
of the castle,- in the fosse to the left of the exit from the castle-- 
yard , is of so solid masonry, '/Chat, when the French blew it up in 
1689, the. result was that one-half became detached and fell in an 
unbroken mass into the moat, where it still remains. The tower Is 
93 ft, in diameter, the TJiraUs 21 ft. thick; beneath it are long 
casemated passages. . 

The curious junction of the red sandstone and granite visible in the 
side of the moat near the Gesprengte Thurm is a point of geological 'ini 
terest even for the non-»scientiflc visitor. . > .■> 

One .of the finest points, in the Schloss-Garten is the * Great 
Terrace to the N.B. , constructed in 1613, commanding a beautiful 
view of the Castle itself. Between the Castle and the terrace is a 
Restaurant, where a band . generally plays, on summer afternoons. 
Behind the teTrace is the Schloa*-H6tel (p. 232). 

238 Route 32. HEIDELBERG. Bridges. 

About H/2 M. farther to the E. is the Wolfsbrunnen, once a favourite 
resort of Frederick V. and his wife Elizabeth, and celebrated in a sonnet 
of Martin Opitz, who was a student at Heidelberg in 1619. According to 
tradition, the enchantress Jetta was here killed by a wolf, whence the 
name. The five ponds fed by the spring contain trout, a dish of which 
may be had at the inn. In the vicinity is the reservoir supplying the 
water for the new aqueduct. 

The Route to the Molkencur (20 min.) ascends the steps op- 
posite the Gesprengte Thurm, between ivy-clad walls, passes through 
a small gate, and reaches the road which passes at the hack of the 
castle (finger-post). We may now either ascend by the road or by 
the zigzag footpath. If we follow the latter we may after a few mi- 
nutes either diverge by the 'Friesenweg' to the right, where an in- 
scription has been placed to the memory of Ernst Fries (d. 1841), 
a young painter of Heidelberg , or we may continue to follow the 
zigzag path. (Several finger-posts.) 

The *Molkencur (960 ft. above the sea-level ; 195 ft. above the 
castle) is a small restaurant which commands an admirable view, 
and is the only point from which the castle is seen from above. It 
stands on a spur, near the site of the old castle of the Counts Pala- 
tine, which was destroyed by an explosion in 1537, and of which 
few traces are left. It is said to have been inhabited in the 12th 
cent, by Conrad of Hohenstaufen, brother of Barbarossa (d. 1195). 

A road leads from behind the Molkencur to the S., and after a few 
yards reaches a point where four roads meet (finger-post). That on the 
left descends to the Schloss, the one straight on leads to the Konigsstuhl, 
while that to the right descends to Heidelberg, which it reaches at the 
Klingenthor (p. 234). From the last, after IX., a road diverges to the 
left and ascends in 6 min. to a "Bench, commanding an excellent view 
of the upper part of the town and of the Schloss. A few paces farther 
on is the Kanzel ('pulpit'), a small projecting platform, with a parapet, 
affording a survey of Heidelberg and the plain. The Rondel (reached 
bence in 5 min.), an open space in front of a covered seat, is also a charm- 
ing point of view. From the Rondel a broad path (indicated by a guide-post 
'nach dem Bahnhof) leads by the Wolfshbhle to Heidelberg, emerging at 
the Victoria Hotel (p. 232 ; PI. C, 5). — Immediately beyond the Rondel 
is a footpath ascending to the top of the (20 min.) *Geisberg (1234 ft.), 
the tower on which commands one of the finest views near Heidelberg. 
About 1 M. farther on is the Speyerershof (Inn, 'pens.' 4'/2 m.), a favourite 
point for a walk. Thence to the Heidelberg station about 1 3 /(M. 

The Konigsstuhl, also called KaiserstuM in commemoration of the 
visit of the Emperor Francis in 1815, 905 ft. higher than the Castle, and 
1847 ft. above the sea-level, is reached from the Molkencur by an easy 
and shaded path (indicated by a guide-post on the road to the Schloss, 
behind and to the E. of the Molkencur) in */« hr., or by the carriage-road 
in 1 hour. The tower on the top, 93 ft. in height, commands a most ex- 
tensive view of the Rhine, Neckar, Odenwald, Haardt Mts., Taunus, the 
Black Forest as far as the Mercuriusberg at Baden, and even the cathe- 
dral of Strasburg(?). Inn on the summit. The Kohlhof, 20 min. farthei 
on, commands a fine view of the Dilsberg and the valley of the Neckai 
("Inn, with 'pension 1 ). 

The handsome * Old Bridge (PI. A, 2) over the Neckar, con- 
structed by Elector Charles Theodore in 1786-88, is embellished 
with statues of the Elector and of Minerva. About 1300 yds. lowei 
down, at Neuenheim, is the equally fine *New Bridge (PI. A, 6), 
Both bridges command beautiful views. 

NECKARGEMlJND. 32. Route. 239 

On the right bank of the Neckar is the * Philosophenweg (PI. 
A, 5, 4), a beautiful walk extending 2 M. along the slope of the 
Heiligenberg , chiefly through vineyards, and commanding splendid 
views of the town, castle, valley, plain of the Rhine with the cathe- 
dral of Speyer, and the picturesque outlines of the S. Haardt Mts. 
A very pleasant walk of about 1 hr. may be taken by ascending the 
first road to the right beyond Neuenheim, near the new bridge, tra- 
versing the Philosophenweg, and then descending through the small 
lateral valley of the Hirschgasse, past the well-known students' ta- 
vern of that name, to the Neckar (PI. A, 1). 

Excursions. The -Valley of the Neckar above Heidelberg affords 
many pleasant excursions, which have been much facilitated by the new 
Railway to Neckarelz (30 M. in 2'/s hrs. ; fares 4 m. 10, 2 m. 75, 1 m. 
75 pf.). The station at the Carlsthor (PI. A, B, 1 ; comp. p. 232), 2 M. from 
the central station, is connected with it by a tunnel passing under the castle. 

As the train quits the Carlsthor station, the abbey of Neuburg and the 
village of Ziegelhausen (Adler), a favourite resort of the Heidelbergers, are 
seen to the left. Then (2 M.) Schlierbach (Pension and Restaurant Volcker). 

4'/2 M. Neckargemiind (Hirsch), at the point where the Neckar is joined 
by the Elsenz, the valley of which is ascended by the railway to Heil- 
bronn. The Neckarthal Railway crosses the Neckar, penetrates a tunnel lead- 
ing into the valley of Schonau (p. 230), and reaches — 

8 M. Neckarsteinach (-Marfe, with garden on the river ; station at the 
upper end of the town), a small town with 15CJ inhab., in a highly pic- 
turesque situation, once the seat of the valiant race of the Steinachs, 
who became extinct in 1653. The four old castles still bear testimony 
to their power. The church contains numerous monuments of the fam- 
ily , several of whom bore the surname of Landschaden ('land-scourge'), 
perhaps from the perpetual feuds in which they were engaged. One of 
the castles has been restored in the mediaeval style and surrounded with 
a park by its present proprietor Baron v. Dorth. The highest of them, 
Schadeck, popularly called the 'Swallow's Nest', frowns above a deep quarry. 
A good view of the pleasing valley of the Neckar is obtained from the 
tower (from Neckarsteinach and back 1 hr.). 

Opposite, on a lofty wooded eminence, rises the castle of Dilsberg-, 
unsuccessfully besieged by Tilly during the Thirty Years' War. It was 
used as a state-prison down to the beginning of the present century, 
particularly for Heidelberg students, and the following anecdote shows 
how rigorous was the confinement to which the prisoners were subjected. 
One day when the castle was visited by strangers who desired to see the 
cells , they were told by the officer in command that he could not oblige 
them, as the prisoners were then making a tour in the Odenwald and had 
taken the keys with them. 

IO72 M. Neclarhausen. 12'/2 M. Hirschhorn ("Zum Naturalislen), most 
picturesquely situated at the foot of the handsome and loftily situated 
old castle of the once powerful, but now extinct barons of Hirschhorn, 
or Hirzhorn. In 1406 one of the Hirschhorns erected a Carmelite mon- 
astery at the foot of the hill, the original chapel of which , built in a 
tasteful style, with pointed towers , still contains many monuments of 
the family. The Erschheirner Capelle, rising above the river, a late-Gothic 
building of 1517, also contains monuments of the Hirschhorns. 

17 M. Eberbach ("Leininger Bo/; 'Krone, on the Neckar, R. l'/g m.), 
an old town with 4000 inhab., belonging to the Prince of Leiningen, and 
carrying on a brisk trade in timber. From this point we may in .2 hrs. 
(guide not absolutely necessary) ascend the Katzenbuckel (1959 ft.), the 
highest of the Odenwald Mts., composed of red sandstone, through which 
dolerite protrudes at the top. The tower commands a fine view of the 
valley of the Neckar, part of the duchy of Baden, and Wurtemberg as far 
as the Alb and the Black Forest. — Railway to Darmstadt, see p. 232. 

240 Route 33. MANNHEIM. 

Beyond Eberbach the train passes Stolzeneck, on the left bank, the 
ruins of a castle of the 13th century. 23>/2 M. Zwingenberg , on the right 
bank, lying close to the river, is commanded by a picturesquely situated 
castle of the Margraves of Baden, which was rebuilt in the 16th cent., and 
has lately "been restored and rendered habitable. Five of the eight towers 
are still preserved. The Katzenbuckel may also be ascended hence. — 
25'/2 M. Neckargerach, on the right bank. On the hill above are the ruins 
of the Minneburg, which was destroyed in the Thirty Years' War. The • 
valley now expands. On the left bank is the Reiherhalde, so called 
from the flocks of herons. (Reiherl which have established themselves 
here. A little above Obrigheim , on the left bank , is the ruin of Dauch- 
stein. At Diedesheim the river is crossed by a bridge-of-boats. — Near 
(28 M.) Binau the train passes through a tunnel '/a M. in length. 

30 M. Neckarelz, on the right bank, at the influx of the Biz into the 
Neckar, contains a late-Gothic lodge of the Templars. Opposite the town 
rises the Neuburg. 

Neckarelz is the junction for the Heilbronn and Meckesheim line, 
by which we may return to Heidelberg (same distance and fares). The 
stations are Asbach, Aglasterhausen , Helmstadt , Waibstadt , Neidenstein, 
Eschelbronn, Meckesheim, junction for the Heilbronn and Heidelberg line, 
Matter, Bammenthal, and Neckargemilnd (p. 239), where it rejoins the line 
above described. 

The first station beyond Neckarelz in the direction of Wurzburg is 
Mosbach {"Print Carl, moderate; Badischer ffof), an old and busy little 
town on the Biz. Comp. Baedeker's South German;/. 

From Heidelberg to Speter, 17 M., railway in 1 hr. (fares 2 m. 45, 
1 m. 65, 1 m. 10 pf.). Stations: 4 M. Bppelheim; 5 M. Plankstadt. 

6 M. Schwetzingen ("Erbprinz, "Hirsch, and Adler, by the entrance to 
the chateau ; HStel ffassler, at the station), a pleasant little town with 
about 5000 inhab., attracts numerous visitors from Heidelberg. The Schloss, 
erected by Elector Karl Ludwig in 1656, and destroyed by Me'lac in 1689, 
but afterwards restored, was the residence of the electors at the begin- 
ning of the 18th century. The "Gardens (comp. Plan of Mannheim) were laid 
out by Elector Karl Theodor in the middle of the 18th cent, in the style 
of the grounds at Versailles, and the beautiful old avenues have since 
been surrounded with grounds in the English style. The gardens cover 
an area of 117 acres, and are embellished with statues, temples, artificial 
ruins, a mosque with lofty minarets, and other objects in the taste of the 
18th century. The fountains play daily from the middle of April to the 
middle of October. The visitor is recommended to turn to the right on 
entering. A walk round the whole of the gardens takes about 2 hours. 

Schwetzingen is the junction of the Speyer line with the railway to 
Mannheim and Carlsruhe (p. 243), and of a branch-line to Friedrichsfeld 
(p. 227). The Speyer line runs hence to the W., and then to the S.W., 
and crosses the Rhine by means of a bridge of iron pontoons near (13 M.) 

Speyer, see p. 257. The Rhine Station (15 M.) is near the cathedral ; 
the Principal Station (17 31.) is reached in 10 min. more. 

33. Mannheim and Ludwigshafen. 

Railway Stations. The Main Station (Restaurant) lies on the S. side 
of the town (PI. J, K, 5; p. 242), and is used for the trains to Heidelberg 
and Frankfort (R. 30), Ludwigshafen (p. 242), Schwetzingen and Carls- 
ruhe (p. 243), and for the 'Riedbahn' to Frankfort (p. 213). The Riedbahn 
lias another station beyond the Neckar Bridge (PI. G, H, 1). 

Hotels. "Pfalzer Hof (PI. b ; G, H, 3, 4), at the corner of the Pa- 
rade-Platz and of the Planken, R. from 2 m., B. 1 m. 20, A. 50 pf. ; ••Deut- 
scher Hof (PI. c ; G, 4), commercial, R. & A. 2'/ 2 m. — "Schwarzeb Lowe 
(PI. e; H, 3), second-class, good wines; -Hotel Langeloth (PI. g; H, 3), 
near the Strohmarkt; Landsberg, small, near the station; Kiwis von 

B.^xw u . Sftielsaal 
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10 Theater 
WfAeughaus . 

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MANNHEIM. 33, Route. 24 1 

... JP1.<4; G, 3), Ai 

bridge, :R» : 

Portuoai i (PI. <#$ G, 3), An den Planken; Zcm Nbckarthal, neat the 

Arch* Noah (F, 5, 2); Stem (B, 2, 14), near the theatre; 
Cafi Francois (C, 2, 1); Rotautock, near the Kaufhau&v Ballham, in the 
Schlossgarten, in the W. wing of the Sehloss; Railway Restaurant. — 
Beer: AUt Bonne (N, 3, 14), Rothes Schaf (C, 1, 10), Orotttr Majerhof 
(E, 4. 12). 

Cabs. From the station or the steamboat pier into the town, for 1 

Sera. SO , 2 pers. 70, 3 pen. 90, 4 pen. 1 m. 10 pf. ; to Ludwigshafen 1 m. 
), 1 m. 70, 1 m. 90, or 2 m. 10 pf. — Per drive within the town : 1/4 br. 
for 1-2 pers. 50, for 34 pers. 90 pf.; >/< br. 80 pf. or 1 m. 20 pf. 

Tramway*. From the Main Railway Station to the Rheiathor and 
from the Biedbahn Station to the Rhine Bridge, fare 16 pf:; to Ludwigs- 
hafen 25 pf. Comp. the Plan. 

. Steamboat. The landing-place is below tbe bridge overf the Rhine, 
*/t M, from the station at Ludwigshafen, and 1 II. from the Mannheim 
Station. Comp. the Plan. Steamboat to Mayence, via Worms, in 4>/« hrs. 
United States Consul: Mr. Edward U. Smith. 
Post Office (temporary), in the Bchlossplatz. 

Mannheim (276 ft.), a town with 53,450 inhab. (1/gRom. Cath.), 
sitaated near the confluence of the Nectar and the Rhine and con- 
nected by a bridge with Ludwigthafen on the left bank of the latter 
river (p. 242), wag founded in 1606 by Elector Palatine FrederiehlV. 
The castle he then built was destroyed along with the infant town 
in the Thirty Years' War, and again by the French in 1689. For its 
subsequent importance Mannheim was indebted to Elector Charles 
Philip, who owing to ecclesiastical differences transferred his resi- 
dence from Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1721. It is the most regu- 
larly built town in Germany, being divided into 110 square sections 
like a ohess board.' The streets are distinguished, according to the 
American system, by letters and numerals. Mannheim is the most 
important commercial town of the Upper Rhine, tobacco, coffee, 
grain, and petroleum being the staple commodities. The new har- 
bour and docks are very extensive. tv 

The spacious Schloss (PI. 8 ; G, H, 5), erected. i& 1720-29,iand 
partially destroyed in 1795, contains several collections ; entrance 
at the E. side, opposite the Friedrich-Strasse. * t 

The B. wing (entrance opposite the Stephanien-Strasse) contains a 
Natobal Histokt Cabinet (Sun. and Wed., 11-1 and 3-5, free), and a 
number of Boman antiquities. Among the latter ,may be mentioned : 11. 
Mercury with the Infant Bacchus; 19. Votive tablet IS the god Visucius s 
23. Belief with representation of a shop : 24. Votive stone to the 'maternal 
deities; 39-41, Military tombstones. — Here also is the — , 

Picture Gallery (Sun., Wed. 11-1 and 3-5, free; at other times 1 m.). 
Ante-Chamber. Modern Baden artists: 'Karl Kuntz, and Bud. Kuntz, 
Several cattle-pieces; Kobell (d. 1799), Two large landscapes ;.3i3,, Kirner, 
Italian countryman at home. Marie EUmrieder, 300. Head of a cliild, 
307. Christ. Fohr, 301. Party on the Chiemsee,' 302. The Oastle of Eber-*' 
stein. t-p„Boom I..: £. Cranach, 34. Dying Mary . and the Visitation, 35. 
The Nativity and the Annunciation. 24. BolU-tr.iTj, Portrait of an Oriental; 
25. Roit, Senator of Frankfort; 19. Battritton (d. 1754), Game. — II. : 60. 
Hondete*Mri, rrovMry. _ III.:: IWii Mutelni , Portrait of his first wife, 
Isabella Brant ; 87, 88. /. Ruyidatfj Landscapes. — IV. ; 121. Brouwer, K. 
surgical operation. Rembrandt, 123. Christ before Pilate., .122. Two cler- 
gymen, 124. A-pMosopher, 126. The Woman taken in adultery (in shades 
of brown). 127. Potter, Cattle; 19tVilMM^t*r*< r Pertrait of a woman; 

BabjwkbVs. Bhine. 8th Edit. lg 

242 Route 33. LUDWIGSHAFEN. 

141. Ruysch, Fruit; 163. Weenitr, Game. Terburg, 183. Singing-lesson, 182. 
Lace-maker. 190. Wouwerman, Plundering. — V. : Tenters the Younger, 
193-196. Scenes of low life ; 200. Van Ostade, Boors. Tenters the Younger, 
"201. Rustic wedding, 205. Boors playing, 219. Scissors-grinder, 222. Peasants 
singing. 223. Everdingen, Landscape; 235. Joseph Vernet, Calm sea. 253. Le 
Brim, Portrait of a counsellor. — VI. : 259. Cignani, Joseph and Potiphar. 
— VII. : Casts of ancient sculptures. 

The Antiquarium, in the central part of the palace, contains Etruscan 
sarcophagi, heads in marble, and Roman and Renaissance bronzes (apply 
to the attendant in the picture-gallery). 

In the left wing of the central structure is the collection of the Mann- 
heim Antiquarian Society (Sun. 10.30 to 12.30, free ; at other limes apply 
at No. 17 in the right wing), consisting of interesting Germanic and Roman 
antiquities found near Mannheim. 

The Theatre (PI. 10), built in 1776-79, restored in 1854, and 
admirably decorated, is one of the best in S. Germany. Schiller's 
first pieces, the 'Robbers', 'Fiesco' , and 'Cabal and Love', were 
performed here with the co-operation of Iffland and partly under 
his own direction. — Schiller's Monument (PI. 4), by Cauer, which 
adorns the Schillerplatz, in front of the theatre, was erected in 1862. 
Adjacent, on the right and left, are the statues of Iffland (d. 1814), 
a distinguished actor who began his career at Mannheim, and Von 
Dalberg (d. 1806), intendant of the theatre down to 1803, both by 
Widnmann, and erected by King Lewis I. of Bavaria in 1864 and 

The following buildings may also be mentioned ; the Jesuits' 
Church (PI. 5), richly decorated with marble and gilding, erected 
in 1733 ; the Arsenal, built in 1777-78 and now a barrack; the new 
Synagogue (PI. 9), in the Byzantine style, embellished with gilding 
and arabesques; and the Main Railway Station (PI. J, K, 5), a 
handsome structure by Helbling. In the Parade-Platz, in front of 
the Kaufhaus (PI. 6 ; H, 4) , is a curious allegorical Monument, 
representing the vicissitudes of the times (1741). 

The Speisemarkt is adorned with a Monument (PI. 1 ; G, H, 3) 
erected in 1771 in commemoration of the founding of Mannheim. 
On the N. side of the town is a Suspension Bridge over the Neckar, 
constructed in 1845, and leading to the 'Neckarvorstadt' with the 
Riedbahn Station (p. 213). 

The Bailway Bridge (PI. G, 6) across the Rhine, built in 1865- 
68, connects Mannheim with Ludwigshafen on the opposite bank ; 
it is also used by carriages and foot-passengers. Handsome portals 
designed by Durm, and adorned with groups of figures by Moest. 

Ludwigshafen (Deutsches Haus, in the town ; Straub, moder- 
ate; good beer at Heim's brewery), a town with 15,000 inhab., 
begun in 1843, and rapidly increasing in commercial importance, 
was originally only the tete-de-pont of Mannheim. During the 
revolutionary war at the end of last century it was several times the 
scene of sanguinary contests. The Wharfs are among the finest on 
the Rhine. The two new churches, in the Romanesque and Gothic 
.styles , are well worthy of inspection. 

OPPENHEIM. 34. Route. 243 

Ludwigshafen is * central inaction of the Palatinate railways, 
which radiate hence in various directions: toNeustadt, see p. 250; 
to Worms, p. 244 ; to Speyer, p. 267. Passengers to and from Mann- 
heim change carriages here. 

. r-.FKoxM^anHUM to Cablsrdbe (8JB M.) by direct railway (XMne Valley 
Saiivqjfi in l'/i hr. (fares 5 m., 3 m. 30, 2 m. 15 pf.). - Scenery uninteresting. 
9 M.'tAw»tattJt«B,''see p. 240; 14 M. AebMi' MJ«fr JR Neulussheim. 
iSSfiMv WagMiuiel, where the Baden insurgents were signally defeated 
on 21st i June , 1849. 20*/* M. Wimmtlwl. 25 M. Oraben-Wtudmrf. where 
the Hne is intersected by a branch-line between SJuimheim and Bruchtul, 
which passes the ancient imperial fortress ot'PhiUppsbwg, dismantled by 
the French in WXk 29V* M. Mntenkem. 39 H. <ftirt«r«A< (a. 80T). 

34. From Mayence to Ludwipkalm '(Mannheim). 

41 M. Bailwat in 1-lVs nrs.; fares 5 m. 40, 3 m. flQ,7'2'm. 30 pf. 
(express 6 m. 4fi, 4 m. 40, 3 m. 40 pf.). Beuitcht luiaigAaftr. as far as 
Wormt (in 50-80 mi".), and beyond it the PfUltUche Bahn, 

Mayenee, see p. 136. — - The train passes under the Darmstadt 
line (p. 224), intersects the fortifications, and. passes. the village of 
Weisenau. — 2M. Ltwbenheim, 6>/^M. Bodenheim, 7*/jM. Naekm- 
heim, wine-producing villages, lie on the vine-clad hills to the right, 
at some distance, from the Rhine. 

10% M. Nierstein (*£htin(hal, at the station, with an old Ger- 
man wine-saloon), a village with 3200 inhab., is noted for its care- 
ful vise-culture. 'Nlersteiner' is one of the best known and most 
wholesome of Rhenish wines ; it is marked by a mildly acid flavour 
with considerable aroma. Most of the wine of Rhenish Hesse* is 
sold under this name. The private cbapel of the v. Btrdimp family 
contains six luge frescoes by Odtzenberger. On .the. hill to the right 
rises an old wateb-tower. 

12 M. Oppenheim (*H8tel Ritter), a manufacturing town with 
3200 inhab. ; picturesquely situated on a hill rising above the river, 
is commanded by the red church of St. Catherine and the ruined 
castle of Landskron. The town is mentioned In the Roman itiner- 
aries; as Bavconiea; & afterwards became a city of the empire .and 
enjoyed the patronage of the Franconian, emperors, particularly 
Henry IV. :, and at a still later period it was an important member of 
the league of the Rhenisb towns. In 1689 the town was destroyed 
by the French. The Protestant *Cathatinenkirchc is a fine QojSiifi. 
edifice. The B. choir was begun in 1262, and the body of the church 
was erected in 1317. The W. choir (abbey-church), consecrate^ in 
1439, which has been in ruins since its destruction by the French, 
is now being restored. The E. part of the church, a cruciform edlflo* 
with a tower over the centre and two W. towers', was restored in 
1838-43. The windows contain beautiful tracery. In the. interior 
we observe stadned-, glass and tombstones of the 4§th cent., bearing 
the arms of the Dalberg, Sickingen, Greiffeoelau, and other distin- 


244 Route 34. FRANKENTHAL. From Mayenee 

guished families. The finest of the monuments are those of Johann 
v. Dalberg(d. 1415) and his wife, and their daughter Anna (d. 1410). 
The sacristan lives on an upper floor to the left of the steps at the 
principal S. entrance (40 pf.). 

Higher up, and connected with the town by a wall and by sub- 
terranean passages, rise the ruins of the once famous imperial fortress 
of Landskron, which was burned down by the French. It was erected 
in the reign of the Emp. Lothaire, and restored by Emp. Rupert, 
who died here in 1410. Extensive view from the top. 

A column of syenite excavated on the Landskron, and probably 
one of those quarried on the Felsberg (p. 219), has been erected at 
Oppenheim in memory of the war of 1870-71 . 

16 M. Guntersblum (Krone), a small town which formerly belong- 
ed to the Count of Leiningen, possesses a Romanesque church with 
helmet-shaped towers. On the N. side of the town is the chateau of 
the count with its gardens. In the plain between Guntersblum and 
Oppenheim the Salic Conrad II. was elected emperor in 1024. 

18 M. Alsheim; 20 M. Mettenheim; 221/2 M. Osthofen. 

27'/ 2 M. Worms, see below. 

From Worms to Darmstadt arid Frankfort by the junction-line to the 
Rhine and via Rosengarten, see p. 224. 

From Worms to Monsheim (Bingen, Diirkheim , etc.) , see p. 248. — 
Pfeddersheim, the halfway station, possesses ancient fortifications. 

34 M. Frank en thai (Hotel Kaufmann; Restaurant Witter), a 
busy, regularly-built town with 9000 inhab., possessing a number 
of manufactories and considerable nursery-gardens, was founded by 
Calvinists who were banished from the Netherlands by the Spaniards 
in 1554. The portal of the late-Romanesque Abbey Church, situ- 
ated at the back of the Roman Catholic church, founded in 1119 and 
consecrated in 1224, is worth inspection. Frankenthal is connected 
with the Rhine (3 M. distant) by a canal constructed in 1777. 

From Frankenthal to Freinsheim (p. 248), 9 M., railway in 35 min. 
(fares 75, 50 pf.). Stations Flomersheim-Eppstein, Lambsheim, Weiienheim 
am Sand. 

38 M. Oggersheim (Krone). The Loretto church here is a fine 
building. A memorial tablet on a house in the Schiller-Strasse 
records that Schiller resided here in 1781. He was at that time 
engaged in writing his 'Kabale und Liebe'. 

41 M. Ludwigshafen, see p. 242. — Passengers for Mannheim, 
Heidelberg, etc., change carriages here. Route to Neustadt, Neun- 
kirchen, Landau, etc., see pp. 250, 261. 

Worms. — Hotels. Mar the station: -Europaischer Hof, with re- 
staurant, R. 2-2'/2, B. 1, D. 2V2 m.; "Pfalzer Hof, unpretending. — In 
the town: -Alter Kaiser, Andreas-Str., near the cathedral ; "Hotel Hart- 
mann, Karnmerer-Str. ; these of the first class. Bellevue, opposite Luther's 
Monument; Pfalzer Hof. — Railway Restaurant; Worrefs Restaurant, near 
the station. 

Worms , one of the most ancient, and in the middle ages most 
important, towns in Germany, with 19,700 inhab. (11,000 Prot.y 



Ala z (_v 

to Ludwiyshafen. WORMS. 34. Route. 245 

6500 Rom. Oath., and 2000 Jews), lies in the rich plain of the 
Wonnegau, 3 / 4 M. from the Rhine. The culture of the vine forms 
the great resource of the place, but of late years a number of leather 
and other manufactories have also been established.. 

Worms is the Roman Borbetomagtu, the seat of the Yangiotiit, which, after 
the period of the migrations of the barbarian hordes , became the capi- 
tal of the kingdom off the Burgundiane, who had descended from the Baltic 
Sea (431). The Franconian kings, and afterwards Charlemagne and his suc- 
cessors, frequently resided at Worms. The war against the Saxon*' was 
planned here in 772, and here the great contest concerning the investiture 
of the bishops with ring and staff was adjusted by the Concordat between 
the Einp. Henry V. and Pope Caliztns II. (1122). , As « free- city of the Em- 
pire, Worms, in the disputes between the emperors and the princes, always 
espoused the cause of the former, and was specially faithful to the un- 
fortunate Henry IV. Its fidelity was rewarded by the grant of, various 
privileges, chiefly of a commercial character, The union between, Worroa 
and Mayence laid the foundation far the Confederation of Rhenish Towns 
(1254): At Worms, in April 1521 , was held the Imperial Diet, at which 
Luther defended hit doctrines before the Emperor Charles V;, six Electors, 
and a large and august assemblage, concluding with the words: 'Bert I 
ttand, I cannot act otherwise, Qod help me ! Amen.* 

In the time of Frederick Barbarossa the town contained 70,000 inhale, 1 , 
but at the beginning of the 17th cent, the number had dwindled to 40JOPQ» 
The Thirty Tears' War proved very disastrous to Worms , which was 
repeatedly occupied and laid under contribution by Mansfeld and Tilly, 
the Spaniards, and the Swedes. In 1689 the town was treated with savage 
cruelty ' by Helac and the young Due At Crequi. After having Lbeen 
pillaged, it was set on Are, and, with the exception of the cathedral aod 
synagogue, soon became one smouldering heap *of ruins. The town ?#«"- 
tained its independence down to the Peace of LuneviHe in 1801, land attar 
the short-lived French supremacy was annexed to Hessen-Darmatadt its 
1815, when its inhabitants numbered about 5000. 

Proceeding Straight from the railway-station by the Carmeliter- 
Strasse, flanked by new houses with gardens , we reach the Luther- 
Platx with its tasteful pleasure-grounds, situated at the entrance 
to the town, and occupying the plaee of the former ramparts. It 
is embellished with *Luther'a Monument (PI, B, 2), designed by 
MieUehel, partially modelled by him, and completed after his death 
by Mitts, Dondorf, and Schilling of Dresden (erected in 1868). 
• . THa imposing memorial of the great Reformer of Germany, the execu- 
tion- of which occupied nine years and cost about 17,0001., merits 
examination! A massive platform, 16 yds. square and 9'/t ft. high, bears 
in its centre a large pedestal, surrounded by seven smaller ones. The 
centra] | base , or pedestal is surmounted by another pedestal in bronze, 
adorned with reliefs from Luther's life, and medallion portraits of his 
contemporaries who contributed to the Reformation. On it stands Luther's 
•Statue in bronze, 11 ft. in height, a commanding figure. In his left hand 
he holds a Bible, on which his right hand is placed- emphatically'; while 
hfe face, on which faith is admirably pourtrayed, is turned upwards., 'He 
if surrounded by, a row of bold spirits. Who before, or along with him 
had fought the last struggle for the freedom of the Reformation', or were 
privileged to pMm>ote, it in various positions of life*", At the Corners 'of 
t$p chief pedestal, in a sitting posture , are four precursors of the Refor- 
mation: in front, r. *Huss (d. 1415), 1. 'Savonarola (d. 1498); at the back, 
r. Wjrellffe (d. 1887), 1. Fetriis Waldo* (d. 1197). On the side-pedestals 
in front are Philip the Seserojns of Hegsen on the right, and Frederick the 
.Wise, of Saxony on the left; at the back Melanchthon on the right, and 
Reuchlin on the left (each 9 ft. in height). Between these, on lower 'ped- 
estals, are allegorical figures of the towns of (r:) -"Magdeburg (mourning), 

246 Route 34. WORMS. From Mayence 

(1.) Augsburg (making confession), and (at the back) Speyer (protesting). 
Between these figures are the arms of the 24 towns of Germany which first 
embraced the reformed faith. 

A little to the S. of the Luther- Platz is the Schloss - Platz 
(PI. B, 2), on the N. side of the cathedral, the site of the Bischofs- 
hof, or episcopal palace, in -which Luther made his defence in 1521. 
The building was destroyed by the French in 1689, and again in 
1794. On its massive substructure the handsome HeyVsche Haus has 
been erected in the late-Renaissance style. HeyVs Garden, a pleasant 
resort, is open from 11 to 5. 

The *Cathedral (PL B, 2), dedicated to SS. Peter and Paul, 
is a building of very ancient origin, but nothing now remains of the 
original structure. The W. towers, the oldest part of the present 
building, were consecrated in 1110, the remainder of the building 
in 1181. The S. portal, richly adorned with sculptures of scriptural 
subjects and allegorical figures of the Church and the Synagogue, 
dates from the 14th century. With its four elegant towers (the 
one at the N.E. angle restored in 1472), two domes, and double 
choir, the Cathedral ranks, like those of Speyer and Mayence, among 
the finest examples of Romanesque architecture in Germany. The 
exterior in particular is strikingly effective. 

The "Interior (entrance on the S. side ; fee to the sacristan , for 
whom a boy may be sent, 50 pf.), 141 yds. long, 29 yds. wide, across the 
transept 40 yds. wide, nave 105 ft. high, has been recently restored. The 
tawdry decoration of the E. choir with marble and gilding dates from the 
18th century. The Sculptures representing Daniel in the lions' den, in the 
first S. chapel on the right, and the Tombstone of the three Franconian 
Princesses of the 14th cent., now in the N. aisle, are interesting. 

The Baptistery, on the left side of the S. Portal, contains some large 
"High-Reliefs in stone, dating from 1487 and 1488, admirably executed, and 
in excellent preservation. They were presented by noble families of 
Worms and placed in the old cloisters of 1484, but on the demolition of 
the latter in 1813 were removed to their present position; they represent 
the Annunciation, Descent from the Cross, Resurrection, Nativity, and 
Genealogy of Christ. Here, too, is the Tombstone of the knight Eberhard 
von Heppenheim (d. 1559), a well-executed kneeling figure in armour. 
The font is from the ancient chapel of St. John, which was taken down 
in 1807. The paintings of the two patron saints of the church, St. Peter 
and St. Paul, with other saints on the back, dating from the 13th cent., 
alone escaped the French conflagration. 

It may interest those versed in German lore to know that the 
space in front of the cathedral is said to have been the scene of the 
quarrel between Brunhilde and Chriemhilde, recorded in the 14th 
Adventure of the Nibelungenlied. — A little to the S.W., in the 
Andreas-Platz, is the late-Romanesque Andreaskirche (PI. 4; A, 3), 
near which is the Luginsland, a watch-tower of the 13th century. 
The vicinity of the Luginsland and the 'Katterloch', outside the 
Speyerer Thor, yield a highly esteemed wine. 

The streets to the E. lead from the cathedral to the Market 
Place, which contains the Dreifaltigkeitskirche (PI. 5 ; B, 3) or 
church of the Trinity, built in 1726. The streets leading out of the 
market-place, the Kammerer-Strasse on the N., and the Speyerer- 

to Ludwigshafen. WORMS. 34. Route. 247 

Strasse on the S., intersect the whole town. — Several interesting 
old tombstones , chiefly of Roman soldiers , are immured in the 
court of the Stadthaus (PI. 11 ; B, 3). 

Near the Mainzer Thor, in the Grosse Judengasse, which diverges 
to the right of the Kammerer-Strasse, is the Synagogue (PI. 12; 
C, D, 2), an insignificant building dating from the 11th cent., but 
completely remodelled in the 13th cent, and now quite modernised. 
The Jewish community of Worms is one of the oldest in Germany. 

— The Pauluskirche (PI. 9; C, 3), recently restored, contains a 
museum of mediaeval antiquities, chiefly of the Romanesque period. 

In the Mainzer suburb, which was destroyed by the Swedes and 
French , the late-Gothic *Liebfrauenkirche [Church of our Lady ■ 
PI. E, 1), V2M. from the Mainzer Thor, alone escaped. The church, 
which has been lately restored, is in the shape of a cruciform basilica, 
with a triforium and two W. towers. It replaces an older edifice, 
and was consecrated in 1467 ; the keystone of the vaulted roof bears 
the arms of the different corporations of Worms who caused it to be 
built. The only object of interest in the interior is a curious old 
painted sculpture of the Entombment, with life-size figures, to the 
right of the principal entrance. The stained glass is modern. The 
W. Portal is enriched with sculpture. The wine called Liebfrauen- 
milch (see Introd.) is yielded by vineyards near the church. — To 
regain the station (i/ 2 M.) we turn to the right (W.). 

The Rhine anciently flowed round a meadow known as the 
Rosengarten (PI. F,4), on the right bank, opposite Worms (now 
the terminus of the Darmstadt and Frankfort railway, p. 224). To 
this spot attach many ancient traditions , preserved in the Nibe- 
lungen and other heroic poems. Worms is, indeed, the centre of 
these romantic legends. 

Herntheim, 3 M. to the N.W., contains the chateau of the Dalbergs, 
one of the most ancient and illustrious families in Germany. 

35. From Bingen or Mayence to Alzey and Neustadt. 

Railway fkom Bingen to Alzey, 20 1 2 M., in l'/< hr. (fares 2 m. 75, 
1 m. 85, 1 m. 20 pf.). From Mayence to Alzey, 27 M. , in l 1 2 hr. 
(fares 3 m. 45, 2 m. 30, 1 m. 50 pf.). Fkom Alzey to Neustadt ('Hessische 
Ludwigsbahn' to Honsbeim, and beyond it 'Pfalziscbe Batra*), 37 M., in 
l'A-2 1 /* hrs. (2nd cl. 3 m. 30 pf.). The route from Mayence to Neustadt 
via Ludwigshafen is preferable (express in 2 1 /* hrs.). 

From Bingbn (p. 115) to Alzby. The train leaves the Rhine 
at (2 M.) Kempten, and turns southwards. — 4'/j M. Buduheitn- 
Dromersheim, wine-producing places ; 7 M. Gensingen-Horrweiler ; 
9 M. Welgesheim-Zotzenheim; 10 M. Sprendlingen ; 12 l /f M. Oau- 
bickelheim; 14 M. Wallertheim. At (16 M.) Armsheim, with a fine 
Gothic church of 1430, a branch-line diverges to Flonheim, whence 
a pleasant walk may be taken to Wonsheim and (5 M.) the farm of 
Iben, where there is a fine Romanesque chapel, restored in 1876. 

— I91/2M. Albig; 20'/ 2 M. Alsey. 

248 Route 35. ALZEY. From Bingen 

From Mayence (p. 136) to Alzby. — 1 M. Qartenfeld, 47/2-M. 
Gonsenheim, favourite resorts of the Mainzers. A tower on the 
Lenneberg, 1 hr. from Gonsenheim, commands a fine view. To the 
left is the Roman aqueduct of Zahlbach ; to the right lies Finthen. 

— 77 2 M- Marienborn; 10 M. Klein- Winterheim; I272M. Nieder- 
Olm; 1572 M. Nieder-Saulheim ; 19 M. Worrstadt; 22i/ 2 M. Arms- 
heim (see above); 2572 M. Albig ; 27 M. Alzey. 

Alzey (Hotel Masr.hmann), a Hessian town with 5500 inhab., 
on the Selz, possesses a late-Gothic church and the ruins of a castle 
destroyed by the French in 1687. 

On the Petersberg, near Gauodernheim, 6 M. to the N.E. of Alzey 
(beyond Kongemheim), are the remains of a monastery founded about 1200, 
which was excavated in 1877; the Romanesque crypt contains fragments 
of pilasters. The hill commands a beautiful view. 

From Alzey to Langmeil (for Kaisersluuterri), 22 M., railway in 
1V« hr- (fares 1 m. 90, 1 m. 25 pf.). 3 M. Wahlheim; 7 M. Morschheim; 
10 M. Kirchheimbolanden (Hdtel Decker, or; Bechtelsheimer), a busy 
little town, with a chateau of the former princes of Nassau-Weilburg, 
restored after a fire in 1861. — 13 M. Marnheim, etc., see below. 

From Kirchheimbolanden to the Donnersberg. A good road ascends 
from the town to (4M.) Dannenfels ('Giimbel, 'Lander, both unpretending; 
Pension Donnersberg, in the Villa Decker), situated on the slope to the S. 
of the road, in the midst of beautiful old chestnut-trees, and visited as a 
summer-resort. From the Villa Decker a pleasant path, provided with 
finger-posts, ascends by the Wacht am Rhein, Moltkefels (with tablets in 
memory of the war of 1870-71), and Hirtenfels, three fine points of view, 
to (1 hr.) the top of the Donnersberg (2244 ft.), the Mons Jovis of the Romans, 
and the French Mont Tonnerre. The tower on the summit (key obtained 
at Dannenfels), 98 ft. in height, commands an extensive view, embracing 
the course of the Rnine upwards to a point near Speyer, the Haardt Mts. 
towards the S., and the Odenwald and Taunus to the E. About 1 M. 
to the W. of the tower is the Kbnigstuhl, affording a beautiful view 
towards the W. — From Rockenhausen (p. 150) , a railway - station on 
the W. side of the mountain, the ascent occupies the same time. A road 
leads thence to (4 M.) the village of Marienthal, where the handsome 
modern-Gothic church contains good monuments of Counts of Falkenstein 
(one with seven children, who died in 1556-63) from an earlier church. 
From Marienthal to the tower (with guide and the key) 1 hr. — The 
Donnersberg may also be ascended from Winnweiler (p. 150; through the 
Falkenstein valley, steep, 3 hrs.), or from Marnheim (see below; 2 hrs.). 

— Dannenfels is about 3 M. from Gbllheim (see below). 

From Alzey toNbustadt. — 272 M. Kettenheim; 5M. Eppels- 
heim; 7M. Oundersheim; 972^. Niederflorsheim ; 12M. Monsheim, 
the junction for Worms (p. 244) and for Marnheim and Langmeil. 

From Monsheim to Langmeil, 22 M. — 2 M. Wachenheim; 4 M. 
Harxheim-Zell , on the Pfriembach , with extensive vineyards ; 0V2 M. 
Albisheim; 9 M. Marnheim, where the Alzey line diverges (see above). 

10'/2 M. Gollheim-Dreisen. — The village of Grbllheim (Goldenes Ross) 
lies l'/2 M. to the S.E. of the station. Near it rises the Hasenbiihl, where 
Emperor Adolph of Nassau was defeated and slain by Albert of Austria 
on 2nd July, 1298. At the S.W. end of the town is a modern Chapel de- 
signed by Voit, into the walls of which is built the old 'K6nigskreuz% a 
figure of the Saviour in red sandstone, erected on the battle-field in the 
14th century. Below the cross is the inscription : '■Anno milleno trecentis bis 
minus annis Julio mense Rex Adolphus cadit ense', with an addition to the 
effect that the monument was restored by Count Lewis of Nassau in 1611. 

18 M. Borrstadt; 22 M. Langmeil. The Alsenz line, see p. 150. 

I272M. Hohensulzen; I472M. Bockenheim; I672 M, Albsheim. 

to Neustadt. DURKHEIM. 35. Route. 249 

I7Y2M. Grunstadt (Hotel Ilg en; PfalzerHof) was the residence 
of the Counts of Leiningen down to the time of the French Re- 
volution. The ruins of their old chateaux of Alt- and Neu-Leiningen, 
which were destroyed by the French in 1690, lie on a hill in the 
distance to the right. 

From Grunstadt to Eisenberg, railway in '/a h r - (fares 80, 55, 35 pf.). 
— The train ascends the valley of the Eisbach, passing numerous paper- 
mills. l'/4 M. Asselheim; 2'/z M. Merteiheim; 4 M. Ebertsheim; 072 M. 
Eisenberg (Reisinger). A picturesque road leads from Eisenberg to (3 M.) 
Gollheim (see above). 

20 M. Kirchheim-an-der-Eck. From (23 V2 M.J Freinsheim 
a branch-line diverges to Frankenthal (see p. 244). 24 M. Erpolz- 
heim. Extensive vineyards in every direction. 

: 27 M. Durkheim (380 ft. ; *Vier Jahreszeiten , on the E. side ; 
*Hausling, near the station, R. 1 m. 70, B. 80pf. ; Zum Haardt- 
gebirge, unpretending, well spoken of ; Qrafs Hotel Garni), with 
7000 inhab., one of the busiest towns In the Palatinate, with its 
conspicuous new Gothic spire, is beautifully situated among the 
vineyards of the Haardt Mts. The town was almost entirely rebuilt 
after the destruction of the castle of the Counts of Leiningen by 
the Elector Palatine Frederick in 1471, and again after the ravages 
of the French in 1689. It afterwards enjoyed great prosperity as 
the residence of the Princes of Leiningen-Hartenburg, whose hand- 
some palace, in which Iffland once acted, and which was burned 
down by the French in 1794, occupied the site of the present town- 
hall. The neighbouring salt-baths of Philippshalle , which attract 
visitors in spring, were rented by a French company in 1881, and 
considerably enlarged. The town, which is surrounded by pleasant 
promenades, is much visited in autumn for the grape-cure. A large 
sausage-fair, numerously attended by the people of the surrounding 
districts, is held at Durkheim in September. 

On an abrupt eminence at the entrance to the Itenachthal, about 1 M. 
from Durkheim, lie the picturesque ruins of the Benedictine Abbey of 
Limburg, once a chateau of the Salic Count Conrad the Elder, who was 
elected king of Germany in 1024 (Conrad II.). His eldest son Conrad 
having perished while engaged in hunting, the king determined to 
convert his ancestral castle into a religious house for the welfare of his 
son's soul. On 12th July, 1030, at 4 a.m., as the chroniclers inform us, 
he and his queen Gisela accordingly laid the foundation-stone of the 
church, and at a later hour on the same day he is said to have also laid 
the first stone of the Speyer cathedral. The Abbey of Limburg was com- 
pleted twelve years later and presented to the Benedictines, who soon 
acquired large possessions. The abbots placed themselves under the 
protection of the Hartenburg Counts of Leiningen, but having quarrelled 
with them, their abbey was taken and destroyed by Count Emich VIII. 
in 1504. The buildings were partially re-erected between 1515 and 1654, 
but the abbey having been suppressed by Elector Frederick III. in 1574, 
they gradually fell to decay. The ruins of the imposing Basilica, which 
now belong to government, afford an admirable example of the style 
of the 11th cent., and are surrounded with pleasant grounds. The 8.W. 
tower, dating from the beginning of the 16th cent., commands a fine view 
(137 steps). Part of the original cloisters and the burial-chapel, which is 
open at the top, are still preserved. Charming view in three different 
directions. (Tavern at the top.) 


We may now proceed towards the W., either by a hilly path along 
the heights, or by Hansen, to the "Hartenburg, the conspicuous red ruins 
of which are situated in the Isenachthal, 2'/2 M. from the Limburg. This 
extensive castle was erected by the Counts of Leiningen about the year 
1200, and was afterwards enlarged; in 1510 it was restored in the Re- 
naissance style, and in 1794 it was blown up by the French. The ruin is 
surrounded with pleasant promenades. On the E. side, on the path from 
the Limburg, there is a large grass-plot where tournaments were once 
held, planted with fine lime-trees, and commanding a pleasing survey of 
the valley. At the foot of the castle lies the village of Hartenburg (Hirsch), 
3 M. from Diirkheim by the high-road. — A walk from Hartenburg up 
the pretty Isenachthal to Frankenstein (p. 255) takes about 3 hours. 

To the N.W. of Diirkheim rises the wooded Kaslanienberg, the summit 
of which is enclosed by a rude stone rampart, 57-100 ft. broad, 7-13 ft. 
high, and about 3'/2 M. in circumference, called the Heidenmauer, and 
probably, like the similar structure on the Altkonig (p. 219), of ancient Ger- 
manic origin. On the right the rampart is overtopped by the Tev/elsstein, 
a rock 13 ft. in height. The 'heathens' wair and the abbey of Limburg 
furnished Cooper with the materials for one of his novels. The paths 
are provided with finger-posts, which indicate the way to several good 
points of view. Among the finest of these are the Flaggenthurm (see 
below) and the Peterskopf (1630 ft.), i/ t hr. from the Teufelsstein. At the 
foot of the latter is the forester's house Weilaeh. 

On the hill to the right, beyond Diirkheim, we observe the 
Limburg, and nearer the railway rises the 'Flaggenthurm' (view). — 
2972 M. Waehenheim. (Dalberger Hof); on the hill lies the ruined 
Wachtenburg, or Oeiersburg, once the property of the Salic dukes, 
and afterwards that of the Counts Palatine, destroyed in 1689. The 
handsome country-houses and gardens here belong to wealthy wine- 
merchants. To the left lies Forst, a village which yields excellent 
wine. — 31 Va M. Deidesheim (Schuler) is another wine-producing 
place and the residence of many extensive vineyard-proprietors. 
34'/ 2 M. Mussbach ; on the hill to the right lie the long villages of 
Konigshofen and Gimrneldingen. 

37 M. Neustadt, see below. 

36. From Ludwigshafen to Weissenburg and 

Railway to Weissenburg (48 M.) in V/t-2^3 hrs.; fares 6 m. 20, 4 m. 10, 
2 m. 65 pf. ; express, 7 m. 10 pf., or 4 m. — Express from Ludwigshafen 
to Strassburg (89 31.) in 3>/ 2 hrs. ; fares 13 m., 9 m. 20 pf. 

Ludwigshafen, see p. 242. The train traverses the fertile plain 
of the Rhine, with its extensive vineyards and fields of corn and 
tobacco. — 3 M. Rheingonheim ; 5 M. Mutterstadt. — 1 l l% M. 
Schifferstadt, the junction for Speyer(57 2 M - i fares &S, 35 pf.) and 
Germersheim (see p. 257). 

The train approaches the Haardt Mts. — IOV2 M - Bohl-Iggel- 
heim; I2V2 M. Hassloch; 19 M. Neustadt, junction for the lines to 
Diirkheim, Alzey (R. 33), and Kaiserslautern-Neunkirchen (R. 37). 
Carriages generally changed here. 

Neustadt an der Haardt. — Hotels. 'Railway Hotel, in the Saal- 
bau (see below) . with restaurant and garden ; "Lowe , R. <fc B. 2>/ 2 m. 
Weisses Lamm; Pfalzer Hop ; Baybischeb Hof; Hotel Bendek, at some 

MARBURG. 36. RouiL 251 

distance from the 'Station. Villa ■ AoausTanSai^ with *petssior#, */* M. 
from the station ,-' in the direction of the village of Haardt. ■— "Rmttaay 
Restaurant. Beer at Jrwit'tf KaUmagef l 'M, and the *J"WteMW», the last 
with a garden and baths. 

Neustadt, situated at the entrance to the valley of the Speyer- 
baek, the largest town in the Haardt district (11,300 inhab."), pos- 
sesses several manufactories, and carries on a considerable -wine- 
trade. (Palatinate wines , see Introd.) Near the station is the 
Saalbau, a Renaissance edifice, built by a company in 1871-72 as 
a> hall for balls, concerts, and meetings. The handsome Gothic 
Abbey Church, founded in 1354 and completed in 1489, contains 
the tombstones of several of the Counts Palatine, the founder* of 
Neustadt. The Rom. Cath. LudwigBkWcht, a modern-Gothic Church, 
was consecrated in 1862. The Statttham, formerly a Jesuit college, 
was built in 1743. 

Neustadt, being the intersecting point of the various railways 
of the Palatinate, makes an. admirable starting-point for excursions 
in the Haardt district. Tours in this neighbourhood and throughout 
the whole of the Palatinate have been greatly facilitated by the 
praiseworthy exertions of the 'Pfalzer Versoaonerungsverein' in 
making paths and ereeUng Anger-posts. 

About >/« H. from the station is the SeMe*thmu (Inn), and */« If. to the 
W. is the Scmtemham (Restaurant), both affording good views of Neustadt. 
Farther on, at about the same height above the valley, opens the SehSnthal, 
with its . beautiful fountains (Restaurant) ; opposite rises the Wolfsbvrg 
(see below). A- walk through the Schonthal brings us to the {*/t ¥•) shady 
Kaltenbrunner-Thal, which begins at the KtaigtmUMe (Restaurant; one- 
horse earr. from neustadt 3 m.). ' 

About iy» U. to the S. <of Neustadt lies the small village of Haardt , 
near which rises the castle of Witwinam, or 'Maardter Scfrlov", recently 
rebuilt in the French Renaissance style. Beyond the "Vtitagjf, near the 
church, are the * Wolfichen Anlagen (open to the public), which command 
an admirable survey of the valley of the Rhine (evening-light best). — By 
the second house in Haardt is a finger-post, indicating the way (left) to 
the 'Haardter Thalchen'. In the last house to the right Is kept the key 
of the tower on the <*/< hr.) WtMMet (ISO ft.), wbieh commands an 
extensive viewv Finger-posts indicate the way thence to the (26 min.) 
"Bergatein (1640 ft.), affording a beautiful view of . Neustadt, the 8peyerr 
bachtbal, and the Schonthal. From the Bergstein we proceed 1 to the (Wmin.) 
rain of WolfsbuTg' and thence to (4®»in.) Neustadt. i ..,<) m !-,t 

Fbom Neustadt xo tbeH^xbobc, i ! /< hr. — From the rqad between 
the station and the town we turn to the S. , passing the SchiesShaus on 
the left. [After 5 min. we reach a finger-post on the right, pointing out 
the way to the (1 hr.) pavilion on the Jfollea {1940 ft.), whence we may 
reach the Maxburg in an hour more.] At (29 min.) Oberhambach we ascend 
the steep paved path to the right; '/» hr., finger-post; 25 min,, ttie top; 
(custodian 40 pf.). The llaxbaig, Or Eam&tujtwr AdUsM, formerly called 
the KtUtfAurg ('chestnut castle'), is conspicuously situated on a spur of 
the Haardt, 1080 ft. above the sea, and about 650 ft. above, the plain. 
The handsome chateau was re-erected in the. Gothic style by Fott, by 
order of Jtax II. of Bavarian but is in a neglected conditio*.' Tjarge frag- 
ments of Roman walls are still exposed to view, this having probably been 
the site qf one of the eattra $tatmet which commanded Germania Superior. 
The mediSBVal castle, which is said to have been built by Henry II., came 
into the possession of the Bishops of Speyer in 1100. In the Feasant War 
of MSB the 'castle was pillaged and destroyed; but a few years later was 
restored at the expense" of the peasantry. In '1588 it was burned down by 

252 Route. 36. LANDAU. From Ludieigshafen 

Margrave Albert Alcibiades of Brandenburg, and, like most of the castles 
in the Palatinate, was finally destroyed by the mercenaries of the 'most 
Christian' Grand Monarque in 1688. On 27th May, 1832, the 'Hambacher 
Fesf, the first great public meeting in Germany, took place here. 

A steep path descends from the Maxburg to ('A hr.) Diedesfeld and 
(V2 hr.) the railway-station of Maikarnmer (see below). — Or from the 
Maxburg we may proceed to (V2 hr.) the village of Maikarnmer, (1 hr.) Eden- 
koben, 0/2 hr.) Rhodl, and the Villa Ludwigshbhe (see below). 

Neustadt is a terminal station. The train next skirts the exten- 
sive vineyards of the Haardt district, commanding beautiful views, 
especially by morning light. — 22^2 M. Maikarnmer; to the right 
rises the Maxburg (see above), which may be reached hence in 
1 hr. ; farther distant is the (2230 ft. above the sea-level, 
with a belvedere at the top), which may be ascended from Neustadt 
via, the Kaltenbrunner-Thal in 2 hours. On a height more to the 
ft,, by the village of St. Martin, 2 M. from Maikarnmer, are the 
ruins of the Kropsburg, which once belonged to the Dalbergs down 
to 1790. On the Steigerkopf (2047 ft.), 6 M. to the W., is the 
Schanzel, in defending which General von Pfan lost his life in 1794. 

24'/2 M. Edenkoben (*Schaaf, with pleasant garden; Pfdlzer 
Hof), a cheerful little town, with a sulphur-spring, is much fre- 
quented for the grape-cure in autumn. Near the thriving village 
of Rhodt, 3 M. from Edenkoben, is seen the royal Villa Ludwigs- 
hohe, above which rises the ruined Rietburg or Rippburg. The villa, 
built for Lewis I. by Gartner, commands a charming view. 

26 M. Edesheim; 28V2 M. Knoringen. The train crosses the, 
Queieh, which formed the boundary between Alsace and the Palatinate 
down to 1815, and separates the "Vosges and Haardt Mts. 

301/2 M. Landau (*Pfalzer Hof, in the market, R. 172-2 m. ; 
*Schwan, or Post; Zur Oewerbehalle ; Kbrber, at theFranzos. Thor, 
unpretending ; omnibus into the town 25 pf.), a town with 7000 
inhab. (72 Protestants), was a fortified place at an early period. In 
the Thirty Years' War it was besieged and taken seven times ; in 
1680 it was captured by Louis XIV., and in 1686 it was fortified 
by Vauban. From the Peace of Rastatt (1714) down to 1815 it re- 
mained in the hands of the French, after which it was annexed to 
Bavaria. In 1867 the fortifications were removed. 

From Landau to Oermersheim, see p. 261. 

From Landau to Annweiler and Zweibriicken, see R. 39. 

About 5 M. to the N.W. of Landau (diligence once daily) is the village 
of Gleisweiler (1066 ft.), which lies at the foot of the Teufelsberg (1950 ft. ; 
*View of the Vosges), with a large Hydropathic Establishment, with whey, 
grape, and 'cow-house air' cures (also a Hotel; 'pension' and medical at- 
tendance, 30-50 m. per week). Pleasant walk of l'/2 hr. to the S.W. to the 
ruin of Scharfeneck, with fine views. 

To the right are visible the Madenburg, the Trifels, the Miinz- 
berg, and the Rehberg (comp. pp. 262, 263). — 34 M. Insheim; 
35*/2 M. Rohrbach. 38 M. Winden, junction for Maxau and Carls- 
ruhe (see p. 313), and for Bergzabern. 

From Winden to Bergzabeen , 6 M. , railway in l /« hr. (fares 55, 
35 pf.j, — Intermediate stations : Barbelroth-Oberhausen, Kapellen-Drtismeiler. 

to Straasburg. WEISSENBURG. 36. Route. 253 

Bergaabern (RStsle; Pflug) is an old town, with partly preserved forti- 
fications. Diligence hence once daily to (16 M.) Dethti (p. 263). 

42 4 /2 M. Schaidt-Steinfeld; 45 M. Kapsweyer, the last Bavarian 
station. The train enters Alsace and crosses the Lauter. To the left 
are the Bienwald and the Geisberg (see below). 

48 M. Weissenburg {^Engel, Schwan , in the town ; Acker's 
Qiuthof, at the railway-station), a very anoient town with 5800 in- 
hab,, mentioned in history as early as the Merovingian kings, was 
the seat of an independent abbey , founded by Dagobert II. , down 
to 1534. The * Abbey Church of St. Peter and St. Paul is a noble 
example of the early-Gothic style (13th cent.), with a tower, above 
the centre of the transept. In the interior are fine stained-glasB 
windows, of the 13th (Romanesque; on the S. side), 14th,, and 
15th centuries. It is adjoined on the N. side by handsome Gothic 
cloisters , which have been recently restored and converted into a 
Museum for Antiquities found in the vicinity of Weissenburg!,' The 
Johanniskirche, partly Romanesque in style, and many of the pri- 
vate houses are also interesting edifices. 

On 4th Aug., 1870, part of the German army under the Crown Prince 
of Prussia gained a decisive victory here over the French udder Abel Douay . 
The town, defended by a simple wall, and the Geisberg-, 2 M. to the S., 
were occupied by the French, but were attacked by Prussians from the E. 
and Bavarians from the N., and both taken after a severe struggle. In 
order to form an idea of the nature of the ground, the traveller should 
follow the Lauterburg road, turn to the rightabout 1 M. from the station, 
cross the railway, and proceed by a footpath to the (*/< H.) Guilei'hof and 
the (% M.) chateau of Qeitberg, now a farm-house, round which the 
■struggle was very hotly contested. Fine view from the terrace on the E.' 
side. Douay fell at the top of the hill, on the way to which numerous 
graves of the fallen are passed. The traveller may now return by the 
Hkgenau road on the W. aide, a round of 2-2'/s hrs. in all. 

A new path, constructed by the Vosges Club, ascends gradually from 
the Hagenauer Thor to the "Beherhohl (1661ft.), a fine point of view, 
3 M. to the W. of Weissenburg, to the right of the road to Bitsch. There 
is a tower at the top. — The excursion may be pleasantly extended by 
the Bitsch road to Lembach (9 M. from Weissenburg) and (lS'/a M.) Ober- 
ttmnbach (p. 261). 

On quitting Weissenburg the train describes a circuit round, the 
Geisberg, passes stations -itodselc, Hundsbach, and Hoffen t and 
reaches — .,..,... 

58 M. Sols miter dem Walde (Btmlt), the best starting-point 
for a visit to the battle-field of 6th Aug. 1870. — At Zmbsann and 
Schwabweiler, near Sulz, petroleum and asphalt are obtained. 

Leaving the station, the traveller follows, tha road «».far,*$ >ive middle 
of the village, "and then turns to "the left. Beyond the village the road "to 
(12Vz M.) Beichshofen leads to the left to XHtteenltatuen and Merckweiler. 
On the right, a little farther, lies Preutchdorf , whence the 5th Prussian 
dorps marched on the morning of 6th August. At the point where the road 
begins to descend into the valley of the' Bauer, a few paces beyond a' 
finger-post (i 1 ^ If. from Bali), which indicates the road ' to Ttefentaeh to 
the left, * n d Sotrtiorf to the right* an admirable view of the entire 
battle-field is disclosed (^ke, Crowa-Prpncei was stationed in the fields to 
the right) : in the Valley opposite the spectator Bes Worth (" Weitses P/eri)', 
with 'its ancient «astle-tower$ whieh with' Frifsehweiler and EUumhauun 
to the, left, also situated on (he hill,, formed, the centre of .the French 

254 Route 36. HAGENAU. 

position. By noon the Germans had possessed themselves of Worth, but 
the height of Froschweiler held out against them until the 11th corp3 
advanced from Gunstett behind the woods and stormed Elsasshausen, and 
the Bavarians marched up from Lcmgenmlzbach, the red roofs of which 
peep through the woods on the right. From Worth (following the road to 
the right in the village) to Froschweiler is a walk of 20 minutes. The 
church of Froschweiler was destroyed, with the exception of the outer 
walls, but a new one, the tower of which overlooks the whole of the 
battle-field, has been built. To the S.E. of Eberbach, in the direction of 
Morsbronn, is the point where the French cavalry made its gallant onset, 
which certainly covered the retreat of the infantry, but resulted in the 
destruction of the whole brigade of horse. The battle-field is now strewn 
with monuments, the principal German one being near Elsasshausen and 
the largest French one to the N. of the road from Worth to Froschweiler. 
From Froschweiler to Reichshofen (p. 273), 21/4 M. ; and on to Mederbronn 
(p. 273), I1/4 M. more. 

The line now traverses part of the Forest of Hagenau, which is 
45,000 acres in extent. 

63!/2 M. Walburg, a small village in the forest, with a fine 
church of the 15th century. 

68'/ 2 M. Hagenau {Europaischer Hof ; Post; Wilder Mann, 
good red wine), with 11,300 inhabitants, was once a free town of 
the German Empire and a fortress, the works of which are partly 
preserved. The walls were erected by Emp. Frederick I. in 1164. 
The palace erected by the same emperor, afterwards a favourite 
residence of the Hohenstaufen, was destroyed in the 17th century. 
Part of the conspicuous Church of St. George dates from the 12th 
century. The choir contains a colossal wooden figure of Christ, 
executed in 1488. The fine candelabrum of the 13th cent., and 
the modern stained glass also deserve attention. Herr Nessel pos- 
sesses a collection of coins and antiquities found in the vicinity. 
— To the E. of the town and S. of the Hagenauer Wald lie the 

Railway to Saargemiind, Metz, and Saarbriicken, see p. 273. 

71 M. Marienthal, with a nunnery, dissolved in 1789; 73 M. 
Bischweiler, with cloth-manufactories. The train now crosses the 
Zorn. — 79 M. Hordt. 

83 M. Vendenheim, junction for the Saarburg-Zabern line (R. 42). 

Then several unimportant villages , in the neighbourhood of 
which are some of the new outworks of Strassburg. — 89 M. Strass- 
burg, p. 264. 

37. From Mannheim (Ludwigshafm) to Neunkirchen 


72 M. Railway (Pfalzische Eisenbahn) in a'/sr^A hrs. ; fares 9 m. 50, 
6 m. 30, 4 in. 10 pf. (express 10 m. 80, 7 m. 60 pf.). 

The train crosses the Rhine by the new Railway Bridge (p. 242), 
which affords a pleasing glimpse of the river, to (2 M.) Ludwigs- 
hafen (p. 242). Thence to (21 M.) Neustadt, see p. 250. 

Neustadt is the junction of the line to Durkheim (R. 35) and to 
Landau (R. 36). The Saarbriicken line now enters the mountain- 

KAISERSLAUTERN. 37. Route. 255 

district of the Wesirich. For an hour the train winds up the wooded 
ravine of the Speyerbach, and penetrates the variegated sandstone 
rocks by means of 12 tunnels. Beyond Neustadt, on a hill to the 
right, stand the red ruins of the Wolfsburg. 

25 M. St. Lambrecht - Grevenhausen (* Klein), two villages 
founded by French emigrants, with extensive military and other 
cloth-factories. About 174 M. farther on, at Frunkeneck, a paper- 
making village, the valley divides. The branch to the left, through 
■which flows the Speyerbach, is named the Elmsteiner-Thal ; that 
to the right is named the Frankensteiner-Thal, and is watered by 
the Hochspeyerbach. The train ascends the latter. 

A pleasant excursion may be made in the well-wooded Elmsteinek- 
Thal. About 4'/2 M. above Frankeneck are the ruins of Spangenberg 
(left) and Er/emtein (right ; refreshments at the adjacent forester's). We 
next pass the ruin of Breitemtein and reach (3'/2 M.) Appenthal and (i'/ 2 M.) 
Elmttein (Schroer's Inn), whence the Etchkopf (1870 ft.) may be ascended 
in 2 hrs. (guide desirable). Refreshments may be obtained at any of the 
foresters' houses. 

Farther on, on a height to the right, are the ruins of Neidenf 'els. 
30 M. Weidenthal, with two new churches. 32 M. Frankenstein 
(Kblsch; Haffen). with the ruins of a castle of that name. On the 
other side of the valley, above the tunnel, which is 1487 yds. in 
length, is another fine old ruined castle ; to the right is the rock call- 
ed the TeufelsleiterQ devil's ladder'). In a secluded valley to the right 
lies the ruin of Diemerstein, surrounded with pleasure-grounds. 

The Drachenstein, commanding a varied and extensive view, may be 
ascended from St. Lambrecht (3 hrs.), Weidenthal (2 hrs.), or Franken- 
stein (2 hrs.). About 1/2 hr. below the summit is a spring named the 
Siegfriedibrunnen. The descent may be made through Isenachthal to 
Durkheim (4 hrs., see p. 249). 

35 M. Hoehspeyer (876 ft.), the highest station on the line, is 
the junction for the Alsenzbahn to Miinster am Stein and Kreuznach 
(see p. 150). 

41 '/2 M. Kaiserslautern (*Schwan ; Zum Karlsberg ; Hdtel Krafft), 
one of the chief towns in the Palatinate, situated in the hilly tract 
of the Westrich, with over 26, 000 inhab., and considerable spinning 
factories, iron-works, and breweries, was once a residence of Emp. 
Frederick Barbarossa , who erected a magnificent palace here 
in 1153. The building was destroyed during the Spanish War of 
Succession, and the site is now occupied by a house of correction. 
His memory is still revered here, as he presented the town with a 
wood, worth 50,000 m. annually. The Protestant Church with its 
three towers owes its foundation to the same monarch, but in its 
present form belongs wholly to the 13th and 14th centuries; it was 
restored recently. The Fruchthalle, or corn-hall, and the Provincial 
Museum are large and handsome buildings. A battle was fought at 
Kaiserslautern in 1793 between the Prussians and the French. 

Diligence twice daily in l 1 /* hr. from Kaiserslautern to (7 M.) Otter- 
berg, with a Cistercian abbey founded in 1134 and now suppressed. The 
abbey-church, an imposing structure in the transition-style, was probably 
completed in 1225. 

256 Route 37. LANDSTUHL 

Between Kaiserslautern and Homburg the line runs near the 
'Kaiserstrasse', a road constructed by Napoleon, and skirts the 
Landstuhler Bruch, an extensive moor at the base of wooded hills. — 
49 M. Kindsbach. 

51 M. Landstuhl (Engel; Burgard), a small town with 3400 
inhab., was once a seat of the Sickingen family, whose castle, with 
its huge walls, 25 ft. thick, lies in ruins above the town. Franz 
von Sickingen was besieged here by the Electors of the Palatinate 
and Treves in 1523, and lost his life by the falling of a beam. His 
remains were interred in a vault under the church, but the monument 
erected to his memory was destroyed by the French. Another has 
recently been erected, and the paths about the castle have been 
repaired. Keys at the forester's. The Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum 
was erected in 1853. Pleasant walks may be taken to the Fleisch- 
hackers Loch, the Kohlenberg (with a belvedere), and the Barenloch. 

From Landstuhl to Kusel, 18 M., branch-railway in l'/4 hr. (fares 
1 m. 55 pf., lm,). The line intersects the Landstuhler Bruch (see above). 
3 M. Ramslein; 4 1 /* M. Steinwenden; 7 M. Niedermohr. At (8 3 /4 M.) Glan- 
Munchweiler the attractive valley of the Glan is entered, and followed via 
Rehweiler, Eisenbach, and Theisbergstegen to (15 M.) Altenglan. The line 
then turns in a sharp angle towards theW., and enters the Kuseler Thai. 
Kusel (Zum Maimer Hof), a busy little town with cloth and other factories, 
was burned down by the French in 1794, on suspicion of being concerned 
in a forgery of 'asaignat3\ In the neighbourhood are considerable syenite 

o4'/ 2 M. Hauptstuhl; 57 M. Bruchmiihlbach. 64 M. Homburg 
(*Dummler), a small town, with a handsome Roman Catholic Church, 
built in 1840. The 'Bergschloss Homburg' has entirely dis- 
appeared. The castle of Carlsberg, on a hill 1/2 hr. to the N.E., 
was built by Duke Charles II. of Zweibrucken in 1780, and de- 
stroyed by the French in 1793. 

From Homburg to Saahgemund, 30 JI., railway in 2 l /t hrs. — 4 M. 
Schwarzenacker. From (0 M.) Einod a branch-line diverges to Bierbach, 
Lautzkirchen , Wiirzbach, St. Ingbert, Scheldt, and Saarbriicken (19. M. ; 
p. 154). 

7 M. Zweibrucken ('Zweibrueke.v Hof; Pfiilzer Hof), formerly the re- 
sidence of the Dukes of Zweibrucken, and known to the literary world 
as the place where the Ediliones Biponlinae of classical authors were 
published. It is now a town of IG.,000 inhab., and contains the chief 
court of the Bavarian Palatinate, which occupies the old castle. To the 
left of the E. entrance to the town is the new prison. When Charles X. 
Gustavus of the Zweibrucken family ascended the Swedish throne, the 
Duchy became subject to Sweden, which it continued to be till the death 
of Charles XII. in 1719. The Alexanderkirche contains the burial-vaults of 
the ducal house. The new Roman Catholic Church is a handsome building 
in the Gothic style. The Government Stud here was originally founded 
by the old Dukes of Zweibrucken. — - To Landau, see p. 261. 

The line then leads by Bierbach, Blieskastel, G ersheim-Walsheim, and 
Reinheim, to (30 M.) Saaryemiind (p. 273). 

Beyond (68 M.) Bexbach the line enters a productive coal-district 
in the Prussian dominions. 

72 M. Neunkirchen, and thence to (85 M.J Saarbriicken, see 
p. 154. 

«311-Ut, mJ , f l ,3-^f. 


38. From Mannheim to Speyer, and to Strassburg 
via Germersheim and Lauterburg. 

82 M. Railway in 4-4y 2 hrs. ; fares 10 m. 70, 7 m. 10, 4 m. 60 pf. (to 
Speyer, 14 M., in i/H/i hr. ; 1 m. 80, 1 m. 20, 75 pf.). This line, opened in 
1876, affords the shortest route between Frankfort on the Main and Strass- 
burg (express train in 4'/ 2 hrs.). — From Schwetzingen (Heidelberg) to 
Speyer, see p. 240. 

Prom Ludwigshafen [Mannheim, p. 240) to (7!/2 M.) Schiffer- 
stadt, gee p. 250. The line to Speyer diverges here to the left from 
the Landau line (R. 36). 

14 M. Speyer. — Omnibus into the town, 30pf. — The principal station 
(PI. A, 1), is about 3 /t M. from the cathedral, to which the road leads in 
a straight direction; the Rhenish station of the Schwetzingen line (PI. E, 3) 
is only '/* M. from the cathedral. 

Hotels. "Wittelsbacher Hok (PI. a; C,4), Ludwig-Str.; "Rheinischeb 
Hof (PI. b; B, 3), Maximilians-Str., R. from l'/j m., B. 80 pf., D. 2 m.; 
"Pfalzeb Hof (PI. c ; C, 3), Maximilians-Str. 

Restaurants of Deutsch, opposite the station, and others. Beer-gardens 
at the station and on the Rhine. Cafi Schicetinger, Maximilians-Strasse. 

Speyer, or Spires (325 ft.), the capital of the Bavarian Palatinate 
and the seat of government, with 15,000 inhab. ( 2 / 5 Prot.), lies near 
the left bank of the Rhine at the influx of the Speyerbach. It was the 
Roman Augusta Nemetum, became an episcopal see in the 4th cent., 
and was frequently the residence of the German monarchs. The 
city prospered greatly under the Salic kings, who repeatedly granted 
privileges to the loyal inhabitants, embellished the old palace, and 
built the celebrated cathedral , which was regarded as the burial- 
church of the German emperors for nearly five centuries. As a free 
city of the empire Speyer enjoyed a high reputation. Of the 
numerous imperial diets held here the most important was that 
of 1529, under Charles V., after which the princes and estates 
who had espoused the cause of the Reformation received the name 
of Protestants , from their protest against the resolution of the 
hostile majority. The city was destroyed by the French in 1689, 
and has only recently begun to prosper again. 

The **Cathedral (PI. D, 3), the great attraction of the place, is 
open 9-11 a.m., and 2-6 p.m. ; admission to the choir and crypt by 
tickets only (35 pf.), obtained from the sacristan. The old German 
altar-piece and the cartoons in the Chapel of St. Catharine are 
shown for a fee of 1 m. and 35 pf. respectively. 

The cathedral was founded in 1030 by Conrad II. (d. 1039) 
as a burial-place for himself and his successors , and continued by 
his son Henry III. (d. 1056) and his grandson Henry IV. (d. 1106), 
all of whom found a resting-place within its precincts. The remains 
of Henry IV., who had been excommunicated by Pope Gregory VH., 
were not deposited here till five years after his death, during which 
period his body remained unburied in the Chapel of St. Afra, on 
the N. side of the cathedral, which he himself had erected. His son 
Henry V. (d. 1125), the last of the Salic imperial family, is also 

Baedeker's Rhine. 8th Edit. 17 

258 Route 38. 


From Mannheim 

interred here , as well as Philip of Swabia (d. 1208) , Rudolph of 
Hapsburg (d. 1291) , Adolph of Nassau (d. 1298), and Albert I. of 
Austria (d. 1308), by whose hand Adolph fell at Gollheim (p. 248). 
After the murder of Albert I. , the Emp. Henry VII. caused the 
remains of the rival monarchs to be deposited in the same vault. 
Here, too, lie the remains of Gisela, the pious consort of Conrad II., 

Bertha, queen of Henry IV., 
and Beatrice , wife of Bar- 
barossa, with her daughter 

The cathedral was much 
injured by fire in 1450, but 
was soon restored. On 31st 
May , 1689 , the town and 
the cathedral were ravaged 
with fire and sword by the 
hirelings of 'his most Chri- 
stian majesty' Louis XIV., 
under Louvois , Montclar, 
and Melac. The tombs of the 
emperors were ransacked, 
the town was committed to 
the flames and completely 
destroyed, and other atro- 
cities were committed. The 
desecration of the imperial 
monuments was repeated in 
1693 by order of the French 
intendant Henz. By a sin- 
gular coincidence, on the 
same day, exactly 100 years 
later, the spoliation of the 
tombs of the French kings at 
St. Denis was perpetrated 
under the direction of one 
Hentz , a representative of 
The church was subjected to devastation for the third 
time on 10th-20th Jan., 1794, and was converted into a magazine. 
It was not till 1822 that it was at length restored to its sacred pur- 
poses. The interior was decorated by order of Lewis I., King of 
Bavaria, in 1845-53 ; and the re-erection of the W. facade, under 
the superintendence of Hiibsch, took place in 1854-58. 

The church is a simple , but vast and imposing Romanesque 
basilica. Length 147 yds., length of transept 60 yds., breadth of 
nave 15 yds., height of nave 105 ft., height of W. towers 240 ft. 

There is no doubt that the founders of the church intended it to be 
of its present dimensions, as parts of the enclosing walls date from the 
11th cent., when the edifice was founded. The vaulting of the aisles and 

the people. 

to Strassburg. SPEYER. 38. Route. 259 

crypt also obviously belongs to the original structure, but it was long a 
matter of dispute whether the nave was originally vaulted or covered 
with a flat roof. The question has finally been determined in favour of 
its having been vaulted. 

The has three portals. Over the central one is the 
imperial double - eagle , over the side - entrances the lion of the 
Palatinate. The large rose - window in front has a head of the 
Saviour crowned with thorns in the centre, on a gold ground , and 
in the corners the emblems of the four Evangelists. The handsome 
arcade at the top runs round the whole building. (The visitor is 
recommended to walk round this arcade and ascend the tower; 
sacristan 75 pf.) 

In the Kaiser-Halle, or entrance-hall, are niches of gilded mosaic, 
in which sandstone statues of the emperors interred in the Kings' 
Choir, by Dietrich and Fernkorn, were placed in 1858. 

The four reliefs are by Pile: Conrad laying the foundation of the 
cathedral; Rudolph and the priest with the host; Rudolph receiving the 
tidings of his election to the throne ; the same emperor taking the cross 
from the altar in default of a sceptre at his coronation at Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Over the principal inner portal is represented the dedication of the church 
to the Virgin, on the left St. Bernard and St. Stephen, on the right John 
the Baptist and the painter Schraudolph. 

The *Interior is adorned with *Frescobs by Schraudolph, 32 
in number, which owe their origin to the artistic taste of Lewis I. 
and Max II., kings of Bavaria, and are among the finest specimens 
of modern German art. They were excuted by Joh. Schraudolph 
(b. 1808), assisted by C. Schraudolph and others, in 1845-53; 
decorations by Jos. Schwarzmann. 

Nave. M. Wall: 1. Adam and Eve; 2. Abraham's promise ; 3. David's 
vision ; 4. Birth of the Virgin ; 5. Her betrothal ; 6. Salutation ; 7. Adora- 
tion of the Magi ; 8. Circumcision ; 9. Mary finds Jesus in the Temple ; 10. 
Joseph's death; 11. Jesus teaching; 12. The risen Saviour. 5. Wall: 1. 
Noah's thank-offering ; 2. The burning bush ; 3. Prophesying of Isaiah ; 4. 
Mary's sacrifice ; 5. Salutation ; 6. Nativity ; 7. Simeon's prophecy ; 8. 
Flight to Egypt ; 9. Jesus at Nazareth ; 10. Marriage at Cana ; 11. Cruci- 
fixion; 12. Descent of the Holy Ghost. — On the Dome: the Lamb, Abel, 
Abraham, Melchisedech, the Manna, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, 
and the Evangelists. — S. Side -Choir: Stoning of Stephen; above it, 
Stephen before the council; (1.) Consecration of the deacons, and Stoning 
of the Martyr Stephen; on the wall at the back, Prayer of the same saint. 
— N. Side-Choir : Vision of St. Bernard; above it, Arrival of St. Bernard 
at Speyer (1147); on the right, his Prayer at the altar, and under it, Presenta- 
tion of the banner of the Cross ; on the back part of the wall, Miraculous 
cure of a boy , Departure of the saints. — Collegiate Choir : Mary and 
John; Death of Mary; her Interment, Assumption, Coronation. 

In the Kings' Choir, on broad pedestals, are two large *Statues : 
right, Rudolph of Hapsburg, in Tyrolese marble, by Schwanthaler, 
in a sitting posture ; left, the Emp. Adolph of Nassau (p. 248), in 
sandstone, by Ghnmacht, in a kneeling position. On the right and 
left of the passage of the principal choir two Reliefs, formerly in 
the vaults, are built into the walls , each containing likenesses of 
four emperors and bearing ancient inscriptions. 

The Chapbl of St. Apra was built in 1097-1103, but was after- 
wards altered. — The Baptistbry, in the S. aisle, dates from the 


260 Route 38. GERMERSHEIM. 

12th century. Above it (entrance from the S. transept) is the Chapel 
op St. Catharine, originally dating from the 13th cent, but almost 
entirely rebuilt in 1857 ; it contains the cartoons for Schraudolph's 
frescoes and an early-German altar-piece (adm., see p. 257). 

The Crypt beneath the choir and the transept , restored in 
1857, is architecturally interesting. It belongs in its entirety to 
the old building, consecrated in 1039, and contains the ancient 
tombstone of Rudolph of Hapsburg, restored in 1858. 

The ancient Churchyard (PI. D, 3) is now a promenade. Op- 
posite the N.E. corner of the church is the Domnapf, or cathedral- 
bowl , a large vessel of sandstone , once marking the boundary be- 
tween the episcopal and civic jurisdiction. Every new bishop was 
obliged , after binding himself to respect the liberties of the town, 
to fill the Napf with wine , which was then drunk to his health by 
the townspeople. The fragments of the 'Mount of Olives' , to the S. 
of the cathedral, constructed in 1511 , are the sole remains of the 
cloisters, which were built in 1437-44 and destroyed at the end of 
the 18th century. At the back of the cathedral is a bronze bust of 
the astronomer Schwerd. — From among the trees to the E. of the 
choir rises the Heidenthiirmchen (Heathens' Tower; PI. E, 3), the 
substruction of which is supposed to be of Roman origin. It prob- 
ably belonged to the town-wall built in 1080 by Bishop Rudger. 

The devastations of the French have left few notable buildings 
of antiquity at Speyer. A mouldering wall by the Protestant church 
preserves the name of the ancient Betscher (PI. q; C, D, 3), an im- 
perial palace where the diets were held. The fine old gate-tower, 
at the W. end of the Maximilians-Strasse, is named the Altportel 
(PI. B, 3). 

The Museum (PI. 8; B, 2), in the Oymnasialgebaude, contains 
trophies of the war of 1870-71, a cabinet of natural history, a few 
pictures, and an important ""Collection of antiquities. Admission 
on Sun., 1-3, gratis; at other times for a fee. 

Room I. Prehistoric, Alemannian , and Franconian antiquities; Ro- 
man antiquities (two chariot- wheels of bronze, found at Haslich); Etruscan 
antiquities (tripod aud golden ornaments from Diirkheim ; painted yases, 
etc., from Rodenbach). — Room II. Extensive collection of 'sigillata' and 
other vessels ; statue of Apollo ; weight in the form of a Faun's head ; 
medallion with the rape of Ganymede; eagle of the Fourth Legion; 
magnificent horse-trappings in bronze. — Room III. Mediaeval objects. — 
Room IV. Model of the handsome Protestant church designed in commem- 
oration of the Diet of 1529 , and sketches of the historically interesting 
edifices of the Palatinate. — Room V. Pottery and casts. 

Ground Floor. Roman monuments in stone. Sarcophagus with a 
relief of Marsyas, Apollo, and Minerva; another, with reliefs of Hercules 
carrying offCerberus and conquering the Nemean lion. Altars with reliefs, 
one representing Diana, Mercury, and Maia. 

From Speyer the railway proceeds past Berghausen , Heiligen- 
Stein, and Lingenfeld to (23 M.) Germersheim (Elephant; SalmJ, 
an old town at the confluence of the Queich (pp. 252, 261) and the 
Rhine, fortified since 18.35. Rudolph of Hapsburg died here in 1291. 

SESENHEIM. 38. Route. 261 

From Gekmeesheim to Landau, 13 M., railway in 3/ 4 hr. (1 m. 70, 
1 m. 15, 75 pf.). Stations, Westheim, Lusladt, Zeiskam, Hochstadt, and Drei- 
ho/. Landau, see p. 252. — To Bruchsal, see p. 306. 

Farther on, the line runs at a short distance from the left bank 
of the Rhine. — 26 M. Sondernheim ; 29i/ 2 M. Bellheirn; 31»/ 2 M- 
Rulzheim; 341/2 M. Rheinzabern, on the Erlenbach ; 38 M. Jockgrim. 

39V 2 M. Worth, the junction of the Oarlsruhe - Landau line 
(p. 313). 421/2 M. Hagenbach; 44 M. Neuburg ; 46 M. Berg. The 
train then crosses the Lauter, which forms the boundary between 
the Bavarian Palatinate and Alsace. 

47M. LauterburgfBiwme; was once fortified, and is frequently 
mentioned in the annals of the old wars between the French and 
Germans. The Rathhaus contains a Roman altar. — 49 M. Mothern; 
53 M. Selz, with a Gothic chapel. 58 M. Roeschwoog. 

62 M. Sesenheim or Sessenheim (Anker), the scene of Goethe's 
intimacy with Frederica Brion (1770-71). The church and parsonage 
have since been rebuilt. The wooded hill with the arbour in which 
Goethe and Frederica used to converse has been purchased by a 
number of the poet's admirers, and the arbour has been renewed. 
— About I1/2 M. to the W. lies Sufflenheim (Krone) , whence an 
omnibus plies several times daily to (7 M.) Bischweiler (p. 254). 

65 M. Drusenheim; 68 M. Herliaheim, on the Zorn ; 70!/ 2 M. 
Oambsheim, with an old chapel; 74 M. Wanzenau, with FortFran- 
secky; 79 M. Bischheim-Schiltigheim. 82 M. Strassburg, p. 264. 

39. From Landau to Zweibriicken. The Vosges of 
the Palatinate. 

The picturesque mountainous district to the S. of the Queich, which 
belongs to the Wasgau, is well worthy of a visit, and may be explored 
in 2-3 days. 1st Day: Railway to Annweiler, walk to the Tri/els and the 
Madenourg, and return to Annweiler, 5-6 hrs. (including the Rehberg 1 hr. 
more). 2nd Day: Railway to Willgartswieten , walk to Schlois Dahn and 
the Wegelhurg, 5-6; thence to Weissenburg 4-5 hrs. Or we may pass the 
night in Schonau, and on the 3rd Day continue our walk S. to Worth. 

The Railway from Landau to Z-wbibeOckbn , completed in 
1875 (45 M. in 2-23/ 4 hrs. ; fares 5 m. 80, 3 m. 85, 2 m. 45 pf., 
express fares 6 m. 55, 4 m. 60 pf.), greatly facilitates a visit to the 
S. Palatinate. — Leaving the principal station at Landau, the train 
stops again on the W. side of the town, and then ascends the valley 
of the Queich, which soon contracts. The Queich is crossed several 
times. — 33/ 4 M. Oodramstein ; 5 M. Siebeldingen ; 61/4 M. Albers- 
weiler. 9 l /2 M. Annweiler, see below; the station lies on the left 
bank of the Queich, the town on the right. The narrow green valley 
of the Queich, at this point known as the 'Annweiler Thai', is en- 
closed by wooded hills, from which the variegated sandstone pro- 
trudes in picturesque and fantastic forms. — 12 M. Rinnthal; 
I41/2 M. Willgartswiesen, with a handsome church by Voit (to Dahn, 
seep. 263); 17 M. Hauenstein; 23 M. Kaltenbach. whence there 

262 Route 39, ANNWEILER. From Landau 

is a diligence twice daily to Dahn (4!/ 2 M., see p. 263). — The 
line now crosses the watershed between the tributaries of the 
Rhine and of the Nahe. — 28 M. Rodalben; 30 M. Biebermiihle, 
where a branch - line diverges to Pirmasenz (Greiner) ; 42^ M. 
Tschifflik; 45 M. Zweibriicken, see p. 256. 

Annweiler (590 ft. ; Volcker, at the station , 'pens.' 5 m. ; 
Schwan, unpretending , with beer-garden, both these well spoken 
of ; Feldwebel Restaurant , at the station) is a small and ancient 
town of 3000 inhab., with a Rathhaus by Voit, built in 1844. The 
Krappenfels, Buchholzfels, Wetterberg , and other fine points in the 
neighbourhood, have lately been made easily accessible by means 
of footpaths and finger-posts. 

From the E. entrance of Annweiler (in the direction of Landau) 
a road, diverging to the S. from the high-road, ascends towards 
the village of Bindersbach, and from it a footpath ascends to the left 
through wood, dividing into two branches, both of which lead to the 
Trifels in 1 hr. (descent y 2 hr.). The ancient imperial fortress of 
*Trifels (1516 ft. ; Refreshments) was founded as early as the 10th 
cent. , but the present scanty ruins date from about the middle of 
the 12th century. Trifels was not unfrequently occupied by the 
German emperors. Its walls protected the unhappy Henry IV., 
when excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII. in 1076, and deserted 
by his nobles. It also served as a prison for Adalbert, Archbishop 
of Mayence , who was confined here by Henry V., but released by 
the citizens of Mayence. It was here that Richard Coeur de Lion is 
said to have been confined for more than a year by the Emp. 
Henry VI., until his liberation was effected by the faithful Blondel. 
After the Thirty Years' War the castle fell to decay, and nothing is 
now left but the recently restored tower (32 ft.) and fragments of 
the walls. In the removal of part of these in 1880 the old castle 
well was discovered in the rock, at a depth of 270 ft. The * View 
resembles that from the Madenburg (see below) , but is less exten- 
sive towards the E. 

The hill occupied by the Trifels is the northernmost eminence 
of a range 1 M. in length , the two other summits of which bear 
the ruins of Anebos and Scharfenberg , the latter , with its square 
tower 66 ft. in height, being usually known as the Milnz. A pleas- 
ant path, provided with several finger-posts, skirts the S.W. slope 
of this range, passing these ruins. Farther on it descends, but after- 
wards again ascends, leading through fragrant woods of beech and 
pine. The traveller should observe that he must go round the 
Wetterberg to the right. In 1^2 nr - we reach the *Madenburg 
{Maidenburg, Marientraut , locally Eschbacher Schloss ; 1522 ft.; 
Refmts.), situated above the village of Eschbach to the S., the 
grandest ruin in the Rhenish Palatinate, formerly belonging to the 
counts of Leiningen , afterwards to the bishopric of Speyer , and 
burned down by the French general Montclar in 1689. 

to Zweibrucken. DAHN. 39. Route. 263 

The "View from the Madenburg is one of the finest and most exten- 
sive in the Palatinate, comprising the plain of the Ehine from Strassburg 
to the Melibocus, and the heights of the Odenwald and Black Forest in 
the distance. The spire of Strassburg, and the towers of Carlsruhe, 
Speyer, Mannheim , and Worms , are all visible. A peculiar attraction is 
the view of the adjacent Vosges, with their numerous volcanic and forest- 
clad peaks, from many of which protrude bald and grotesquely formed 
masses of variegated sandstone. 

The tower on the *Rehberg (1790 ft.), jU/ 2 hr, to the S. of 
Annweiler, is another beautiful point of view. The path to it di- 
verges from the high-road to the left opposite the 'Trifels' inn. 
View of the plain less extensive than from the Madenburg, that of 
the mountains more imposing. The return-route may be made via 

About 41/2 M. to the S.W. of the Rehberg and 7i/ 2 M. from 
Annweiler, whence it is reached via, Volkersweiler, Oossersweiler, 
and the Lindelbrunner Forsthaus (Rfmts., also beds), lies the 
*Lindelbrunner Schloss (1446 ft.), the ruins of a castle of the 
Counts of Leiningen. The isolated hill on which it stands affords 
an admirable survey of the curious rock-formations of the "Wasgau. 
The Schloss is about 6 M. from Erlenbach (see below), the path to 
which leads by Vorderweidenthal. 

The following pleasant excursion is most easily accomplished 
from the station Willgartswiesen (p. 261). About y 2 M. from the 
village we diverge from the road to the right, and follow the course 
of the stream. At (*/ 2 hr.) Hauenstein we cross the brook and pro- 
ceed along' a sandy path on the other side. In */ 2 hr. more a pine- 
wood is reached, through which we ascend a somewhat steep incline 
to (^hr-) a chapel, beyond which we descend; 20min. Erfweiler. 
On a wooded rock, l</ 2 M. to the S.W. of this village, rise the 
ruins of *ScMobs Dahn, also locally called the 'Erfweiler Schloss'. 
The steps and passages are partially hewn in the solid rock. The 
top commands a striking view of the imposing and grotesque sand- 
stone rocks around. 

From the small town of Dahn (Hartmann's Inn) , 1 M. to the 
W. of the castle, a diligence plies thrice daily to the (l'/2 M.) sta- 
tion Kaltenhach-Hinterweidenthal (p. 261). We do not require to 
pass through Dahn, but proceed from the Schloss to the 8, to Bruch- 
weiler, situated in the valley of the Lauter, 372 M. below Dahn. 

One mile beyond Bruchweiler the Lauterthal is quitted by a road 
to the right to (1 M.) Rumbach, traversing the picturesque valley of 
that name, and (3 3 /4 M.) Schonau (*L6we, rustic), a village on the 
Sauer, with iron-works. From Rumbach we follow the new road 
to Nothweiler (see below) and take a path to the right at a finger- 
post, which leads to the (V4 hr.) Wegelburg. (Or we may reach the 
Wegelburg from Schonau in 1 hr.) Finger-posts at all doubtful 

The *Wegelburg (1880 ft.), a hill crowned with the ruins of 
a castle destroyed by the French in 1679, is the finest point in the 

264 Route 40. STRASSBURG. Hotels. 

Vosges of the Palatinate. The view embraces the whole of the Vosges 
Mts. and extends to the Black Forest and the Odenwald. At the 
top is a mountain-indicator. The frontier of Alsace runs a few 
hundred paces to the S. of the Wegelburg. Just beyond it, about 
V2 M. from the Wegelburg, is the Hohenburg, the ancestral castle 
of the mother of Franz von Sickingen, into whose own possession it 
afterwards passed. It is built of skilfully hewn square blocks of 
stone, and commands a view similar to that enjoyed from the Wegel- 
burg. Thence we proceed by the Fleckensteiner Hofani the Flecken- 
stein, another rocky fastness affording a fine view of the Sauerthal, 
to the (72 hr.) high-road to Worth (p. 253), which descends through 
the pretty valley of the Sauer, and which we reach a little to the S. 
of Hirschthal (*Fleckenstein Inn), a village on the Bavarian frontier, 
2 M. from Schonau and 12 M. from Worth. 

About 2'/2 M. to the N.W. of Schonau, in the woods above Oberstein- 
bach, is the ancient castle of Wasgenstein, or Wasenstein, mentioned in the 
old German Walthariuslied, and one of the most interesting ruins in the 
district ; it is now easily accessible, and steps have been taken to prevent 
its farther decay. 

Those who extend their walk to the E. of the Wegelburg de- 
scend to (40 min.) Nothweiler (Inn) and then proceed by (3 M.) 
Niederachlettenbaeh, with the ruined Gothic church of St. Anna, to 
(2 M.) Erlenbach, on a height near which rises Schloss Barbelstein. 
High-road thence by Birkenhordt to (6 M.) Bergzabern (p. 253). 
— From Niederschlettenbach , a road descends the valley of the 
Lauter to (6 M.) Weissenburg. 

40. Strassburg. 

Arrival. The Central Railway Station (PI. 2; B, 3), for all trains, is 
on the W. side of the town. A new station is to be completed in 1882. 
Omnibuses belonging to the larger hotels and cabs (with luggage , 80 pf.) 
are in waiting. The line to Kehl has also a station at the Metzgerthor 
(comp. Plan). 

Hotels. "Ville de Paris (PI. a; C, D,3), in the Broglie, R. from 2 m. 
50, B. In. 20 pf., table-d'hote (12>/2 and 6 o'clock) 3 or 4m., cheaper in win- 
ter; -Maison Rouge (PI. c; C, 4), Kleber-Platz, R. from 2 m., L. 40, A. 60, 
B. 1 m., D. (12.30 and 6) 2 m. 80 or 3 m. 20 pf. ; -Europaischer Hof, 
Blau-Wolkengasse 19 (PI. C, D, 3); Hotel d'Angleterre (PI. b; B, 4), 
opposite the station, R., L., & A. from 2'/2m., B. lm., D. (12.30 and 6) 
2'/2 or 4 m. ; Vignette (PI. d ; C, 5) , Lange-Str. 67 ; Hotel de France 
(PL e; C3), Junge St. Peters-Platz, R. 2, A. 1/2, B. lm.; Ville de Lyon, 
Kinderspielgasse ; Stadt Wien (PI. f ; B C, 3), at the station, R. 1 m. 60, 
B. 80, A. 40, D. 2 m. 40 pf. ; Hotel Turk, near the Metzgerthor, D. 2 m. 

Cafes (also restaurants) : Globe, Broglie, both in the Broglie ; Misange, 
Meisen-Str. ; Ca/4 de la Lanterne, in the Arcades. 

Restaurants. "Valentin, Alter Weinmarkt, first-class; * Tannenzapfen, 
Kleber-Platz, D. 2'/2 m. ; Herbert, corner of the Bruderhofsgasse and the 
Fasanengasse ; Schrempp, Fasanengasse; Dollmatsch, near the Neukirche; 
"Railway Restaurant. — Beer (Strasshurg beer highly esteemed ever since 
1446). Taverne Alsacienne , Estaminet Pilon , both in the Gewerbslauben ; 
Espirance, Kalbsgasse; Stadt Paris, Bruderhofsgasse; Birnbacher ('Hofbrau- 
haus Niederlage'), Laternengasse; Stern, with rooms to let, in the Ger- 
bergraben; Miinchener Kindl, Brandgasse; Stadt Miinchen, Kiifergasse ; Lvx- 
hof, in the Broglie. — Tivoli, outside the Schiltigheimer-Thor, on the 

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